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7 Oct. 29, 1946.
w. w. HAN$E~N ETAL
2,410,063 '
Original Filed July 2, 1940 .
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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‘Oct. 29, 1946.
‘Original Filed July‘ 2, > 1940
.4 Shee£s—Sheet 2
Oct. 29, ‘1946.
Original Filed July 2,,_l940
4 Sheets-Sheet
Oct 29, 1946-
' 2,410,063
Original Filed July 2, 1940
4-Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
William W. Hansen, Garden
City, ‘Russell H.
Wantagh, and Sigurd F. 'Varian, Garden
N. Y., assignors to The Board of Trustees
of The
Leland Stanford
Stanford University, Calif.
Original application
2, 1940, Serial
343,528. Divided an (1July
this application Septem
her 2, 1942, Serial No. 457,096
17 Claims. (Cl. 250-275)
This. application. is a true division of our co
pending application, Serial No.‘ 343,528, ?led July
Fig.6 is a longitudinal cross-section of a modi
?ed structure.
2, 1940, now Patent No. 2,311,658, granted Febru
any 23, 1943.
Fig. 7 is a longitudinal view
partly in section
of a modi?ed structure.
Fig. -8 is‘ a sectional view taken along line 8—-8
of Fig. 7, and Figs. 9, 10,‘ 11 show details.
Similar characters of reference are used in
all of the above ?gures to indicate correspond
Referring now to the drawings, the'jnovel tube
structureshown in Fig. 1 comprises a central tu
bular shell I, having spaced hollow resonators
2, ‘3 contained
self-oscillator but
' tector at‘ will.
Another object
in'the provision of
of the present
invention lies
a noveltubestructure utilizing
Similarly, the resonant Wall supporting grid 1 is
connected by a tube
supports a tubular member [6 to which an end
bell ll of glass is sealed by a metal-to—glass
sealv I8;
connected by a member also
forming part of the envelope.
A further object of the‘
as at H). End bell l2 contains an electron emitter
structure 20, having an electron-emitting sur
face 2! heated by a ?lament 22, having supply
. leads- 23- and. 24 passing
through a press 25 sup;
porting the electron emitter structure 28. Emitter
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a ‘longitudinal view partly in section
of- one embodiment of the’ invention.
>Fig. 2 is an end-view, partly broken away, of
structure 20 is shown ‘arranged and constructed
so as to minimize heat losses inundesired direc
tions. The electron emitter structure is so ar
ranged, as with a projecting ring 26, that the
electrons emitted fromisurface‘ 2l'are collimated
into a‘ stream that will pass through the grids
4, 5,15 ‘and 1.
theapparatus of Fig. 1, viewed from the right
Fig.‘ 3 is. a longitudinal: view‘ ‘partly in section
of a somewhat modi?ed structure.v
Fig.4 isra cross-section with-parts
takenalong the.» line. 4—4 of Fig. 3. broken away
‘g. 5 is. across-section taken alonghthe line
batteries 21’, 28' to control the vacuum'. Thus,
55 coil‘ 21 maybe‘heated to approximately 400° C.
for absorption of- hydrogen', and coil‘ 28 may be:
heated to approximately 1700° C. for absorption
The positions of ‘end plates l0 and I5, and
hence the position of grids 4 and 1, are initially
of other gases, such as oxygen and nitrogen. A
adjustedlby means of the screws 55.,and lock nuts
lead 32 passing through end ‘bell l1,.supports,a,
str‘utszl42' and 44 v
while the'iangularityof’gthe
as a ‘group by'me'ans of screw 59.
End plate i5 comprises an outer ring M which
of tubular member 9 is'an accelerating grid,‘ and 01
7 " ~is mounted to rotate with respect to an inner sup
grid 35 is used to obtain a more uniform electro->.,_L;=
static ?eld and to prevent return of secondary‘
porting-ring 62. Headed screws 63 are threaded
into ring 52 and are adapted to engage outer ring
The structure of Fig. 1 is shown connected for‘ 10 (ii for locking this ring in desired angular posi
collecting plate element as. Grid 34 in the end
A cam plate 64 is
vtriori- upon ‘supporting ring 62.52 and
has a slot 65
fixed upon supporting ring
serving as an oscillator, although by changing
the connections, the same may be made to, serve ' .
‘. therein‘ cooperating with an eccentric 61 which
is ?xed upon a bolt 6'6 turnable in an aperture
provided in outer» ring Bl. With screws 63 loos
turning bolt 66, eccentric 51 co
then, by
by means of a concentric‘line-ii?
ter- ' , operates ‘with card plate 64 to turn ring 5| relative
to supporting ring 52, thus changing the angu!
minating in loops 51 and 38 within the respective,
larityv of all the three struts M similarly, and ef
resonators, as is disclosed in the above-mentioned
Patent No. 2,242,275. A concentric line terminal -- 7 fecting the individual tuning of “catcher” reso
as an ampli?er and, if desired,‘ also‘as adetector.
In this ?gure, hollow or cavity resonator 3 acts
as a “catcher” for electromagnetic energy and is
back-coupled to cavity resonator 2 acting‘ as a
post 39 extends through anraperture provided in
20 nator 3.‘ Thus, “catcher” resonator 3 ' cania‘be
shell I and is attached to “catcher" resonator‘ 3.
tuned readilylto“‘bun'cher” resonator~2.5 . It is'de
sirable. to adjust ‘screws! til/‘so that when‘freso
nators 2 and 3 are adjusted to resonance, the'an
This concentric line is provided with a loop 40 '
extending into the oscillating electromagnetic
?eld within resonator 3 for the vpurpose of remov
ing energy therefrom. The outer end of concen
tric line terminal 39 is sealed as by a glass bead
gul'arity of struts‘ 42 will be substantiallythefsame
as that of struts as; ‘This will permit'g‘ang'tun
4|. A concentric line M’ is adapted to be remov
ablyvconnected to terminal post 39 for the pur
pose of conveying the energy to any desired point,
screw as over the widest possible range.‘ ‘Owing
'to thetoggle action‘ of struts Hand 44-, a very
minute'adjustment of‘ the frequency of the reso
30 nators 2 and 3 is easily attainable, ‘thereby read;
as to a radiatingantenna.
ingot resonators '2’ and't by means'ofgadjusting
‘ Atmospheric pressure, acting upon the outer
ily tuning these resonators together, or with other
end walls of cavity resonators 2 and 3 supporting
resonators if desired‘, even at thehigh frequencies
grids 4' and ‘l, tends to cause these walls to de4
of the order of 109 cycles per second ‘at which the
flec't'long'itudinally inwardly so that grid 4 tends
to‘appr‘oach grid 5, and grid‘ 1 tends to approach
gri‘d?i The amount of deflection 'of‘these grids
underxthe effect of atmospheric pressure is con
present device is in‘tendedto operates . The‘value
trollable at‘will by the use of the novel tuning
means which are claimed in our‘ parent Patent
55 effects but a slight change in‘ the spacing of
No. 2,311,658.- This tuning means comprises end
The form of the invention of Fig. .3 is similar
plates Iii and'l5 that are rigidly connected to
to that shown inr'Fig. 1, except-that instead of the
tuning mechanism operating to adjust the angue'
lar ‘position [of all’ the struts simultaneously this
apparatus is setup to' adjust only -:one strut 92
and one strut ‘92' simultaneously,’theiremaining
struts being unadjusted by the gang tuning
equipment of this?gure. ‘Also, the‘ tube of Fig‘. 3
is'sh‘oWnoperating as a‘ receiver‘, thelsame being’
pr‘dvided‘with. grids 1 hand 112 for effecting detec
tubes 9 and M respectively." Inward movement
of end plates‘ l0 and l5 is micrometrically coni
trolledv by means of struts 4,2 and 44,‘_three of
which struts‘ are used in connection with each of
the plates lBVand E5, the struts‘b‘eing‘spaced=an-‘
gularly 120°v apart. These struts have‘ pressure
balls ‘43 at the ends, which bear respectively‘upon
adjustable screws 55 carried by end plates in and
6!, and upon socket bearings 45 carried in ring
members 5@ and 5! that are turnably mounted
upon, collars 4‘? and 48 ?xed upon'central shell I,
of ‘this tuning mechanism will be‘realized when
it is noted that a. relatively large movementof
rings 50 and 5| produced through turning screw
the grids A-—5> and 6-1.
mit ‘the thrust‘of struts 152 ‘and “to stationary
such a voltage that apart of the electrons'pass
ing grid 35 will be‘re?ected by grids ‘H and 12 ‘
and hence are prevented from reaching plate ele-‘
ment 33. Grid ‘H is preferably placed at- an
angle to the axis of the tube to prevent‘the ‘re
byiretainers' 5d and‘ 55, which balls in- turn bear
against the socket bearings 45 to thereby trans‘
Cylinder ‘i5 surrounds and shields plate element
and is maintained throu‘gh supply. lead 13 at
upon central shell ‘I isengaged by‘balls 53 carried
tion: l. End bell l1 contains the getter coils 21 and
{Hand a cylinder 10 carrying‘ grids ll and 12'.
as'by a bolt as. A thrust ring‘ 43 rigidly mounted
flected electrons from-‘again passing'through grid
. A yoke 55 is fastened to rings 50 and 5!, and
a lug 52 is fastened to thrust ring 45. Members 60 "I. ' The number of electrons reaching plate-ele-‘
ment 33 can thus :be made-to vary with the
52'1and156‘are-(see Fig. 2) urged toward each
strength of electromagnetic.oscillations in cavity
other ‘by a .coil spring 58, and are held apart by a?
resonator 3, resulting in detection‘of ‘such oscilla
strut .51 having pressure balls 43 at its ends which
be'arinto' depressions provided in yoke 55 and in
an adjusting screw 59 threaded through ‘lug 52, 65
The supply’
1 for‘ getteri
coils' v21/28
‘l are
as ‘shown in Fig. 2; ‘ ‘When screw 59 is adjusted,
brought out through press 25' at 29339‘ and 3|’,
surrounding plate lead‘32, thus serving to, shield
ring members'5il and-5! are‘ caused to turn rela
tive to statiohary'thrust ring 45 causing the an
lead 32, as shown in Fig. 5.
gular positions of struts 42 and M to be altered
1 .The buncher resonator‘ 2111 this form of the ’
at will, thereby varying the‘ distance between end 70 invention is equipped witha concentric line ter
plates i5 and‘ I5 andstationarythrust ring 46,
andhence effecting relative movement of grids
4 and 1 with respect to stationary grids 5 and 6,
thereby altering the tuning of the resonators, 1- 6-,
effecting the'gang tuning thereof. ‘
minal post 39 adaptedzto be connected to a receiv
ing antenna for supplying the signal to resonator
2. Additional concentric line terminal Tpostsare
shown attached to the “buncher" and- "catcher”
resonators for. the-purpose. of altering theifunce
tionszof‘thetube, hen desired; Thus, ifatermie
Tube 8,5.issea1ed bye glass. head 86.» In this mane
nal post 390i ‘the “catcher” is coupled ‘back as by
ner t eelectron emitter assembly isrendereii eXI- '
tremely; rigid to, minimize microphonic noises.
a concentric line to a. terminal‘ post 39 of the
“buncher,” theapparatuswill serve as an oscil
Similarly, thetube 1,0, carrying the detector grids
‘II; and ‘I2, is rigidly supported concentrically with,
This tube‘structure is also shown provided with
a space charge controlgridl?t, aswhen modula-.
tion is desired, th1s_grid.beingshown provided
concentrically with respectto tube 10.
withaterminal lead‘ 69;_ This grid is shown car
ried: by focussingring I 00, which in use would 10
In the structure shown in Fig. 6, wherein‘ in
operation it is generally. only. necessary to time
one resonator to. the, other, sans tuning is not i1,
normally. have acollimatinge?ect upon the elec-:
‘In Fig. 3 end'plates III and I5 are urged toward
lustrated. Instead. tlireerairs of‘ struts 93 and
each other by springs 74, the thrust of the springs.
there used Whichbear at their inner ends <11
74, in addition to that produced "byatmospheric 15 rectly against stationary Hamstring 45.- The fre
pressure, being resisted by-struts92; 92' and, 93,
quency adjustments are made by adjusting the
9.3’. Three pairs; of"substantially; aligned struts
angularly spacedl2o°rapart .areused. Of these,
two pairsof struts 93,1,93!“ restpdirectlyi upon sta
tionary ring 46, whereasthe. remaining pair‘of
struts 92 and 92.’ bear upon the outer sides of'the
arcuate levers 94 and 94’ that are pivoted at‘ 15
on stationary thrust‘ ring 46, as seen, in Fig. 4.
The. thrust of ‘strut 92 is transmitted to lever 94
andgthen through balll53 constrained tomove in
assbowninf‘is. 1...
struts. as shown.
a race 16 concentric with pivot 15 to stationary
Fie- 3, 01'
strut: adjustment may alone be used, as shown in
In the form of the invention shown in Figs. 7
Fig. 6.,
to 105 thehollow resonators Illsand I04 are shown
carried, by the inner ends of tubular members I05
transmitted throughxleveli 94' to ring 46. Levers.
and; I88. Theinner opposed end walls I01 and
ltd-of resonators I03 and I04 are annularly cor
Inga-ted and?exible and carry a drift-space-pro
viding tube, Hi3, A collar ‘I II} is shown ?xed 0n
tube I433; and has a ring member III turnably
mounted thereon. Anti-.iriction end thrust bear~
ings It;l are shown interposed between member
ingtscrewi?ltlevers , 94and94" "re caused to rotate
about‘. pivot; ‘15, . thereby; changing: the angularity
and causing‘ the end' plates
changesthe average spacing of grids 4. and 5 ‘of
the “buncher” and; grids 1, and'a of,the,“catcher,>”
effecting an alteration’in the gang tuning of these
hollow resonators.
HI and collar I I 0. A thrust spring washer lI I3
may hev interposed between collar III] and one of
the bearings I12, Three pairs of 120° spaced tun
Grids ll, 5, 6 and. 'I; are shown’ shaped like very
shallow cones with their apexesfacingeach other.
The electrostatic ?eldbetween opposed grids ,4_.—5
and. E_——.Tis of such a nature that low‘ velocity
electrons arecaused to moveradially outward and
beyond the strong electrostatic ?eld existing be:
tweenthese opposed gridsywhere, the presence‘of
such electrons may be undesirable. This. feature
is shown and claimed in our. divisional application
Serial No.5509,668; filed November 10; 19431.‘, ' ~ -
. The inner walls’of both'cavit-y resonators 2; 3;
I5 a.'
ing struts H4 and ‘I I 4'_are shown interposed be
tween, the opposite sides of'ring III and screw
plugs II5 carried by end plates IIS and II‘! ?xed
ontubular members I 95 and I06.
,A tuningscrew -I I8_ is threaded through a lug
H9 provided on collar III) and acts through a
Strut 53.3 t0‘ engage'ring II I for turning the lat
ter; A return‘ tension spring IZI connected be
tween ring III and lug II9 eliminates back-lash.
By turning- screw II8 the ring III is shifted or
turned-singularly with respect to tube I89 causing
toggle struts II 4 and H4’ to move collars ‘I I6 and
I Ij'lj toward-or away from one another as the ‘case
may be, thereby deflecting end walls It]? and I08
of the resonators to effect the gang tuning there
supporting gridsla and dare ‘ofrla-rge crossesection ‘1;. of.’ This tuning- arrangement employing the sin
gle ring; I I I may be used in the preceding ?gures
and thereby serve. to. readily transmit the heat
of the'drawings if desired; Individual tuning .ad
generated ‘in. gridsgEr,v 51 to central shell I,iw,here
iustment‘of the resonators I I33 and 194 may‘ be
from‘ it‘ maybe "dissipated ina known manner.
accomplished by adjusting screws I I5.
The cross-section of‘ the electron path‘ between
grids5' and 6 is enlarged transversely of the
If desired, external tuning resonators I20 and
tZI "may be used ‘for tuning resonators I 93 and
stream which structure‘minimizes diifusion of the
electron stream due to electrostatic forces.
W4 froma remote mint. Resonators I29 and II2I
are‘ shown, connected‘ by concentric lines I22 and
In Fig.6, the end‘ shells I I and It, and their as?
I323 to resonators Its-and I04; respectively, loops
sociated! parts,’ are modi?ed‘ to‘ provide an exe
tremelyrigldr mounting for the various elements '
ig-dyatj' the ends of the‘ lines serving to link the
to minimize microphonic noises. In this ?gure,
the-space‘charge control grid 68 is carried by a
resonators I38! and I2;I are provided; with suitable
resonant ?elds withinthe resonators- Tuning
tubular inemberlB, which is rigidly attached‘to
shell II‘ and ‘spaced in concentric relation there
with by a seal ‘I9. Similarly, the emitter structure
2B is carried'by a tubular member‘ 8 I, which‘i's rig
idlysupported in-concentric relation to tube 18‘ by
glass seal‘ 80. I Also, the ?lament lead IIJI; is at
l " ~. .
thrust ‘ringed, jThe thrust of strut 92' is similarly
94 and,94" are fastened together, by.v aqyoke95. A.
Thus, it'will be seen that tuning means is. pre
vided in the
By turningr these knobs the-fre
ofoscillation within resonators I21] and
512-! isv varied-thereby e?ecting a variation in the
frequency'of the connected resonators I93 and
tached to. a tube 85, which is rigidly held in con-5
centric; relation. to. tube’ 8|, by-means- of‘ a seal 84‘. 75 Iihl~.j ®bviouslyrwhen the relnote tuning resona
tors I20 and IZI , are employed the local tuning
means I'I_8-—I I-I may be omitted, if desired. Also "
is used, a remote tuning
if. this-local tuning means desired. The length of
means may be omitted if
the'c’onc'entric lines I22 and I23 is variable (de
pending on the location of resonators I20 and I2 I.
Actually the tuning of resonators I03 and IM may
be effected by varying the length of lines I22 and
wires I35 and I35’. carry the currents .in opposite.
directions? and ifdo' not “influence the electron
stream leaving the: front of the emitter, but this
type of construction also enables all of'the wire
surfaces to be uniformly'coated with insulating
material and prevents shorting of portions of..the.
wire which would take place were the same mere
ly wrapped around a single pin or cylinder.
As many changes could be made in the above
‘The outer ends of resonators I03 and IM are 10 construction and many apparently widely differ?
ent embodiments of this invention could be made
shown formed by the use of dished plates I28 and
without departing from the scope thereof, .itis
I29, which form another feature of the present
intended that all matter contained in the above
invention. ‘By ‘usingdished plates instead of ?at
description or shown in the accompanying draw
disks, variations in tuning due to thermal expan
sion and contraction are greatly reduced. The 15 ings‘ shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in
plates I28 and I29‘and the ends of tube I09 car
a'ylimiting sense.
ry grids I30 for operating on the electron stream.
What is claimed‘ is: having a substantially
These grids, as illustrated in Fig. 9, may be
. 1. ‘A cavity resonator
formed out of a metal ribbon, as by the use of
suitable dies, and then folded to shape. Thus, in
?at wall carrying an electron-permeable section.
Fig.v 9,'the grid is shown of cruciform shape hav
entrant portion ‘carrying a second electron‘
permeable section, said ?at wall being slightly.
and a wall opposite said fiat wall havinga re
ing angular indentations interconnected by ar
cuate‘portio'ns and produced from a single ribbon
2. A ‘cavity resonator as in'claim 1 wherein
which grid is set into the apertures of members
I28, I29 and I353. The spring tension of these 25 said conical wall forms a shallow frustum of a
cone having said electron-permeable section as
grids will hold them in place while the same are
being welded or otherwise secured permanently in
place, thereby facilitating the assembly of these
grids in the resonators. Although these grids are
shown of cruciform shape having four internal
53.» High frequency electron discharge tube'api
paratus comprising a tubular conducting mem-'
her, an electron-permeable grid fastened at each
projections, the same may be formed with a -
end of said member and 'across' the" opening
greaterv or even lesser number of internal projec
tions if desired,
that the same
thereof, a pair of flexible conducting walls cone
is formed from a‘continuous ribbon of metal that
is deformed to the desired shape. This grid struc
ture is claimed in our-parent Patent No. 2,311,658.
If desired, mica disks I32 may be interposed be
tween the emitter and the glass press carrying the
same and between the electron collector and the
end thereof but spaced from; said ends, andiree"
spective conducting means formingw respective
nected respectively to said member adjacent‘ each
cavity resonators with said flexible walls and ends
of said member, each of'said conducting means
comprising a cylindrical wall connected tonne of
said ?exible walls and a slightly dished end wall
press carrying such collector. Such a disk, shown 40 connected across the open end of said cylindrical
wall, said dished wall having ‘a centrally‘ located
in Figs. '7 and 9, not only prevents excessive heat
electron-permeable portion cooperating with a
from reaching the glass press but the same is so
corresponding grid, whereby passage of an elec
supported as to prevent shorting of leads by the
tron beam successively through one of said res
presence thereof. Thus, in Fig. 9, the disk I32
is shown carried by dead end leads or wires I33
which wires pass snugly through apertures in the
di'skl Apertures I34 in disk I32 accommodating
' onators',‘ said tubular member and other of said '
the live leads are made large as shown in Fig. 9
so as not to touch the live leads. Thus any vola
of - ‘hollow cavity resonators having respective
tile conducting material, produced as by heating
tubular member connecting said reentrant por
of the electron collector or emitter, upon condens- -
ing ‘on the mica disk I32 does not short the live
tions together, the'walls of said resonators oppo
site said tubular portions being substantially flat,
leads, which would otherwise happen were the
slightlydish'ed, and centrally apertured to per-E
apertures we the same size as these live leads.
‘ ’ A novel type of emitter heating coil or winding
is shown inFig. 10, and is claimed in our'parent -
Patent No.'2,31'1,658. This winding is formed by
?rst doubling the heater wire upon itself. thereby
forming two, strands of wires I35 and I35’ con
nected at one end by a loop I33. The looped wire
is then wound around two somewhat spaced ?xed
pins as shown in Fig. 11, thereby forming a series
‘of ?gure a’s (see also Fig. 10). To cover the wire
with a suitableinsulator, it is merely necessary to
separate the ends I35 and I35’, the'several ?gure
resonators may be e?ected.
' 4.? High frequency apparatus comprising a pairv
electron-permeable reentrant ‘ portions and a
mit passage of an electron beam successively
55 through one of said'resonators, said tubular meme
her, and the other of said resonators. ; ‘ ' '
- '5. High frequency electrorr'discharge tube ap- 1
paratus comprising an evacuated envelope, 'ahol
low tubular conducting member forming part of
said envelope, and means forming, a hollow cavity
resonator at each end of said member, a portion
of said member. forming a reentrant pole of each '
of said resonators, said means comprising a pairgof
?exible walls fastened to said tubular member but
spaced from the respective ends, thereof, a cone
completely coated with'insulating material, such
ducting cylindrical member conne‘ctedto each of
said ?exible walls, and an end wall ‘fastened to
each of said cylindrical walls, said ?exible, walls
as aluminum oxide.
and cylindrical‘: members also storming! partqof
B’s ‘separating readily; forming two'sections con
nected by loop I36 and enabling the wire’ to be
The two sections of the
‘heater‘coil are then again closed'as shown in Fig.
10' and then folded or turned upon themselves 'in
to a cylinder for sliding into‘the hollow interior
of the emitten'casing 'I39. The end I46 of the
emitter casing is coated with a suitable emitting
oxide. The ‘emitter heating coil, as thus pro‘
duced, not only is non-magnetic, since the two
6. High
. : "
i v
I‘ ap
paratus comprising an evacuated .~ envelope, 2'.
pair of hollow cavity resonators forming part of
‘said envelope and each having a'reentrant'por
tion 1 supported by: a,?eXib1él wall,; and >ias'tubu1ar.
conductin'gldrift tube member also forming part
‘off-said envelope and connecting‘ said‘ reentrant
said- ?rstfannularshell at one aperture thereof, a
annularlr‘s‘hell resonant "at said operating
ions ‘together, whereby anelectron b‘eam may
be passed successively through one of said resona
torssaid driftpt‘ubaand the other of said resona
“tors ‘and’ whereby ‘each of saidresonator's may be
‘deformed to ‘pe Init tuning thereof.
» i
‘ture thereof and "to said second shell ‘at the aper
ture thereof "to provide an airtight seal,’ whereby
'- 7. A ‘.vacuum tube comprising a ‘?rst annular
shell resonant at the operating frequency ‘of the
vtube and having ‘apertures, centrally on opposite
"sides thereof, a cathode ‘assembly, a?rst generally
tubular metal ‘memberin‘sulatingly ‘sealed to said
"cathode assembly and ‘sealed to said-?rst annular
‘the envelope ‘cream ‘tube comprises said annular
shells and said'?r's't ‘tubular, member and said sec
orid' tubular‘ member,
a further tubular member
shell atone aperture thereof, a ‘second annular
‘a second aperture'provided cen
itrally‘inisaid ‘second resonant ‘shell, and a further
second tubular member interconnecting said ‘?rst
“tubular me'in‘b'er, whereby energy remainingin
electrons provided by ‘said ‘cathode assembly may
15.11811 resonant/at said ‘operating frequency and
provided with‘an aperture‘centrally thereof, a
and second resonant shell sealed to the said ?rst
electrode mountedqbeyond theend of said further '
be "dissipated into ‘said electrode after passing
'thro'ug'rhqs‘aid vsecond resonant shell. , i
A vacuum tube comprisinga ?rst annular
shell‘re'jsonant at the‘op'erating frequency ‘of the
tube and having apertures‘centrally on opposite
second tubular member, a pair of electron velocity
control grids in said ?rst resonant shell mounted
on the ends of said ?rst tubular member and
second tubular member, respectively, and a Work
grid mounted on the
sides thereof, a cathode assembly, a ?rst generally
tubular metal member insulatingly sealed to said
cathode assembly and sealed to said ?rst annular
shell at one aperture thereof, a second annular
second tubular member interconnecting said ?rst
aperture provided centrally in said second reson
ant shell, 2. second work grid mounted in said sec
ond resonant shell on said further tubular mem
ber, and a further electrode mounted beyond the
end of said further tubular member, whereby
energy remaining in said electrons may be dissi
pated into said electrode after passing through
said second resonant shell.
and second resonant shells sealed to said ?rst shell
3O at the other aperture thereof and to said second
shell at the aperture thereof to provide an air
tight seal, whereby the envelope of said tube
comprises said annular shells, said cathode as
sembly, and said ?rst tubular member and said
member, a pair of electron velocity
second tubular member respectively, and a work
8. A vacuum tube comprising a ?rst annular
grid mounted on the end of said second tubular
shell resonant at the operating frequency of the
member within said second resonant shell.
tube and having apertures centrally on opposite
11. A vacuum tube comprising a ?rst annular
sides thereof, a cathode assembly, a ?rst generally
tubular metal member insulatingly connected to
said cathode assembly and sealed to said ?rst
sides thereof, a cathode assembly, a ?rst generally
annular shell at one aperture thereof, a second
7 tubular metal member insulatingly connected to
annular shell resonant at said operating fre
said cathode assembly and sealed to said ?rst an
quency and provided with an aperture centrally
thereof, a second tubular member interconnecting
said ?rst and second resonant shells sealed to the
said ?rst shell at the other aperture thereof and
to said second shell at the aperture thereof to
provide an airtight seal, whereby the envelope of
said tube comprises said annular shells, said
?rst tubular member and said second tubular
member, a pair of electron velocity control grids
in said ?rst resonant shell mounted on the ends of
said ?rst tubular member and second tubular
member respectively, and a work grid mounted
on the end of said second tubular member Within
said second resonant shell, a further tubular
member extending into a second aperture pro
vided centrally in said second resonant shell, a
second work grid mounted in said second reson
ant shell on said further tubular member, and a
further electrode mounted beyond the end of said
further tubular member, whereby energy re
maining in said electrons may be dissipated into
said electrode after passing through said second
?rst tubular member and said second tubular
member respectively, and a work grid mounted
on the end of said tubular member within said
second resonant shell.
12. A vacuum tube comprising a ?rst annular
shell resonant at the operating frequency of the
tube and having apertures centrally on opposite
sides thereof, a cathode assembly, a ?rst generally
tubular metal member insulatingly connected to
resonant shell.
said cathode assembly and sealed to said ?rst an
9.. A Vacuum tube comprising a ?rst annular 70 nular shell at one aperture thereof, a second an
nular shell resonant at said operating frequency
shell resonant at the operating frequency of the
and provided with an aperture centrally thereof,
tube and having apertures centrally on opposite
and a second tubular member interconnecting
sides thereof, a cathode assembly, a ?rst gener
said ?rst and second resonant shells and sealed
ally tubular metal member insulatingly con
nected to said cathode assembly and sealed to 75 to said ?rst shell at the other aperture thereof
and to said second shell at the aperture thereof
to provide an- airtight seal,‘ wherebythe-envelope
of ‘said tube comprises said annular shells, said
seal, whereby the envelope of said tube comprises
said annular shells and said tubular member; ; i
-_15.' Electron discharge apparatus comprising
13. High frequency apparatus comprising a
an evacuated envelope, a pair of getters within
cavity resonator having a substantially ?at wall
carrying an electron-permeable section, and a
wall opposite said ?at wall having a reentrant
portion carrying a second electron-permeable
section, said ?at wall being slightly conical, and
,a cathode ‘positioned in front of said conical wall.
_14. A vacuum tube comprising a ?rst annular
vacuum-tight shellresonant at the operating
frequency of said tube and having apertures cen
trallyv on opposite sides thereof, a cathode assem
bly opposite one aperture of said shell, 21. second
annular vacuum-tight shell resonant at said
operating frequency and provided with an aper
ture centrally thereof, and a tubular metal mem
said second-shell
at the aperturethereof to provide an air-tight
“first tubular member and said second tubular
1 other aperturefthereof and ‘to
said envelope, and means coupled to said getters
for heating them to substantially different tem
peratures for adsorption of different gases.
16. An electronicidevice' having leads therein
and two getter wires having one terminal of each
connected to the same one of said leads, the other
terminals of said wires being connected to‘ re
spectively different ones of saidleads.
ber ‘interconnecting said ?rst and second reson 20v
ant shells and sealed to said ?rst shell at the
_ 17., Apparatus as in claim 16, further including
means coupled tov said leads for heating said
wires to different temperatures for adsorption of
different gases.
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