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Патент USA US2409991

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Oct. 22, 1946.
Filed April 12, 1941
Coupling `J‘eal‘icm of Line,
Fi g. 41
Patented Oct. 22, 1946
sTANDiNc WAVE poorten
Howard M. Strobel, Allegany, N. Y.
Application April 12, 1941, serial No'. 388,279'
4 Claims.
(c1. 25o-_36)
This invention relates to a high frequency gen
erating system of the type which is energized by
successive groups of charged particles moving
through space, wherein the‘groups are obtained
by de?lecting a stream of charged particles.
The object of the invention is to provide im
proved method and means for generating high
frequency `currents of highl power and for con
the open wire type or the coaxialtype. A stand
ing wav'e is the resultant of an incident travel
ing Wave'and its're'?lected traveling wave travel
i ing in opposite directions over the same trans
` mission path. The conditions for .terminating>
the line so that reflected waves will result is well
known to the art, and'consis‘ts in general- of a
mismatch termination. `When a transmission
trolling-the deñection mode of `a high velocity
stream of charged particles.
' ¿
line is thus energized with astanding wave, at`
any given instant the successive one-half wave
length sections ofthe line will be of alternate
positive and negative polarity, while the i‘leld iii
tensity in any one given section will varyl sinus
-In conventional methods of utilizing high ve
locity streams of charged particles for high-ire
quency generation, the stream is either inter-.
rupted into groups, or deñected from side to side
oidally with time. That is, successive one-.half
by energizing a ñxed pair ofi'deflector plates. VIn
wave length sections of the linewill have a phase
the latter casel collection ofthe deñected stream
difference of 180°, while varying periodically with
is effected in such a manner as t0 charge ñrst
time. Assuming such a standing wave »existing
along the given path, then if a stream of charged
one side and then the other of some oscillating
circuit. There are certain limitations imposed
particles is directed along this'path with‘such
when using the `conventional stream deflection
For one thing, the high
20 a, `velocity that a given Vparticle traverses a one
half wave length section of the line in a time in- .
charged particles can only be actedV upon by the
terval of one-half a period of the exciting fre
quency, then it follows that some given charged
each of them to pass the ñxed deflecting plates,
particle will always be acted upon by a ñeld of
and the higher the velocity the shorter'is this time 25 the same polarity throughout the‘length of the
deflecting held during the interval of time it takes
interval. Increasing the length of the de?lector
plates will increase the time `interval it takes a
That is, if a charged particle is justenter
ing a one-half wave length section as its trans-` `
charged particle to pass through the ñeld be
verse deflecting, field is turning positive, the field
tween them, thus giving algreater amplitude of
of the following section will just be turning neg
deflection, but also increases the minimum-oscil 30 ative in polarity; by the time the charged particle
lation kperiod that may be applied tothe deilector
traversesthe first section, it will just be turning
plates, so‘that increased amplitudes of deflection
to negative polarity while -the‘following section
of the stream are obtained at the: expense` of a
will just be turning positive as the particle `enters
decrease in frequency. Because of the above and
it. The maximum amplitude of deflection of the
other difficulties, the known conventional meth 35 waved stream ` will occur when the moving
ods of utilizing high velocity streams of charged
charged particle can` traverse a-Wave length, sec
particles Afor high powered high-frequency gen
tion of the given path inA atime period of th‘ei‘fre- i
eration are limited in their practical application.
quency coordinated with the given wave length;
This invention relates to an improvedmethod
The amount of dellection that any one` 'charged
for generating high-ireduenciesl at high power 40 particle will receive for each wave length section
which consists essentially in directingßlong a
depends upon its instant of1 phase entry into the
given path a stream of high velocity charged
field coupling section; if it enters at the instant
particles and .providing along the path aseries of
of zero ñeld or phase, it will receive maximum
changing deílecting fields whose polarity is so ' positive deflection; if it enters at the one-quarter
coordinated with the velocity of the charged par 45 or three-quarters instant, due to subsequent can
ticles that a given ‘segmentV of the streamnof
celling fields it‘will receive zero deflection; and if
charged particles is'actedupon by‘a‘ñeld of sub
Vit enters at the one-half phase instant, it will
stantially the same polarity throughout the
receive maximumpnegativedeflection. As a re
length of the given path.` For _creating ,the de
sult, the emerging stream of charged particles
sired type of >dellec'ting field, it is proposed that 50 will have a “waved” shape, and the positively ‘and
a transmission line which isadjusted and erler
gized so as to set up electromagnetic'standing
waves be used. As is well‘known .toV the art, trav
cling waves can beset‘u‘p in any- of the conven
tional transmission linels, such as, for example,
negatively deflected j loops ofthe waved stream
can be `used to energize an oscillating circuit.
`When the velocity of the charged'particles,is>
such that they traverse one wave lengthI section
in the period of one cycle, the maximum ampli
wave pattern are vshown as of the coaxial typé.
Figure l is a block diagram showing the main
elements of the stationary wave coupler. Block
Ill represents a gun for creating high velocity
charged particles, such as electrons. In what fol
tude of deflection of the resulting waved stream
is obtained. However, the velocity of the charged
particles may be greater or less than the above
assumed optimum value. vFor a given phase in
stant of entry into the coupling section, it is pos
sible to make the displacement amplitude of the
lows, it will be assumed that the charged particles »
waved stream on emerging to be either zero, or
used are electrons, although it will be obvious that
some positive or negative value, depending upon
what fraction of the optimum velocity is selected.
In this method of creating aseries of varying
this is not a necessary restriction.
Block II rep- -
fields lalong a'given path a transmission line,
resents the coupling section, wherein the fields of
the standing wave and the electrons of the elec
tron Ístreamare coupled together, sothat the wave
which by deñnition is made up of distributed elec~
ñelds deflect or displace the electrons therein.
trical'constants or parameters, is used to create a'Vv l_
Block I2 represents a high-frequency collector for ’
,y collecting high~frequency energy from the waved
proach this result by using properly phased 15 stream of emerging electrons. Block I3 repre
standing wave ñeld. It would be possible to ap,
sents the loadwhich utilizes the energy collected
by the high-frequency collector I2. Block I4
shows the high-frequency énergizer which ener
section. For practical application, the use of the
gizes the transmission line of the coupling section
transmission line has greater advantages.
It will be noted that the wave coupled oscilla 20 II, and thus forms the stationary wave pattern
therein. `"I‘he high-frequency energizer I4 may be
toror amplifier using a standing wave on a reso
anindependent oscillator, or may be energized by
nant transmission 4line can be excited from either
a portion of the output energy of the high-fre
end‘ of the line, whereas the wave coupled oscilla
quency collector I2,
tor ‘or amplifier using traveling waves as disclosed
In the operation of the wave coupler, the elec
in application having Serial Number` 388,280 and
tron gun I ß directs a stream of electrons along
iìledAprilA 12, 1941 must be so excited-that the
the ,path in the coupling section IIV where the
traveling wave and the electron stream are both
standing wave field pattern is set up. A trans
movingfin the same direction.
Y .
mission line can be used to direct the` pat-_h of
¿The method of using the fields '_of a standing
lumped constants for each one-half waveA length
section of the given path forming the coupling`
Wave to‘4 derñect moving charged particles gives
many advantages over known systems. Brief
the Wave.
Conventional transmission lines con
reference to some of these advantages may be
guide electromagnetic waves 'along a given path.
sist of such members or media as will tendj to
made. >It will be notedthat for a given strength
One conventional type of transmission line con
of field finthe standing wave, the amplitude of
sists of t-wo spaced 4parallel wires. In order that
standing waves shall be formed when the trans
mission line is energized, it is necessary that
traveling waves moving in opposite directions be
deflectionof the stream for a given velocity can
be ,made'as large as desired simply by increasing
the length of the coupling section of the trans
missionl line. Also, the amount of power that can
be controlled is not. limited by the usual cons-id
erations of physical size of the apparatus. Fur
set up in the transmission line and coupling sec~
tion. If one end of the line is energized from a
40 high-frequency Vsource »and the other end ter
ther, very high frequencies can be generated or
» minated in such a manner as to create> a re
amplified without encountering the many.y difñcul-V
ties inherent in other systems wherein the physi
calv size of the apparatus imposes severe limita'
tions'. Other advantages 0f the invention will be
flected wave, the desired standing wave ñeld'will
result. 'As iscommonly known Vin the art, such
reflected waves will be set up if the end ofthe
line ismismatched as by being open-circuited or
evident. from the more detailed description that Y A shortf-circuited. The standing wave will form a
series of one-half wave length sections along the
coupling section II whose fields are alternately
' -Morel particularly, _the invention consists‘in the
of positive and negative polarity, and wherein
system and method.` hereinafter'described, illus
trated inthe accompanying drawing and deñned i the field cf‘each section varies sinusoidally with
in4 the-claims hereto appended, it being under- ' »‘ time at the frequency ofthe energizing source
stood ¿that `various changes in form, arrangement
and «details both of circuits and of method within
the scope ofthe claims lmay be resorted to with
out departing from the spirit or sacriiicing- any
of the advantages of the invention.
A‘clearer understanding of the operation of the
invention and its 'improvement over‘known meth
ods canbe obtained by reference to the following
figures and the descriptions relating thereto.
III-_v By directing electrons of >given velocity
through the standing wave transverse electro;
Staticïñelds of the coupling section the action of
the fields yon the passing electrons of the stream
ser-Vegte` deflect the stream into >a “waved”
> StillV referringv
'to“ 'i Figure> l, § if
the , high
frequencyenergizer I4 is an independent oscil
lator» energizing the coupling section I I; all of the
i :Figure 1 showsa block diagramfof the principal = ' output energy of the collector I2 goes to theload
_elements ofthe standingwave Vcoupler used as an
I3.'V Under these conditionsïthe standing wave
oscillator or as an amplifier.
coupler serves as an amplifier. However, by di
Figure 2 shows'arcircuit diagram of a high-fre
verting part of the output of collector I2 to the
quency ampliiier embodying the principles of the
coupling section vII, ‘the vstanding waveV coupler
invention,_with a graphical representation of the
serves as an oscillator, "In the matter -of-the fre-`
standing wave in the coupling section.
' j
quency“ at which the oscillator willoperate, itis
'Figure 3 shows a diagram of a standing wave
to be rememberedthat a'transmission line set
coupled oscillator, wherein the output energy of
ting up standing waves is in the nature of `a res
the oscillator is also used to energize the coupling
onant line, and thatthe resulting resonant fre
Figure 4 v.shows ra circuit diagram oía standing
Wave coupledV .oscillator Vin which the conducting
members which guide the initial and reflected
travelingV waves-that yform the resulting standing .7.5.
quency is a function of :the length of the reson
ant line, in which Vthe fundamental or harmonic
frequencies may be used. .
Figure 2I shows vav circuit diagram of the
standing wave coupler used as anampliñerjfor »
high-frequency currents.' The exciting oscillator
phase, will receive va maximum `deflection in_zthe
26 energizes the transmission line 22-.23 oi the
coupling section, which includes two spaced par
allel conducting members 22 and `23. The elec
tron `gun 2l directs a stream 0i high velocity
electronsîthrough the `coupling section 22-23 as
is indicated by the dotted lines. The .end of the
coupling transmission ‘lineA ZZ-äëi is terminated
with animpedance 26 Ywhich'may have an infinite
negative direction. It follows that ‘particlesen
tering at the instants of 90° and 270° phase `will
receive zero deflection `for .each complete wave
length traversed, since the ñelds in say, SU-a’ and
.til-b' will change `polarity while the particles are
traversing them, and thus substantially cancel
out `any deflections. Particles entering` the cou
pling section at phase instants between `.those '
or zero value in order to favor the forming of
mentioned will receive intermediate amounts of
standing waves in the coupling section. High
deflection, so that ‘the ñnalemerging stream of
frequency energy is collected from the waved
charged particles or electrons will .leave vthe
electron` stream by s.the collector plates 2l' and 2S
coupling section “waved” into a sinusoidal Wave
and the high-frequency collector circuitZë trans
-io‘rm. Aiterobeing‘wavedin the coupling section,
-fers the energy to the load 2e. A ground return
the` electron stream impinges upon‘the` collector
circuit from the collector 2li to the electron gun
plates 2l and 28. It will be observed that those
circuit 2l `is provided. The tube casing 29 per
electrons that were for `the most part in theposi
-mits evacuation of the air frorn‘ the- region
tive polarity ñeld Aand were thus displacedçup
through which the electron stream is directed.
wards“ will bei collected on the upper plate 121;,
The standing wave formed in the coupling sec-_ 20 While those that were for the most part in the
tion of line ,22--23 `is represented graphically .by
negative- polarity ñeld will be collected on the
the voltage curve shown at 3.9. The condenser
lower plate 28. The result will be to alternately
plates 3 l-32 and 33--34 indicate where one-half
>charge the upper and lower plates` with eleo
wave length sectional ñelds could be set up if a
trons, and so» energize them ata frequency which
series of. such condensers were energized in
islproportionate to the number-ofpulses collected
proper phase.
per second.
By reference to Figure 2Á the operation of a
It is-to be observed that the standing wave pat
wave coupler using standing wavesand operating
tern >in the coupling section 2.2-23 'as illustrated
as an ampliñercan be made clear. The coupling
by the standing wave. graph 3E? could’be dupli
section 22-23 of the transmission iine is ener 30 catecl‘by `the use of individual _lumped impedance
gized by the oscillator 29 and the line so ter
oscillating circuits Vspaced in series along `the
minated as to create standing waves.
The elec
trostatic ñeld set up between the conductors
22-23 by the stationary waves is illustrated
graphically by the voltage curve in graph 3u.
The transmission line is shown as marked on in
one-half wave lengths to correspond with the
voltage curve, and theA one-half wave length seg-4
ments are indicatedby the letters a, b, c, d, c, and
pathof the electron stream. `li‘or` example, the
ñeld inthe section Sil-¿11' could "be duplicated b3"
a pair `of condenser platesI 3'l-32` energized by
an oscillating circuit. Likewise, the ñeld 'in sec
tion `lill-c' could be set up between the'conden'ser
plates 33_‘34 by energizing them from an oscil
lating circuithaving the proper phase relation
ship. It follows that a properly spaced and ener
the remainder by f. The ,primes of the above 40 gized series of such pairs of condensers v‘would set
letters indicate the corresponding regions of the
up a series ofñelds approximating the standing
graph. The electron gun 2l directs a high veloc
wave ñeld pattern setup by the coupling section
ity stream of electrons along the straight dotted
of the transmission line `{l2-_2%. In comparing
lines shown. The voltage curve 3B` shows the
range of values that the standing wave goes
through for a complete period or cycle, It will
be observed that the zero nodes are successive
stationary points at one-half wave lengths along
the line, whereas the loops vary with time be
tween maximurn positive 4and negative values.
Flor any given instant, say, the loop .'iil--a' will
the two methods, it is evident that the wave
propagationmproperties resulting from the dis
tributed electrical constants in‘herent in the
transmission line construction provides a sim
pler means of producing the desired ‘held
Figure 3 shows a diagram of a wave coupler
using standing waves when used as an oscillator.
be lpositive, .3B-«19' negative, SEB-c’ positive, and
The electron gun is represented by the cathode
so on throughout` the coupling section used.
¿One-half a‘period or‘cycle later, however,` the
element 46 and the plate lil, eachI connected in
-the conventional manner to energizing sources.
polarity of the respective segments will be re- i
The coupling `section is formed bythe spaced
versed. If- a stream of `charged particles is di
conductor elements d2 and 43; The ‘electron
stream is -collected by the collector ,plates 4t and'
rected through the standing wave field with such
45,' and thereby energizes the collection`- circuit
'a velocity that each particle traverses a one-half
46. 'Bhe circuit 45 may be tuned to some-desired
wave length section in one-half a period of time,
the amount of deflection that a charged particle 60 frequency, and energy is- fed `therefrom to V‘the
will receive for each wave length section it trav
load 4l and the coupling section‘M-‘êì‘ `The
connections between the coupling section-42-43
erses will `depend upon the phase >of the stand
and the collector circuit £6 must be ofthe proper
ing wave at the instant of entering the wave
length section. A particlaior example, entering
Sil--a' at the instant of zero phase, will be en
tering just-a5 the held `ßa--IJ/ is turning posi
phase >necessary to maintain oscillation of the
wave coupler. The head lend of the eouplingisec
tion line 42443 is shown open-circuited, thereby
tive, and will be leaving just as it is turning nega
reflecting waves and creating a standingïw’av'e
tive; consequently, it will be entering lthe next
section Sil-b’ justas itis turning positive, and
ñeld along the coupling section; `A ground return
is provided from the circuit 46 to cathode di? for
electrons of the stream'. The tube casing ‘leper
`similarlythroughout the rest of the path. As a
result, a particle entering the coupling section
at the instant of zero phase will receive ïa -maxi
'mumldeflection'in the Lpositive direction.-> By a
simiIa-r'line Aof reasoning, a particle entering the
mits the air to> be evacuated from the rregion
through which the electron stream is directed. `
u The operation‘of the wave coupled‘~oscillator
using'standing waves is fundamentally:theV sante
Ycoiípling-'section -SU-a/ «at the instant-` ofï- 1809 75 as that of `the ampliñer in Figure ‘23' Í"It diners
mainly in ithat it uses its own developedhigh
frequencyenergy to energize the coupling sec
tron stream and suitable collection means are
tion. `Also, thecoupling section 42-43 is ener
gized from the collector end At6, instead of from
theelectron gun head end. It is to be noted that
a‘wave coupled oscillator using a traveling wave
The displacement amplitude of the waved elec
tron stream. that emerges from the coupling sec-.
tion will be some function of the velocity of the
electrons. The amplitude of displacement will
onlymust be so energized that _the electromag
neticwave and the stream of charged particles
be a maximum when the electron velocity is such '
that an electron can traverse> a Wave length sec
are both moving in substantially the same direc
tion Of the line during the time interval Yof a
tion, Vwhereas in the Wave coupled oscillator using 10 period or cycle of .the exciting frequency.
a standing Wave this restriction does not apply.
Changes of electron velocity from this optimum
With regard to the frequency at which the‘wave
value will result in a decrease in- amplitude, due
coupled oscillator operates, this can be stabilized
íby a `proper choice of L. C. constants in the high
frequency collector circuit 4111-45-46, which fre
to the fact that successive fields acting upon a
given electron during its passage throughthe
15 coupling section may not all be of the samepo
larity. The displacement amplitude for given
conditions of electron velocity, standing wave
quency may be the fundamental or a harmonic of
the resonant line coupling ‘section 42-43. In the
diagram the electron stream from the gun ¿l0-4|
pattern, and coupling section length can be de
rived by mathematical means well known’to the
is shown as three straight dotted lines in its un
excited position, whereas the single waved dotted 20
line indicates the waved-electron stream after
Figure 4 shows a wave coupled oscillator util
izing Vstanding Waves, but in which the coupling
It is to be observed that the velocityof propa
gation of the traveling waves along the trans
mission line depends upon the value of the dis
tributed constants of the transmission line. »If
section transmission line is depicted as of the 25 the propagation velocity of the transmission line .
is lowered, then for a given exciting frequency
coaxial type. The electron gun 5U directs a cir
the corresponding space length of the wave-length
along the line is likewise reduced, as is also vthe
electron velocity required to give the maximum
and an inner conductor member 52. The collector 30 displacement amplitude of the waved electron
cular ring of electron streams into the coaxial
coupling section of the transmission lineV which
has an outer cylindrical conductor member 5|
ring plates 53 and 54 collect the high-frequency
energy and thereby energize the toroid oscillating
ing, the dielectric medium separating the con
ductor members is assumed to be space. How
circuit 55. The load 56 is coupled to the fields _set
up in the toroid by the loop 51, The coaxial line
coupling section 5I-52 is energized from the
ever, as long as a path is provided for the elec
toroid 55 end of the line. The end of the line is
shown as open-circuited, which will give the re
flection o-f traveling Waves necessary for setting
up standing waves in the coupling section. For
the ~purpose of permitting evacuation of any air 40
in the region through which the electron stream
In coupling sections referred to in the draw
tron stream, regions of the separating dielectric
can be of material substances, such as of glass.
For a given spacing of conductors, the introduc-V
tion of a glass dielectric would increase the ca
pacity per unit length of the coupling section, and
so modify the velocity of the propagated travel
ing waves, incident and reflected. It follows that
the glass dielectric used could also serve for the
the casing 58 surrounding the electron gun 50. 4.7 casing of the tube, so that in effect the conduc
tors for the coupling section could be placed 'out
The paths that the streams of electrons follow
the tube walls. In some applications of the
in their normal and in their waved form are
wave coupler, this form of construction might
shown by the dotted lines. ’
have physical or technical advantages.
The operation of the wave coupled oscillator
With regard to the particular form that the
of Figure 4 is fundamentally similar to that of 50
coupling section may assume, it is to be noted
Figure 3, the main difference being that the
that considerable variation is possible as long as
fields used are guidedby a coaxial line. High
the basic requirements of an electromagnetic
frequency energy is collected from the waved
standing wave having an electrostatic field com
is directed, an air tight surface can be formed by
the outer coaxial member 5I, the toroid 55, and
electron stream by the .ring plate collectors’53
and 54. In the matter of choice vof operating
frequency, the toroid 55 and theline 5I‘-52 can
be >designed to operate at some particular fre
quency,.or'means employed for varying the L. C.
Y ponent capable of deiìecting an electron stream
are fulfilled. If thel two wire transmission line
and the electron stream, such asis illustrated in
Figure 2, are taken‘as a basic element, it can
be used to trace out other forms, as by displacing
constants of the toroid 55 and also ofthe length
it laterally along aline perpendicular to theïplane
of the resonant coaxial line 5l-52. As an illus 60 of the'basic element pattern, or by revolving. it
tration, the head end of the coaxial line 5l-52
laterally around a given line serving as an axis
could be short-circuited by a movablelpis’ton to
to create a surface of revolution. In the former
permit varying the length of the resonant line,
proper provision being made, of course, for the
entrance ofthe electron stream. o
vThe above description serves to illustrate the
general principles of the wavecoupler when using
standing waves, and >particularly as applied to
amplifiers »and oscillators.v In vthe illustrated co
case, the coupling section would have the form
of two spaced, parallel conducting sheets, with
65 a moving sheet or stream of electrons directed
between. In the latter case, if the axis were par
allel> to the transmission> line element and the
radius was-constant, the coupling section would
be similar »to the concentric circular cylinders of
axial type of _coupling section,`it was assumed 70 a coaxial transmissionline, substantially as illus
that a radial pattern of electrostatic field was
being generated alongthe coaxial line. Other
patterns are known to the art, and Vcould be used
, iLgIn1 ajhigh-frequency'generating system in
in lieu of the radial pattern, as long asïtlie electro,
tratedin Figure 4.
clilölingal sectionV of a ‘coaxial transmissioniline
static fields V.thereof canact to deflect the- elec 7,5 and
bien „Yelçßity ,Qharged particles.Y said @axial
transmission line being adapted to set up an
electromagnetic standing ywave having an elec
trostatic ñeld component transverse to the annu
lar space within said coaxial line when energized.
by a high-frequency source, means for terminat
ing one end of said transmission line with a reso
nanting chamber, means for energizing said trans
mission line with high-frequency energy, means
for maintaining a low pressure region within said
coaxial transmission line, means-for directing a
stream of said high velocity charged particles
into said coaxial transmission line and in the
ñeld of said standing wave, whereby charged par
ticles of the stream are deflected by fields of the
standing wave, and means for collecting high
frequency energy from the deflected stream oi
charged particles.
2. In a high-frequency generating system 1n
and a source of high velocity charged particles
in a low pressure region, said coaxial transmis
sion line being adapted to guide an electromag
netic wave along a given path, said section of
said coaxial transmission line being open cir
cuited at one end and terminated at the other
end with a resonant chamber which joins the
inner and outer conductors of said coaxialline,
two substantially concentric annular collector
rings adapted to ñt within said coaxial line and
having transposed connections to the inner and
outer conductors of said coaxial line, means for
directing said high Velocity charged particies
between the coaxial conductors and toward said
collector rings, means for maintaining a low
pressure region along said path, and means for
coupling the generated high frequency energy to
a load device.
cluding a section of a coaxial transmission line
4. In a high-frequency generating system in
and a source of high velocity charged particles
cluding a section of a coaxial transmission line
in a low pressure region, said coaxial transmis
and a source of high Velocity charged particles in
sion line being adapted to guide an electromag
netic wave along a given path, said section of
said coaxial transmission line being open cir
line being adapted to guide an electromagnetic
a low pressure region, said coaxial transmission
wave along a given path, said section of said co
cuited at one end and terminated at the other
end with a substantially toroidal shell having an
axial transmission line being open circuited at
annular slot therein, the outer edge of said slot
being conductively joined to the outer conductor
of said coaxial line, and the inner edge to the
inner conductor of said coaxial line, two substan C: O
tially concentric annular collector rings adapted
to fit coaxially within said coaxial line, the outer
conductive toroidal shell having a substantially
annular slot therein, the outer edge olf said slot
being conductively joined to the outer conductor
cf said coaxial line, and the inner edge to the
inner conductor of said coaxial line, two substan
tially concentric annular collector rings adapted
to rlt coaxially within said coaxial line and hav
ing the outer annular collector ring conductively
joined to the inner conductor of the coaxial line,
and the inner annular collector ring conductively
joined to the outer conductor of the coaxial line,
means for directing said high Velocity charged
particles into said coaxial line and toward said
annular collector ring being conductively joined
to the inner conductor of the coaxial line, and the
inner annular collector ring being conductively
joined to the outer conducto-r of the coaxial line,
means for directing said high velocity charged
particles along said path toward said collector
rings, means for maintaining a low pressure
one end and terminated at the other end with a
region along said path, and means for coupling 40 collector rings, means for maintaining a low pres
a high-frequency load to said terminating toroidal
sure region along said path, and means for cou
pling a high-frequency load to said terminating
3. In a high-frequency generating system in
toroidal shell.
cluding a section of a coaxial transmission line
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