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Патент USA US2409993

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Oct. 22, 1946.
2,409,992
H. M. STROBEL
TRAVELING- WAVE COUPLER
Filed ApIfìl 12, «194]
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to the art. One such method of energy collection
cillator, or may be energized by the output of
uses two collecting plates, one on each side of
the middle position of the stream, so that when
` the high-frequency collector I2.
In the operation of the traveling wave coupler,
the electron gun I D directs a high velocity stream
of electrons between the conducting members
that form the transmission line of the coupling
section I I. The transmission line consists 0f such
the waved stream of charged particles impinges
upon the plates, it charges ñrst one plate and
then the other in alternate sequence. This al
ternating charging action can be used to energize
an oscillating circuit.
The method of using the lield of a` traveling
wave to vdeflect moving charged particles gives
many advantages over known systems. Brief ref
members or medium as will serve to guide or
erence to some of these advantages may be made.' '
It will be noted that Vfor a given strength of ñeld ,
in the traveling wave, the amplitude of deflection
propagate an electromagnetic wave along- a given
path so that the traveling wave, or’transverse
electrostatic neld component thereof, can be cou
pled to the electron stream. A conventional type
of transmission line consists of two spaced par
allel wires. In order that a traveling wave should
of the stream can be made as large as desired 15 be formed when the transmission line is ener
simply by increasing the length of the coupling
section of the transmission line.
gized at the head of the coupling section, it is
Also, the
necessary that reflected waves be kept at a mini;
amount of power that can be controlled is not
mum. -As is well known in the art, no reilected
limited by the usual considerations of physical
waves will occur if the transmission line is of in
Vsize of the apparatus. ~ Further, very high fre 20 ñnite length, or if thelineislterminated in a load
quencies can be generated'or'ampliñed without
impedance which is equal’to the characteristic
encountering the many difficulties inherent in
impedance of the line. In Figure 1, iffthe Aload
impedance I3 is made equal to or matchedjwith>
the characteristic impedance of the coupling sec--
othersystems wherein the physical size of the
apparatus imposes severe limitations. Other ad
vantagesoi the invention will be evident from 25 tion I I, the conditions of no reflection will be
the more detailed description that follows.
satisfied. By energizing the head of the couplingA
’More particularly, the invention consists in the
section II from an energizing source I 4, an elec-'A>
system and method hereinafter described, illus~
tromagnetic wave is- caused to travel along4 the
trated'in the accompanying drawing and defined
inthe claimshereto appended, it being under- .
stood that various changes in form, arrangement
and details both of circuits and of method within
the scope of the claims may be resorted to withu
outl'departing from the spirit .or sacriñcing any
` A‘clearer. understanding ofthe operation Yof the
invention and its improvement ’over known meth
ods Ícan be obtained by reference tofthe follow
in’gîñgures andthe descriptions relating thereto~
4'Figure 1 shows ablock diagram of the principal 40
elements of the traveling wave coupler Vused as an
. ÍFigure 2 shows Va circuit> diagram of a high-fre
invention, `with a graphical representation of the 45
'
Figure 3 shows a diagram of a travelingwave
coupled oscillatonl wherein the output energy of
thev oscillator is' also used to energize the coupling
.
.
'
'
,
Y Figure 4 shows a circuit'diagram of a traveling
wave coupled oscillator' in vwhich the conducting
members which guide ,the traveling wave are
shown as of the coaxial type;v ï ’
surfaces ofthe _conducting members and perpen
dicularüto the direction'of motion of the travel-»
ing wave. By directing, the electron stream in
the direction.v of the traveling wave'v or between
the conducting members which guide the wave,`
the ‘electrons can be‘ made to travel along theV
electrostatic iield has a greatly increased intervalw
quency amplifier embodying the principles of the
,
alternately of positive and negative polarity at
some given frequency. The resulting electrostatic'
coupling section I I‘at‘substantially the same ve-v
locity as the traveling wave, so that the traveling
amplifie'rifor' generating high-frequency currents.
section.'
applied to the head'of Vtheicoupling section are
ñelds will be substantially perpendicular to the
of the vadvantages of the invention.
traveling wave in the coupling section~
coupling section towards its terminating load.
The voltages, and the‘ñelds that result, which are
' ~
’ Figure 1 is a block’dia'gram‘showing the main
elements of the wave coupler. „ Block I0 repre
of time toV act upon and so displace the electrons
laterally.Y
Y
.
'
`*Still referring to Figure 1, if the> high-fre
quency energizer I4 for the coupling section II
isvan oscillator, the transmission line `canvhave aV
matched terminating impedance, while-` the out
50 put of the high-.frequency collector I2 feeds di-> .
rectly to the load I3. Under such conditions, the
apparatus is in the nature of an ampliñer. If the
outputof the collector I2 is used to energize the
transmission line, .thenall ofthe energy gener-v
ated may beied through the coupling section
to the load I3l~which~is` then 'matched to the
transmission line, -or only that amount ofy energy
sents Va gun for creatingohigh' velocity charged
particles, such` as electrons.' In what follows, it
will be assumed that the charged particles used
are electrons, although it will be obvious that this
necessary to maintain the apparatus in opera-k
tion may be diverted from load I3 tothe cou
ìfïsfî'not‘,> a> necessary restriction. l Blockl II repre
paratus isin the nature of an oscillator.
sents ‘the coupling section, wherein the electro
st'a'.tic_field- of the. traveling wave‘and the elec
trons of the electron stream are coupled together,
so that the Wave’ ñeld displaces the electrons.V
Block 12 represents ‘a high-frequency collector
for collecting Vhigh-frequency energy from` >the
waved ‘stream'of electrons. " Block `I3 represents
the load' which utilizes 'the energyucollected by the
high=frequ`ency collector I2. Block I4 shows the
plingjsection.Y Under such conditions the ' ap
w
Ingeneral, the coupling section II is used for
coupling a'wave ñeld with the electron stream
in such a manner as will permit deflectionr of the
electron` stream. This application deals with the
use ofj'a traveling `wave field for this purpose,
butas‘disclosed in 'my application of serial #388,
279,*"1'lled "April 12, 1941„_it is also possible to use
afstanding wave field.-
Y
,
i Figure> 2 shows a circuit diagram of the wave
high-frequency energizer which -energizes the
-ccuplerused as an amplifier for high-frequency
transmission line of the >coupling section II, and
currents.Y The exciting oscillator -2l] energizes thej
thus propagates a traveling wave of suitable mode
transmission
line 22.-,23 'of the coupling section',
throughthejcoupling section II. The high fre
»whichV includes two spaced parallel. conducting
quency energizerltmayfbean independent os: 75 members
22> and 23: 'The'electron gun 2I directs
2,409,992
15
a stream of high velocity electronsthrough the
6
formed by the spaced conductor elements 3l` and
38. `The electron stream is collected by the col
coupling section as> is indicated by the horizontal
lector
plates 39 and. dû, and thereby energizes
dotted lines. The end of the coupling section
the collection circuit Al. >High-frequency energy
22-23 of the transmission line is terminated with
is fed from the collection circuit 4I through the
a load impedance 26 matched to the characteristic
line ¿l2 to the head of the coupling section 31.-38,
impedance of the coupling section or transmission
the coupling section 3'1-38 being terminated in
line. High-frequency energy is collected from
a matched load 43. A ground return is provided
the waved electron stream by the collector plates
for the electron current. The tube casing M
2l and 28 and the high-frequency collector circuit
2li transfers the energy to the load 25. A ground 10 permits the air to be evacuated from the region
through which the electron stream is directed.
return circuit to the gun ~2| is provided for the
The operation of the wave coupled oscillator
current o_f the electron stream and electron gun
is Vfundamentally the same as that of the ampli
2i. The tube casing 23 permits evacuation of the
fier in Figure 2. The variation lies in the use
air from the region through which the electron
stream is directed. The traveling wave is repre 15 of the generated high-frequency energy col
lected in circuit 4| for energizing the coupling
sented graphically by the voltage curve E shown
section 3l.-.-3S. It will be noted that for the high
at 3B.
'frequency energy to reach the load ‘43, it must
By reference to Figure 2 the operation of the
pass from circuit ¿Si through the feed-back line
wave coupler as an ampliñer can be made clear.
d2 and then through the coupling section 31-38
The coupling section of the transmission line
to the load 43. Hence, all of the energy that is
2,2--1ë3 is energized by the oscillator 2i) and the
used in the load serves to wave the electron
line so 'terminated by the load 26 as to permit
stream while passing through the coupling sec
traveling waves to traverse the coupling section
tion 3l-38, and so, with proper time and space
iii-«23. The electrostatic field set up by the trav
eling wave between the conductors 22--23 is illus 25 phasing, maintains the device in a state of con
tinuous oscillation. in order to stabilize the os
trated graphically by the voltage curve E in graph
cillations at some preassigned frequency, the col
30. The transmission line is shown as marked off
lection circuit 4i may be tuned to some preas
in one-half wave lengths to correspond with the
signed frequency by including the proper L. C.
voltage curve, and the one-half Wave length seg
ments are indicated by the letters a, b, c, d, e, and 30 circuit elements. In order that oscillations may
be sustained, it is necessary that the head of the
the remainder f. The primes (') of the above
coupling section 31-38 should be energized in
letters indicate the corresponding regions of the
the proper phase. The phase of the voltage de
graph. The electron gun 2 i directs s, high velocity
livered to the coupling section 31-38 can be
stream ci electrons along the straight dotted
readily controlled by any of the conventional
lines shown. It is possible to make the velocity
phase shifting devices, and one method, easily
of propagation of the traveling wave and that
applicable to the return transmission line 42,
of the electrons in the electron stream equal.
would be to adjust its length. The electron
The voltage curve Si) shows, for a given instant,
stream is indicated by the dotted lines and is
the distribution of the fields in the traveling wave.
shown in its normal state prior to being waved
It follows that the electrons in the segment a will
or deflected by the traveling wave.
be in a positive polarity electrostatic field, as in
Figure 4 shows a traveling wave. coupler used
dicated by the graph Sil-a'. Also, the electrons
as an oscillator, but in which the coupling sec
in segment b will be in a negative polarity elec
tion transmission line is depicted as of the co
trostatic iield, as indicated by Sii-b’. A similar
inference can be drawn for the electrons in the 4 axial type.
remaining segments of the coupling section.
Since the electrons in the segment a move along
the line with the same velocity as the positive
polarity wave pulse 36»-a’, the electrons will be
displaced more and more in a given direction as
they and the wave pulse simultaneously reach
successive positions along the line, such as at c
and c. The electrons in a negative polarity field,
as at band Bil-b', will be displaced in the op
posite direction. As a result, the electron stream
will be waved into the shape` indicated by the
curveddotted line, which, it will be noted, tend's
to become graphically similar to the voltage curve
E in the graph Sil. After being waved in the
coupling section, the electron stream impinges
upon the collector plates 2l and 2S. It will be
observed that those electrons that were in the
positive polarity field and thus displaced upwards
will be collected on the upper plate 2l, while those
that were in the negative polarity field will be
collected on the lower plate 28. The result will
be. to alternately charge the upper and lower
plates with electrons, and energize them at a fre
quency which is proportionate to thenumber of
pulses collected per second.
Figure 3 shows a diagram of the wave coupler
used as an oscillator. The electron gun is rep
resented by the cathode element 35 and the plate
36, each connected in the conventional manner
to energizing sources.
The electron gun 5o directs a cir
cular ring of electron streams into the coaxial
coupling section of the transmission line which
has an outer cylindrical conductor member 5l
and an inner conductor member 52. The col
lector ring plates E3 and 54 collect the high
frequency energy and feed it along the line 5l
and 58 to the coupling toroid 6€) at the head of
the coupling section 5l-52. The high-frequency
terminating circuit 55 is shown as of the toroid
55 type; it is preferably matched to the coupling
section Eli-52 so as to reduce the setting up
of reflected waves. The high-frequency energy
in the toroid 55 is coupled to the load 62. The
slotted openings 59 in the toroid @il permit the
electron stream to be directed into the coaxial
coupling section 5I-52. For the purpose of per
mitting evacuation of any air in the region
through which the electron stream is directed,
an air tight surface can be formed by the outer
coaxial tube and the casing 6i surrounding the
electron gun 50. In the drawing, the electron
stream is shown by the dotted lines and in its
normal state prior to being waved.
The operation of the‘wave oscillator of Figure
70 4 is fundamentally similar to that of Figure 3,
the main difference being that the traveling wave
and its fields are guided by a coaxial line. High
frequency energy is collected from the electron
stream by the ring plate collectors 53 and 5è.
The coupling section is 75 This energy is fed back to the head of the cou
2,409,992
pling section '5I-52 by the transmission line
57' and 58, which is shown asof the two wire con
struction type. Obviously, the return line 51-58
could lbe of coaxial construction also, if desired.
If symmetry of construction was desired, it would
be possible to have one coaxial line inside of and
concentric with the other, one serving as the
coupling section, and the other as the return line.
In the Figure 4 diagram, the ring collector plates
8
electron stream, such as is illustrated in Figure 2,
are taken as a basic element, it can be used to
trace out other forms, as by displacing it laterally
along a line perpendicular to the plane of the
«basic element pattern, or by revolving it laterally
around a given line serving as an axis to create
a surface of revolution. In the former case, the
coupling section would have the form of two
spaced parallel conducting sheets, with a moving
53 and 54 are placed in the coupling section 10 sheet or streamof electrons directed between
5|-52, but if Vdesired could be placed outside the
them. In the latter case, if the axis line Was
toroid 55'by providing suitable slots in the toroid
parallel to the transmission line elements and the
55 for the electron stream to pass through, and
radius was constant, the coupling section would
by enclosing the collector rings in an air-tight
be similar to the concentric circular cylinders
casing. One advantage of such a construction 15 of a coaxial transmission line, substantially as
would be to simplify the matching of the coupling
illustrated in Figure 4.
I claim:
section 5|-52 to the toroid 55 and the load 62.
The above description serves to illustrate the
1. In a high-frequency generating system in
general principles of the wave coupler when using
cluding a section of a coaxial transmission line
traveling waves, and particularly as applied to 20 and high velocity charged particles moving in a
amplifiers and oscillators.v In the illustrated co
low pressure region, said coaxial transmission
line being adapted to guide an electromagnetic
axial type of coupling section, it was assumed
that a radial pattern of electrostatic field Was be
traveling wave along a given, path, means for
energizing said section of said coaxial trans
ing propagated along the coaxial line. Many
other patterns or modes are known to the art, 25 mission line from a high-frequency energizing
source to form a traveling wave having a trans
and could be used in lieu of the radial pattern,
verse electrostatic ñeld component along said
as long as the electrostatic fields thereof can
path, means for maintaining a low pressure re
act upon the electron stream to deñect it, and if
gion along said path, means for directing said
suitable collection means are employed.
For simplicity, it has been assumed that the 30 high velocity charged particles along said path
and in the íield of said electromagnetic wave,
velocities of propagation of the wave along the
transmission line and that of the electron stream
whereby charged particles of the stream are de
were equal, but this is not a necessary restriction.
flected by ñelds of the traveling wave, and means
for collecting high-frequency energy from the
When the wave velocity and the electron velocity
deflected stream of charged particles.
.
are equal, the coupling section can be of any
2. In a high-frequency system including a co
length, and the total displacement of any dis
axial transmission vline and a stream of high ve
placed electron segment will be proportional to
the coupling section length and the strength of ` locity charged particles moving in a low pressure
region, said coaxial transmission line comprising
the displacing ñeld acting upon the electrons. If
the electron Velocity diiîers from that of the 40 at least two dissimilar media adapted to guide an
electromagnetic wave along a given path, means
traveling wave, and the coupling section is long
for maintaining a low pressure region along said
enough to permit a point of one shift one wave
length (or an integral number of wave lenghths)
path, means for exciting said coaxial transmission
line with high-frequency energy, means for im
with respect to the other, it follows that the posi
tive and negative polarities of the iields acting
pedance matching at least one end of said coaxial
upon such electrons will in eiiect cancel one an
ltransmission line to Ypermit a flow of high-fre
quency energy along said line in the form of a
other, so that the emerging electron stream will
traveling electromagnetic wave, said electromag
not :be waved. If differing velocities are used, it
is preferable that the total shift resulting should
netic wave having an electrostatic field compo
not exceed one-half wave length, in order to pre-vent total or partial cancellation of the effective
ness of the acting ñelds.
In the coupling sections referred to in the
for directing said stream of high velocity charged
particles along said path and in the ñeld of said
nent substantially transverse to said path, means
electromagneticwave, whereby charged particles
drawing, the dielectric medium separating the
of the stream are deflected by ñelds of said wave,
conductor members is assumed to be space. How
ever, as long as a path is provided for the electron
and means for collecting high-frequency energy
stream, regions of the separating dielectric can
be of material substances, such as of glass.
For a
given spacing of conductors, the introduction of
from the deilected charged particles of the
stream.
3. In a high-frequency generating system in
cluding a section of a coaxial transmission line .
a glass dielectric would increase the capacity per 60 yand a source of high velocity charged particles
unit length of the coupling section, and so modify
.in `a low pressure region, said coaxial transmis
the velocity of the propagated travelingwave. It
follows that the glass dielectric used could also
serve for the casing of the tube, so that in effect
the conductors for the coupling section could be
placed outside the tube walls. In some applica
tions of the wave coupler, this form of construc
‘sion line being adapted to guide an electromag
netic wave along a given path, said section of said
coaxial transmission line being terminated at
each end by va conductive toroidal shell having an
annular slot therein, the outer vedge of each
toroidal shell being conductively joined to the
tion might have physical or technical advantages.
outer conductor of the said coaxial line, and the
With regard to the particular form that the
inner edge of each toroidal shell being con
coupling section may assume, it is to be noted that 70 ductively joined to the inner conductor of said
considerable variation is possible as long as the
coaxial line, one of said toroidal shells having at
-basic requirements of an electromagnetic travel
least one yopening adapted to permit .the direct
ing wave having an electrostatic field component
ing of a stream of charged lparticles along said
capable of deiiecting an electron stream are ful
path and in the annular space within said coaxial
ñlled. If the two wire `transmission line and the 75 line, two concentric annular collector rings adapt
2,409,992
ed to fit coaxíally within said coaxial transmis
sion line and insulated therefrom,4 means for di
recting said high velocity charged particles along
said path toward said collector rings, means for
maintaining Ya low pressure region along said
path, means for energizing said coaxial transmis
sion line with high-frequency energy, and means
for collecting high-frequency energy from said
annular collector rings.
4. In a high-frequency generating system in 10
cluding a section of a coaxial transmission line
`and a source of high velocity charged particles
in la 10W pressure region, said coaxial transmis
sion line being adapted to guide an electromag
netic Wave along a given path, said section of 15
10
toward said collector rings, means for maintain
ing a low pressure region along said path, means
for collecting high-frequency energy from said
annular collector rings, means for energizing said
coaxial transmission line with said collected high
frequency energy, and means for coupling a
high-frequency load to one of said toroidal shells.
5. In a high-frequency generating system in
Cludìng a section of a -coaxial transmission line
and a source of high velocity charged particles in
a loW pressure region, said coaxial transmission
line being adapted to guide an electromagnetic
Wave along a given path, said section of said co
axial transmission line being terminated at each
end by a matched resonating chamber, .one of said
resonating chambers having at least one open
said coaxial transmission line being terminated
ing adapted Ito permit the directing of .a stream
at each end by a conductive toroidal shell having
`of charged particles »along said path .and in the
an annular slot therein, the >outer edge .of each
annular space Within said coaxial line, ltvvo sub
toroidal shell being conductively joined to the
outer conductor of the said coaxial line, and the 20 stantially concentric annular collector rings
adapted to ñt coaxi-ally Within said coaxial trans
inner edge of each toroidal shell being conductive
mission line ,and insulated therefrom, means for
ly joined to the inner conductor of said coaxial
energizing said coaxial transmission line with
line, one of said toroidal shells having at least
high-frequency energy, means for directing said
one opening adapted to permit the directing of
high velocity charged particles along said path
a stream of charged particles along said path and
toward said collector rings, means for maintain
in the annular space within said coaxial line, two
ing .a low pressure region along said path, and
concentric annular collector rings adapted to nt
means for collecting high-frequency energy from
coaxially Within said coaxial transmission line
said annular collector rings.
and insulated therefrom, means for directing said
HOWARD M. STROBEL.
high Velocity charged .particles along said path 30
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