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Oct. 29, 1946.
R, E, gROOKE
2,410,016
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
‘
Original Filed June 10, 1952
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Oct; 29, 1946.
'
R. E. CROOKE
‘2,410,01 6
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
Original Filgd June 10,, 1932
’
2 sheets-sheet 2 '
:INVENTOR
HAWOND E. 81200102’
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
2,4103%!
UNITED STATES PATENT
FFICE
2,410,016
METHOD or AND APPARATUS son
GUNFIRE. CONTROL
Raymond E. Crooke, New York, N. Y., assignor to
Ford Instrument Company, Ind, Long Island
City, N. ‘K, a corporation of New York
Application June 10 , 1932, Serial No. 616,401
Renewed June 12, 1934
1
'7 Claims.
(CI. 89-41)
2
This invention relates to a method of and ap
method of compensating for the errors caused by
paratus for compensating for. errors in the aim
the trunnion tilt of a gun, which avoids the above
ing of ordnance mounted on angularly movable
mentioned dif?culties. An important advantage
platforms, such as ships.
of the invention is the fact that it dispenses with
The angular motions of a ship referred to here
the adjustment of the gun in train through the
in are those relative to a horizontal plane. They
large amplitudes inherent in the requirements of
may be divided into two components hereinafter
the long range guns.
referred to as level and cross-level. Level, desig
In brief, the method consists in ?ring only on
nated L, is the inclination of the deck to the hori
a selected point in the cross-level and disregard
zontal in the vertical plane of the line of sight.
Cross-level, designated Z, is the inclination of the ll) ing trunnion tilt errors for all other cross-level
conditions, thereby avoiding the continuous ad
deck to the horizontal in a vertical plane 90° to
justment of the train angle of the gun which
the plane of the line of sight.
would be necessitated if the gun were to be kept
As far as compensation for changes in the level
angle is concerned, it merely requires changes in 15 continuously in the proper vertical plane. This
is accomplished ‘by determining the corrections
elevation of the gun relative to the deck of the
for the selected value of the cross-level of the
ship to maintain it at its proper elevation with
gun, setting the gun with respect to the ship in
respect to the horizontal, corresponding to the
accordance with the determined corrections and
range of the target, if the gun is to be kept con
?ring the gun when the movement or“ the ship in
stantly in position to be ?red at appropriate
cross-level brings the bore axisof the gun into a
times, in other words, if the method of ?ring
vertical plane bearing a predetermined relation
known as continuous aim is to be employed.
'to the target at which the gun is aimed, this pre
As far as compensation for changes in cross
determined relation taking care of the other cor
level angle is concerned, a more serious problem
arises for such movement causes a proportional 25 rectional factors such as time of ?ight and drift
tilt of the trunnions of the gun relative to the
horizontal. This tilt, in connection with the ele
vation of the gun, causes a displacement of the
bore axis of the gun from the position it should
occupy when the gun is properly aimed. This 30
of the projectile, the eifect of wind and the like.
It will be understood that in order for the gun
to be properly aimed when it is brought into the
speci?ed vertical plane, its elevation with respect
to the deck of the ship must be continuously
displacement has a component in train and an
changed in accordance with changes in the level
other one in elevation, the former being relatively
angle. In general, the problem ‘of accurately and
large compared to the latter. Since the‘compo
rapidly changing the elevation of a gun is a less
nent in train depends upon the tangent of the
serious one than moving it in train, and hence
angle of gun elevation, the error in train in 00 the fact that this invention requires that the
creases rapidly as the elevation of the gun is in
a elevation of the gun be continuously changed to
creased for long ranges.
compensate for changes in level angle is relatively
In systems heretofore employed for applying
of little consequence.
cross-levelling corrections to guns, the required
The invention also comprehends a suitable ap
corrections in train and elevation are continu 40 paratus for carrying out the method as above
l
ously determined and appliedto the gun, with the
explained, and one form of such apparatus is
result that the gun must be constantly shifted in
herein illustrated and will be hereinafter de
train and elevation in accordance with the
scribed. The particular nature of the invention,
changes in the cross-level angle of the ship. In
as Well as other objects and advantages thereof,
the case of large caliber guns which are normally 45 will appear most clearly from the description of
?red at relatively high elevation angles, the in
the particular apparatus illustrated in the draw
troduction of the necessary correctional compo
ings in which
nent in train of the guns to compensate for trun
Fig. 1 is a simpli?ed diagram of one form of
nion tilt errors involves considerable di?iculty on
the appratus in which the invention may be
account of the magnitude of such component;
embodied; ‘
for, as explained above, this component depends
upon the tangent of the angle of elevation of the
gun. The difliculty of rapidly moving so massive
a body through large amplitudes is obvious._
It is an object of this invention to provide a
Fig. 2 is a corresponding diagram of certain
elements of Fig. 1 in the positions they occupy at
a subsequent stage of operation.
In Fig. 1, D indicates in general a director hav
ing associated therewith a computer C for deter- ‘
2,410,616
45 disposed at right angles to the director’s and
mining the correctional factors to be applied to
pointer’s telescopes 30 and 3| respectively.
a gun G controlled by the director.
This telescope is intended to be set by the
cross-leveller in accordance with the selected
value of cross-level ZS, at which the gun is to be
Preliminary to describing the apparatus in de
tail, it will be explained that the computer is
intended to solve the following equations, which
in practice give sufficiently accurate results for
the purpose for which the invention is intended
to be used:
?red.
It is shown in dot and dash lines in a
horizontal position and in full lines in the posi
tion it occupies when set for the selected value of
cross-level.
10
In these equations
Zs represents the selected value of‘ cross-level
angle Z at which the gun is to‘be ?red;
Dz represents the correction in train clue to the.
selected cross-level;
Ds represents the horizontal angle between the
The shaft 46 extends beyond the worm 4i into
the computer of the instrument. Bevel gears 43
connect this shaftto a shaft 41 connected by a
pair of bevel. gears 48 to a shaft 49. By means
of a pair of bevel gears 50, shaft 5| and a pinion
52, movement in accordance with the quantity
KiZS is imparted to the slide 53 of a multiplying
device, designated MT, for computing the cross
level correction in train under various conditions
of operation. The constant K1 is introduced by
vertical plane of the line of sight and the ver 20 a suitable gear ratio. A link 54 provided with a
tical plane in which the gun is to be fired, which
pair of slots is pivoted to the slide 53. The shorter
angle is due to relative motion between the
slot receives a ?xed pin 55 and. the longer slot
ship and the target during the time of ?ight
receives a pin (not shown)- on the lower side of
of the projectile, drift, wind ballistics and the
like;
Us represents the elevation of the gun in a verti
cal plane from a horizontal plane as a plane
of reference;
Up represents the correction in elevation due to
the selected cross level at which the gun is to
be ?red;
K1 and K2 are constants due to trigonometric
approximations used in the equations.
Referring now to Fig. 1, the director D includes
a pedestal I fixed to the ship and provided with
an annular rack 2 within which a table 3 is rotat
ably mounted upon the pedestal. The table is
provided with a standard 4 carrying a shaft 5
provided with handwheels 6 to be used by the
trainer of the director. Attached to the shaft
5 is a bevel gear ‘I engaging a bevel gear 8 on the
end of a shaft ll supported in the standard 4 and
carrying at its lower end a pinion Ill engaging
with the rack 2‘. A bevel gear I l likewise engages
the bevel gear ‘I and is attached to a shaft l?!
which, by means of a pair of bevel gears l3, drives
a shaft [4 which is connected to the side l5’ of
a differential l5, the other elements of which
will be hereinafter described.
Another standard [6 is also attached to the .
table 3 and carries a shaft I‘! provided with a
a carriage 56 slidably mounted on one arm of a
rectangular slide 57. The other arm of this slide
carries a pin 58 entering a spiral groove 59>on a
gear 60 adapted toibe rotated in accordance with
the factor US as will‘ now be described.
The groove is arranged to cause radial move
ments of the pin 58 in accordance‘ with the factor
tan Us. A crank Bl on. the end of a shaft 62 is
adapted to be set in accordance with the values
of US received from any suitable source. By
means of a pair of bevel gears 63 the movement
of shaft 62 is imparted to a shaft 64 carrying a
dial 65 reading against an index 66 for showing
the values‘ of Us applied to the computer. The
shaft 62 is-connected by a pair of bevel gears 61
to, a shaft 68 carrying at one end a pinion G3
meshing with the gear 60.
Carriage 55 of the multiplying device MT car
ries a pin ‘I5 passing through a slot in the end
of a slide ‘H- which, therefore, receives a move
ment proportional to K12S tan Us. The slide 'H
is provided with a rack which engages a pinion
"on a shaft 13<connected to the center 14’ of a
differential '14, the center thus receiving a move~
ment proportional to KiZ.1 tan US or DZ.
Gne side 14”‘ of the differential is connected
by means of a pair of bevel gears 15 to a shaft
‘i6 provided‘ with a crank 11 by which de?ection,
Ds, may be applied to the computer. By means
of a pair of bevel gears 18 and shaft 19, the de
The shaft 11 carries a bevelgear l9 meshing with
?ection thus applied is indicated by a dial 80
a bevel gear 2B on the lower end of a shaft H.
The upper end, of the shaft is connected by a 55 reading against an index 8 I.
Since, as above explained, the center 14' of
pair of bevel gears 22 to a shaft 23 which, by
differential 14, receives a movement proportional
means of a pair of bevel gears 24; is connected
to K12S tan US or DZ and the side 74" receives
to a shaft 25 provided with a worm 26 engaging
a movement proportional’ to DS the side 14"’
a gear sector 21 On a shaft 28 mounted in a
will receive a movement proportional to the sum
standard 29 attached to the table 3. The shaft
of‘ these factors, i. e. Dz-kDS, or DD.
28 carries at one end a trainer’s telescope 30
The side 14"’ of the differential is connected
and at the otherv end a pointer’s telescope 3|.
to the side i5" of differential I5; Since the side
A standard 32. is attached to the table 3 and
15’ of this differential is‘ connected to shaft M
carries a shaft 33v to which is attached a pair of
which is‘ movable in accordance with director
handwheels 34 for use by the operator commonly
train, the center l5'” isimovable in accordance
known as the cross-leveller. One of. the hand
with the sum of the director train and DD. A
wheels is provided with a ?ring key 35 to be used
shaft 82 is attached‘ to the center IE'” and ac
by this operator. The shaft 33 also carries a
pair of handwheels Hi to be used by the pointer.
tuates the rotatable element of a gun train trans
bevel gear 36 engaging a bevel gear 31 on the
end of a shaft 38 which is connected by. a pair 70 mitter 83 inv accordance with the movement of
the center of the differential.
of bevel gears 39 to a shaft 40. This shaft is
Side 14”’ of differential 14 engages a gear
provided with a worm 4| engaging a gear sector
84
on the end of a shaft 85 which, through a
42 on a shaft 43 mounted at the upper end of
pair of. bevel gearsBii.5 is- connected“ to the center
a standard-44 attached to the table 3. The other
end of shaft 43 carries a cross-leveller’s telescope 75 81' of a differential 81. The side 81" of the dif
2,410,016
5
ferential is driven through gears from the shaft
‘I6 which represents the DS input. The other side
I22 to'the rack II5, the arrangement being such
that when the gun is properly trained in accord
81"’ of the differential is connected by gears to
a, shaft 88 which through a pair of bevel gears
89 drives a shaft 89' having a pinion 90 engag
ing a rectangular slide 9I of a multiplying de
ance with the value transmitted by gun train
transmitter 83, a suitable indication to that effect
will be given by the receiver in a well known
manner.
vice ME for computing the required cross~levelling
‘
A similar type of gun elevation receiver I23
is employed, one element being electrically con
nected to the gun elevation transmitter H4 and
correction in elevation, i. e. Up.
Since the center 81' of di?erential 81 receives
a movement from the side 14''’ of differential 10 the other element to a trunnion of the gun so
‘I4 proportional to DS+DZ and the side 81" re
that when the gun is properly elevated in ac
' ceives a movement proportional to Ds from the
cordance with the value transmitted from the
shaft ‘I6 the other side 81”’ will receive a move
gun elevation transmitter this fact will be indi
ment proportional to 2DS+Dz of Equation 3,
cated by the receiver.
In Fig. 1 the gun is shown in dot and dash lines
in the ‘position it occupies when the platform is
horizontal and the gun is aimed at the target, as
which will be imparted to slide 9 I.
> The other arm of slide 9| carriesa slidable
carriage 92 provided with a pin (not shown)
extending into one slot of a link 93, the other
suming no de?ection for the purpose of sim
slot of this link being connected to a ?xed pin
plicity. This position corresponds to the dot and
94. The other end of link 93 is pivotally con 20 dash line position of telescope 45. The gun train
nected- to a slide 95 provided with a-rack en
and gun elevation receivers are shown in their
gaging a pinion 96 on the end of a shaft 91
corresponding positions. Under these circum
connected by a pair of bevel gears 98 to the end
stances the bore axis of the gun, indicated by the
of shaft 49. The slide 95, therefore, receives
line A—A, lies substantially in the vertical plane
a movement proportional to K2Zs, the constant 25 of the line of sight, neglecting any corrections
being introduced by a suitable gear ratio.
for parallax due to differences in the positions on
vThe carriage 92 carries a second pin 99 enter
the ship of the director and the gun.
ing a slotted arm of a slide I00, the other arm
In Fig. 1 the full line positions of the gun and
of which is provided with a rack engaging a
its train and elevation receivers, represent the
pinion I M which receives a movement propor 30 conditions of these elements when the correc
tional to KzZS (2Ds+DZ) which, according to
tional factors corresponding to those required for
the particular value of cross-level at which it is
desired to ?re the gun, have been computed. and
applied to the gun in the following manner:
Equation 3, is the required cross-levelling cor
rection in elevation due to the selected value of
cross-level ZS,
.
I The pinion I M is attached to one end of a 35
In the operation of the apparatus the trainer
shaft I02 which, through a pair of bevel gears
by manipulation of his handwheel 6 connected to
I03, shaft I04 and bevel gears I05, drives the
side I06’ of a differential I06, the center I06"
of ‘which is connected to the other end of shaft
68, which, as previously explained, is actuated
in accordance with the quantity Us which is the
40
the pinion I0, keeps his telescope 30 on the tar
get. andthereby transmits director train through
shaft I4 to the side I5’ of differential I5.
As explained above, the system is operated in
accordance with continuous aim, which means
that the pointer likewise keeps his telescope 3|
the target. The other side I 06"’ is, therefore,
on the target, in spite of changes in level angle,
movable in accordance with the sum of the quan
L, by manipulation of his handwheels I8, and
tities US and UD. It carries a gear I01, which 45 the connections therefrom to the shaft 28 which
engages with a gear I08, connected to one side
carries the telescope. This movement is also im
I09’ of a differential I09. The other side I09”
parted by shaft 23 to the side I 09" of the dif
of the differential is connected through a pair
ferential I09.
of gears IIO, shaft III and a pair of bevel gears
As far as the cross-leveller is concerned, he sets
I L2 to the shaft 23 which is rotated in accordance 50 his telescope 45 at the selected value ZS of the
with changes in the level angle L when the
cross-level at which it is desired to ?re the gun.
pointer’s telescope 3| is maintained on the target
The position of the telescope under this con
in elevation as it is in the operation of the
dition is shown in full line. This operation
system. This means that the side I09" of dif
through the connections leading from shaft 40,
ferential I09 receives a movement proportional 55 positions the slides 53 and 95 of the multipliers
elevation of the gun for the particular range of
to the level angle L and since the side I09’ re
MT and ME respectively, in accordance with the
ceives a movement proportional to US-I-UD the
center I09’” is moved in accordance with the
selected cross-level to introduce this factor for
computing the required cross-levelling correc
tions in train and elevation.
A fourth operator sets in, by means of crank
sum of these quantities.
The shaft II3 con
nected to the center I09’” of the differential
actuates the rotatable element of a gun eleva
tion transmitter I I4.
The gun indicated generally by G is shown
GI, the values of gun elevation, Us, thereby ad
justing the gear 60 with its tangent cam groove.
This action correspondingly adjusts the center
in simplified form. It consists of a ?xed rack
I06" of the differential I06.
II5 forming part of the gun mount and within 65
Under the assumed conditions of no deflection,
which is a rotatable turn table II6 provided with
the crank 11 remains at its normal position so
standards II'I bearing the trunnions II 3 of the
that the side 14" of the differential ‘I4 may be
gun itself I I9.
regarded as ?xed. As previously described, the
The gun train transmitter 83 is electrically
multiplying device MT generates the value of Dz
connected to one element of a gun train receiver
for the selected value of cross-level at which the
I20 of any suitable construction and which is
gun is to be ?red. . This factor is combined with
not shown in detail since it forms no part of
deflection, when the latter is present, in the dif
the. present invention. ‘ ,As is customary in devices
ferential 14.‘ The center ‘Id’ of the differential
of this character, the other element of the re
is actuated in accordance with DZ. The side 74"’
ceiver is connected by a shaft I2I and pinion 75 transmits this ‘quantity to the side I5’! of dif
2,410,016
7
ferential l5, where it is combined with director
train as imparted to the side l5’ of the differen
tial by the shaft M. The center of this differen
8
?ring the gum when the movement‘ of the plat
form brings the gun into a vertical plane bearing
a predetermined relation to the target at‘ which
tial, therefore, actuates the gun train transmitter
the gun is aimed.
with the result that when the gun is correspond
ingly trained it assumes the position shown in
trunnion tilt of a gun mounted on an angularly
full lines.
ll. The method of correcting for the effect of
movable platform which consists in determining
the correction in train for the gun‘ for a selected
As previously described, the multiplying device
value of cross-level, other than zero, setting the
ME computes the cross-levelling correction in ele
vation, UD, corresponding to the selected value 10 gun in train with respect to the platform in
accordance with the determined correction and
of the cross-level. The result, of this computa
?ring the gun when. the platform partakes of a
tion is transmitted from the. pinion IOI’ to the
cross-level equal to that for which the correction
side I06’ of differential I06 where it is combined
was determined.
with the gun elevation representedby Us, so‘ that
5. The method of aiming and ?ring a gun
the side IUB’” of the differential transmits the 15
mounted on an angularly movable platform which
sum of these quantities to the side I09’ of dif
consists in maintaining a- line of sight from the
ferential I09. Side I09" receives,.as previously
platform to a target, maintaining the gun in a
explained, a movement equal to the level angle
predetermined relation to said‘ line of- sight
L, so that the required gun. elevation is trans
mitted to the gun to correspondingly position it 20 throughout relative movement between the target
and the platform in a vertical plane containing
in elevation as likewise shown by its full line
the line of sight, establishing a second line of
position.
sight bearing a predetermined vertical angular
It will be apparent, from the above descrip
relation to a horizontal plane and lying in a
tion and assuming that the ship is on even keel so
vertical plane bearing a predetermined angular
far as cross-level is concerned, that the gun will 25 relation to the ?rst named vertical plane, gen
be displaced both in train and elevation to a
erating the‘corrections necessary to compensate
position where it will not be aimed at the target,
for errors in the aim of the gun due to the tilt
in spite of the‘ fact that the pointer and the
of the trunnions of the gun resulting from an
trainer are sighting on the target. As. angular
gular. movement of the platform measured in the
movement of the ship in cross-level takes place, 30 second
mentioned vertical plane equal to said
the cross-leveller notes the passage of the cross
wires of his telescope 45 across the horizon,
which means that at this instant the angular
position of the ship corresponds to the selected
predetermined vertical angular relation of the
second line of sight, positioning the gun rela
tively to the platform in accordance with said
generated corrections and ?ring the‘ gun when
value of cross-level at which the gun is to be
the'second line of sight is brought horizontal by
?red. This angular movement of the ship will
said angular movement of the platform.
turn the gun mount through a corresponding
6. The method of aiming and firing a gun
angle, so that, as shown most clearly in Fig. 2,
mounted on an angularly movable platform which
the bore axis A-A of the gun is now in the verti
cal plane of the line of sight and in proper posi 40 consists in establishing a line of sight from the
platform‘to the target in a vertical plane through
tion to be ?red by the cross-leveller actuating
the target, establishing a second line of sight
his ?ring key.
bearing a predetermined vertical angular rela
While a preferred embodiment of the inven
tion to a horizontal plane and lying in avertical
tion has been shown and described, it will be
plane bearing a predetermined angular relation
understood that the invention may be embodied
to the ?rst named vertical plane, generating the
in other forms and various changes may be made
corrections‘ for the tilt of the trunnions of the
in structural details without departing from its
gun which corrections correspond to those re
principle as de?ned in the appended claims;
quired for angular movement of the platform
I claim:
measured in the second named vertical plane
1. The method of correcting for the effect of
equal to said predetermined vertical angular rela
trunnion tilt of a gun mounted on an angularly
tion of the second line of sight, positioning the
movable platform which consists in determining
gun relatively to the platform in accordance with
the correction for the gun for a selected value of
said generated corrections and ?ring the gun
cross-level other than zero, setting the gun with
when the second line of sight is brought hori
respect to the platform in accordance with the '
zontal by said angular movement of the plat
determined correction and ?ring the gun when
form.
the movement of the platform brings the gun
'7. The method of aiming and ?ring a gun
into a vertical plane bearing a predetermined
mounted on an angularly movable platform,
relation to the target at which the gun is'aimed.
2. The method of correcting for the effect of 60 which consists in compensating for the effect
upon the gun of angular movement of the plat
trunnion tiltof a gun mounted on anangularly
form in the vertical plane of the-line of sight to
movable platform which consists in determining
the target, determining the corrections in the
the correction for the gun for a selected value of
aim. of the gun resulting from trunnion tilt of
cross-level other than zero, setting the gun with
respect to the platform in accordance with the 65 the gun caused by selected angular movement
of the platform in a vertical.plane‘substantially
determined correction and ?ring the gun when
perpendicular to the first named plane, adjust
the platform partakes of a cross-level equal to
ing the gun with respect to the platform in ac
that for which the correction was determined.
cordance with the determined trunnion tilt cor
3. The method of correcting for the effect of
trunnion tilt of a gun mounted on an angularly 70 rections and firing the gun when the platform
partakes of an angular movement in the second
movable platform which consists in determining
named vertical plane equal to that for which
the correction in train for the gun for a selected
the correction was determined.
value of cross-level other than zero, setting the
gun in train with respect to the platform in ac
RAYMOND E. CROOKE.‘
cordance with the determined correction and 75
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