Патент USA US2410076код для вставки
Oct. 29, 1946. . ¢_ |-|_ HUGHES . ` _ 2,410,074 APPARATUS FOR PYRQLYTIGALLY TREATING HYDRocARBoNs Filed Nov. 18, 1945 ' 4 Sheets-Sheet l M5775' GAS ` uw ?, 5111-4 BY a. @Säumn ATTORNEY » Oct. 29, 1946. . Q_ H_ HUGHES ì ‘ 2,410,074 APPARATUS FOR PYROLYTICALLY TREATING HYDROCARBONS Fíled‘NQV. 18, 1945 '4 SheètS-Sheet INVEN'ToR CHA fPL Es, HH uc; Hfs ` ' . ATTORNEY Oct. 29,- 1946. , C. H. HUGHES 2,410,074 .ÀPPARATUS’FOR PYROLYTICALLY TREATING HYDROCARBONS Filed NOV. 18, 1945 . 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 l BYG" @t ATTORNEY 2,410,074 Patented Oct. 29, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,410,074 APPARATUS FOR PYROLYTICALLY TREATING HYDROCARBONS Charles H. Hughes, Glen Ridge, N. J., assignor to Hughes By-Product Coke Oven Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application November 18, 1943, Serial No. 510,760 '7 Claims. (Cl. 19E-104) 2 1 It is an object of the present invention to pro vide a method for the pyrolytic conversion of hy drocarbons commercially and on an industrial scale with yields high enough to makev it econom ical to carry the process into practice on a com The present invention relates to a method of pyrolytically treating hydrocarbons to cause the conversion thereof, and, more particularly, to a method of pyrolytically treating in a broad crack ing and coking oven straight chain hydrocarbons, mercial scale. with resulting benefits to the public generally and to industry specifically. It is another object, of the invention to provide like paraffin hydrocarbons occurring in petroleum and the like, to convert them into aromatic hy drocarbons, such as benzol, toluol, Xylol, naph thalene,V anthracene, and the like, While evolving vapors containing straightl chain hydrocarbons a process for the cracking of straight chain hy drocarbons and their conversion into aromatic hydrocarbons with high enough yields to Warrant industrial operation. Furthermore, the invention contemplates the from a- fluid hydrocarbon mass and carbonizing the residue thereof into coke, and to an improved cracking and coking oven to carry the aforesaid methods into practice. Heretofore, various methods have been used in converting one hydrocarbon into another. Generally speaking, such conversions were con ducted ina variety of metal equipment, includ ing stills, cracking units, etc., etc. provision of a vapor cracking oven having a spe cial structure which is capable of heating a fluid hydrocarbon mass to evolve hydrocarbon vapors therefrom and to carbonize the residue into coke, thereby effecting the pyrolytic treatment of the In recent years, attempts have been made to conduct the 20 evolved vaporsy containing straight chain hydro carbons and their conversion into aromatic hy pyrolytic conversion of hydrocarbons in ovens, drocarbons, such as benzol, toluol, Xylol, naph such vas coking ovens oi’ the broad type. Various thalene and anthracene, and the like. _ diiiiculties were encountered and unsuccessful re Moreover, the invention likewise contemplates the provision of a cracking and broad coking oven in which the tar and carbon resulting from the pyrolytic treatment of hydrocarbons can be made into a high carbon coke having a true spe cific gravity of 2 plus and suitable for the manu facturing of carbon electrodes. suits Were obtained, including failures in certain instances. The most serious diñiculties were the choking-up of channels and conduits with carbon, soot, and the like, the production of lovv- yields of aromatic hydrocarbons, the poor coking of the residue of fluid hydrocarbon masses, and the 10W grade and bad quality of coke which was pro-> duced. In attempts at actual commercial opera tions of the pyrolytic conversion of hydrocarbons It is still a further object of the invention to provide a cracking and coking oven of novel and improved design providing a heating system for the distillation of heavy Ipetroleum and also a separate heating system within the same oven on a commercial scale, the results were so bad that the operations were given up as commercial ly unadvisable and were considered as industrial” 35 failures. Although various endeavors were made to overcome the foregoing difficulties, none, so far as I am aware, has been wholly satisfactory for commercial operation conducted on an industrial scale. ' f .40 The present invention involves the discovery that in cracking-hydrocarbon vapors evolved dur structure for the cracking of ' the oil vapors ing the coking of petroleum residues, fory instance, for the production of aromatic hydrocarbons, it` vapors in such a manner as to cause the oil va and the pyrolysis of parafñns for the production of aromatic oils and` other aromatic hydrocar bons. It is also an object of the invention to provide an improved broad cracking and coking oven hav ing the Walls of the vapor flues constructed with uneven surfaces to produce turbulence of the cil pors to contact the hot wall surfaces, whereby is necessary to control not only the direction ofi 4.5 eiîective pyrolytic treatment of hydrocarbons can be conducted. flow of the vapors and» the temperature of the 4 ItV is Within the contemplation of the inven cracking fluids, but also the space velocity'and the turbulence of the vapors. It has likewise been discovered that a cracking oven, having a special structure, must be provided in order to properly` » tion to provide a cracking and coking oven of novel and improved character providing an in creased and positive control of the flow and ve carry out the pyrolytic conversion of hydrocar bons while at the same time heating fluid hydro carbon masses tc evolve hydrocarbon vaporsL and to carbonize the 'residue into good coke having locity oi the oil vapors' through the vapor ?lues, an increased and positive control of the air to be preheated and of the Waste gas from the oven, and an arrangement of structural elements acceptable qualities and properties. 55 capable of >causing the air Which‘is' being heated 2,410,074 3 4 to ascend and of causing the waste gas which is in said vapor ilues for controlling the ilow of the vapors; Fig. 3 is a sectional View taken on the line 3-3 being cooled to descend, whereby uniformity of ñow and an effective change of temperature of the different streams are obtained. of Fig. 2 showing the series flue heating system The invention also provides a broad cracking and coking oven having a series o-f interdepend ent and interconnected heating ñues extending in a single continuous, serpentine character under located directly under the door of the oven; the entire sole of the oven to afford a continuous Fig. 4. is a sectional View taken on the line @-4 of Fig. 2 illustrating the longitudinal uneven walls forming the ilues through which the vapors flow and are heat treated and cracked; Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on the line 5-5 stream of the heating gases throughout the whole 10 of Fig. 2 and shows the upper transverse heating sole flue heating system and having a multi system located above the coking chamber and plicity of ,burners in the series fiues to furnish directly under the vapor iiues, shown in Fig. fi; a continuous flow of hot gases throughout where Fig. 6 is a plan section of the nues taken on by uniform heating conditions in all parts of 15 the line 6_5 of Fig. 2 directly below the regenera the oil charge are obtained. tor checker-brick to show the iiow of waste gas Another object of the invention is to provide and incoming air to and from the vertical re» an improved cracking and coking oven having a system of heating flues so designed as to con generators; vious to the infiltration of oil or tar, such as re upper part of the oven is a cracking chamber Fig. 7 is a perspective showing a line diagram duct the products of combustion to each succeed of the upper and lower heating systems, regener 20 ing flue _in series for the purpose of using said ators, gas piping, stacks and the Isley system for waste products to prevent high heats or hot reversing the air through the regenerators and spots in the vicinity of the fuel burners and to lower heating iiues and the travel of the exit lengthen the name by means of the increased waste gases through the Isley ejector to the at velocity necessary for proper heat transfer, the increased velocity being due to the increased 25 mosphere; and Fig. 8 is a sectional view -of the special L and volume of gases constantly circulating through orifice provided for the regulation of fuel gas. all heating flues. Broadly stated, the present invention contem A further object of the invention is to provide plates the pyrolytic conversion of hydrocarbons, a cracking and coking oven in which the direc such as the production of aromatic hydrocarbons 30 tion of ñow of the hot gases through the heating from hydrocarbon vapors evolved from the heat flue system can be reversed, thereby insuring' , ing of petroleum residues and the like. By con uniform heating over the entire floor of the oven. trolling the direction of flow of the vapors in the The invention likewise contemplates the pro oven and through the cracking chamber and the vision of an arrangement of gas burners in the control of temperatures in the cracking chamber new cracking and coking ovens in such positions 35 while at the same time controlling the space that the flames, which burn constantly and at velocity and turbulence of the vapors, relatively both ends of the oven at the same time, will high yields of aromatic hydrocarbons, such as change direction with the reversal of gases benzol, toluol, and Xylol, are accomplished. In through the heating ñues, moving back and forth 40 carrying the foregoing operation into practice, from one heating flue to another adjacent flue. large quantities of gases are produced from the Still further objects of the invention are the petroleum residue or the like, under treatment, provision of an independent upper `heating sys», as Well as tar and carbon, which are converted tem associated with the roof of the oven and into useful coke. All of the foregoing operations consisting of a multiplicity of separate heating 45 are conducted in a single structure having coop flues disposed horizontally, transverse to the erating elements which reduces the cost of man oven and oil vapor flues, for providing the con ufacture and eliminates the operating difficulties trolled heat required for pyrolytically treating of prior operations. Good results and high yields the hydrocarbons in the oil vapors flowing of aromatic hydrocarbons and electrode coke can through the super-imposed vapor flues; of a gas 50 be obtained from the processing of, for instance, or oil burner at the end of each separate ilue so a low grade A. P. I. cracked petroleum residue as to control the transfer of heat to the oil which is charged into the cracking oven at 700° vapors as required in various sections of the F. The single structure involves abroad crack vapor cracking flues; and of refractory mate ing and coking oven with a heating system adapt rials best suited for rapid heat transfer, such as 55 ed to operate with either rich fuel gas, such as silicon carbide, for the ñocr of the overland the coke oven gas, oil gas, or with liquid fuels, such ñoor of the oil vapor flues and other super-duty as fuel oils, tars, and the like, combined with a high temperature refractory materials imper heat regenerative system. Housed within the fractories made of diaspore, mullite, cyanite, or 60 provided with an independent heating system the like. . Other objects and advantages will become ap parent from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in 65 . Fig. 1 illustrates a vertical cross-sectional View of one oven showing the vertical regenerators, lower and upper heating systems, flues in which the oil vapors are cracked, the gas and air supply manifolds and piping to the upper transverse 70 which: heating system and the air and oil ports leading into the oven; Fig. 2 depicts a vertical longitudinal sectional which can be so controlled as to obtain the de sired temperature in the walls of the cracking oven. The entire brick work can be encased in a metal shell, such as a welded or riveted steel casing, whereby the interior of the oven can be put under pressure or under vacuum as desired. Generally speaking, the oven heating system preferably consists of an uneven number of sole nues, say three, ñve, seven, or nine intercon nected in series and arranged longitudinally of the oven to support and heat the floor of said oven. These heating flues are connected to damper controlled ports or openings, located at opposite ends of the series, with two sets of ver heating flues, vapor flues and regulating dampers 75 tical regenerators located below and parallel to view of one oven, regenerators, lower and upper »2,410,074 5 6 are similarly connected with ñue l and transverse ilue C»-2> and by-passages P-lf' to P-22 in-A elusive. Flues C+! and C--Z are preferably lo- y the» heating ilues and ovens.A The two setsï of vertical regeneratoîrs are alternately used- to sup ply pre-heated air to opposite ends of the series flue heating system and to receive the hot waste products of combustion. The regenerators, of which I prefer to employ three, are connected "in series in each’set, have spacious, chamber-like cated on the same horizontal level as the regen They are adapted to serve as' manifolds for'air to be pre heated in the regenerators or for waste gas to be . keratorsY and separate the tw'o sets. discharged to the stack through the Isley system. passages both above and belowr the che'ckerbrick, The alternate flow of air and waste gas and mushroom out before passing through and thus 10 >the circulation through the heating ñues, regen erators and said common transverse'r ilues are increasing the time of contact and affording giving4 the gases an opportunity to spread or y controlled by reversing and plate dempers of the more effective heat transfer. Ea'ch set of regen erators communicates with one or two ?lues which are located transversely of `the oven below the Isley system connected with flues C-2 and C-l, which are connected with heating flues l and 5, respectively, by passages P~-l2 and P-l leading to regenerators R-ll and R-l, respectively, vas will- be more fully explained hereinafter. heating ilues and preferably between the two sets of regenerators. Means associated with the transverse iiues are» provided outside the oven structure for the purpose of reversing the ilow Passages 13_2, PL-B, P-ill, and P-lä, P-VI'P, through the heating system in each oven'. An and P--2l, which lie above the checkerbricl: in upper transverse flue heating system in the oven 20 R--i, Rw?, Re~3, and R-'ll, R-ë, R-ä, respec tively (see Fig. 7 andv Fig. `2) are spacious and roof, is used not for heating the oven, but ‘for chamber-like and, when these regenerators are cracking and heat treating the vapors for theL being used for waste combustion products, they production of aromatics and for the conversion are adapted to give these Waste gases an oppor of hydrocarbons. f ' tunity to spread or mushroom out before passing For the purpose of giving those skilled in the ‘ downwardly through said regenerators. »Simi art a better understanding of the invention, a de larly, passages P-S, P-l, P-ll and _i3-«lt tailed description will be given in conjunction P-i t, P--`22, which lie below the checkerbricl: in with the drawings. ' . said respective regenerators, are also spacious Referring now more particularly to Figures l to 6, it is Vreadily observed that the cracking and 30 and chambenlike and are adapted to furnish an opportunity for air flowing to the regenerators colring oven embodying my invention is a domed to spread and mushroom out before its upward rectangular broad coking chamberv l-I-l, in which passage through said regenerators. the fluid hydrocarbon mass, such as oil residue, The terminal ñues, 5 and ihof the series hue tar or the like, is treated and is disti‘led. heating system are connected through P-l and superimposed upon the chamber are flues I-I-?l ’i3-l2, respectively, with-regenerators R-l and in which vapors from the mass of fluid hydro~ R-4. The openings or ports V-~i and V-2 from carbons, such as hot oil residue or tar, are treated. said fines, respectively, into said .passages are re The hot oil or hot tar is charged spectively controlled by dampers D-l and D,-l?, into the coking chamber H-~l, through charg ing hole ports H-2, in both sides of side walls of the oven. adapted to slide over said ports and to effect par tial or complete closure, thus providing regulation rThe oil vapors pass from the coking chamber H-l, 'through olf-take duct D, into the vapor heat treating> ?lues H-lL of the draft in each individual oven. ' ‘Fuel gas manifolds F-l and F-2 (see Fig. 2) run the entire length of one or more ovens on op and out of the oven structure through flue lil-5 to ley-product recovery apparatus; In cer instances, it may be desirable to take off the posite sides thereof and are adapted tosupply burners B-l, B--2, B-k-îl, and B-d of each oven with rich fuel gas under moderate constant uncracked vapors `through offftake flue H-ß, is provided with a damper D-S, similar pressure. Riser pipes G--l andCi-ä from the to' D-~5, which is shown in Fig. vl and is illus-» trated diagrammatically in Fig.' 7. The coking 50 mber l-l-l is adapted to be sealed against the admission of air by oven doors K--l, which ‘e provided at the pusher end and the discharge 'supply manifolds to the burners are provided, and a special L orifice are also furnished for the regulation of the fuel gas conducted there« through. This L, depicted in Fig. S, is equipped with a plug T--l and a removable orifice T-2, which is adapted to be replaced by other similar ` Beneath each colring chamber and running 55 members having larger or smaller orifices as re» end of the oven. ¿land 5 are preferably >arranged in horizontal quired. Valves ‘lí-3, V-éil, V-li and V-li (see 7 and 2'), located the riser pipes from the position and are preferably series-connected. manifolds to burners B-l , B-_2, B-3 and B-ll, parallel to the length thereof, heatingñues l, 2, The flues are separated from each other by 1on gitudinal partition walls alternately spaced from opposite ends of the ovens to form a turn between adjacent flues. The interconnected heating flues are provided at said turns with burning means, such as gas burners B~-~!. B-f, B-3 and B-eâ, which can be supplied with fuel, as will be de scribed hereinafter. f Below the heating ilues of each cracking» and coking oven are located two series-connected sets of regenerators R?-i, R-Z, Re?, and R-e?l, idf-5, R--6. The regenerators are huilt of stand ard checkerbrick or special checkerbrick> in a con ventional manner. Regenerators R-l, BMZ and R-3 are connected with flue 5 and transverse ñue C-L lay-passages P-l to PY-~-ll inclusive (see Fig. 7). Regenerators R415-, 1%;5, and R-lì respectivelyare adapted to shut olf the gas sup 60 ply entirely. l For certain conditions, an auxiliary fuel sup ply can be easily added by the use ofv pipe lines >L-I and L--2 (seeFigï), adapted for carrying fuel oil or tar, also run the length of the oven or 'ovens Von opposite sides thereof. They are con~ nected with burners B»-l, 3_2, B-3 and B-e through'valves V-`l, V-ß, V---9 and V--l@, re spectively, said valves being adapted to atomize the oil or tar. Air lines lr-S and L_-Ll running the length of the oven yin association with the pipe lines are also provided connect with valves V-l, V-B, VMS and V-l§, through air regulating valves V-~i_l, V--i2, V-ES and V-M, respectively, and are adapted to furnish air for said atomization. '2,410,074 7 8 The foregoing description of the lower half of the entire unit is used primarily for the distilla 'air-,and waste gas, are communicably connected with the Isley induced draft system; >dampers, ejectors and air fans being provided for coopera tion of oil or tar. The following description covers the upper part of the oven in which the oil or tar vapors are cracked` and where the 5 method of pyroiytically treating hydrocarbons for the production of aromatic oils takes place. The two oven sections form and are operated as one unit. The upper section of the oven structure em bodies a heating system and oil vapor cracking, heat-treating fiues, ` The heat treating flues H-íi (see Figs. 2, Äl, and ‘7) which may consist of any number of flues as tion with each other, as shown in Fig. 7. The circulation is as follows: Dampers D-l I in pipe L-5, D-I2 in pipe L-â, are open, damp ers D--IIL in pipe L-S, D-iû in pipe L-iû are closed, `as is damper D`-I3 in stack S-Z; damp ers D-ß in pipe L--9 and D-i) in s-tack S-i are 10 open. With the dampers in this position, air from blower BnFl flows through pipes L-5, L--iì through ejector E-Z into flue C-Z to flue P-ZZ through regenerators R-S, R-5, R-li and the interconnecting flues to oven heating flue I, the required lto handle the volume and velocity of the 115 waste gases pass out through valve V-i into flue oil vapors, are arranged in a horizontal position P-i, regenerators R-í, R~-«2, R-3 and the in and are separated from each other by longitudinal terconnecting ilues to ñue C-I . partition Walls W. Each wall has »a multiplicity of projections W-l. The purpose of îthe projec tions is to cause turbulence of the oil vapors, causing them to contact the hot wall surfaces. Each vapor flue H~-c is provided with regulat ing dampers D-3 and D-d (see Figs. l, 2, and 4) for the purpose of controlling the volume of gas The waste gas is drawn from the oven through ejector E-l by means of blower B-FZ, air enters pipes L--’l, L-9, then around ejector E-I to stack S-i, thence to atmosphere» The air swiftly passing around ejector E--i flows 4upward through stack S-I carrying the waste products to the atmosphere. The dampers are reversed from duct D to exit ñue H--5~ Beneath the vapor 25 by a conventional clock mechanism at fixed in tervals and the circulation of air then passes to flues H-4 (see Figs. 2, 5, and 7) and located transversely to ñues H--li are heating iiues 5. These heating flues 6 are single and separated by the oven through flue C-l, regenerators R-L R---2, Pif-3, and the interconnecting fiues to heat partition walls W-Z. ing nue 5. Y Each heating flue has a separate gas burner B-E supplied with fuel gas from gas manifold F-3 (see Figs. l and 5). The air for combustion is supplied from air manifold pipe F--S through air pipes F-l. The products of combustion from all of the heating ñues 6 discharge into ñue 'l (see Figs. l and 5) and to the stack through flue 8. When oil and tar vapors from the charge have The Waste gas passing downward through regenerators R---¿i, R-E, R-S and the interconnecting i‘lues to ejector E~-2 to atmos~ .phere via stack S-Z. The improved method embodying the present invention can be carried into practice in any oon-' vem'ent‘manner, but it is preferred to conduct the operations of the novel method in the cracking and `coking oven described hereinabove. The following is a brief description of the op eration of this invention when heat treating 8.5 all been evolved and there are no vapors to heat treatin fiues H-ß, then the carbonaceous residue 40 degree A. P. I. Dubbs cracked residuum oil for has been thoroughly coli-.ed and the coke is ready the production of electrode coke from the carbon content of the heavy oil While heat treating the to be calcined for the purpose of improving the true speciñc gravity of the coke Ito meet electrode oil vapors for the recovery of aromatic oils, such specifications, if so required. as benzol, toluol, and Xylol. Coke is calcined by means of forcing either hot 45 The heavy oil or oil tar is preferably first pre heated to about '700° F. At this temperature the or cold air in and- around the coke to produce oil is continuously sprayed into the coking cham limited combustion which burns all remaining oil, Vber and immediately covers the entire or sub volatile matter and loose carbon particles. The stantially _the entire hot oven ñoor or the carbon local combustion produces a hard dense cell wail ized residue thereon. The gasifying of the hot structure which increases the specific gravity of oil starts immediately (i. e. volatilizing hydrocar the coke from an average specific gravity of about 1.8 to about 2 plus. ‘ In my invention I have discovered that pre heated air reduces the time of calcining the coke. bon vapors, etc.), as well as the coking process ' (i. e; carbonizing the residue, etc.). An eight hour operating cycle divided as follows is pre I preferably preheat the air for calcining in ñues 55 ferred. v(The oven is said to be “on stream” whenV oil is being continuously charged into the H-ß (see Figs. l, 2,5 and '7). Damper D-5 located between vapor flues H-4 oven). Oven on stream, continuously about five and the by-p-roduct recovery equipment is closed. and one-half hours, coking time required includ Damper D-eß in air pipe 9 is opened. The lair ing the time on stream, about seven hours, cal to be preheated hows through pipe 9 into the 50 oining the coked or carbonized residue about distributing flue H-5y then through vapor flues thirty minutes, pushing coke from the oven and H-li, where it is preheated from heating ilues E. luting or sealing the oven doors and burning car~ The preheated air for combustion enters the bon, thirty minutes, thus completing the eight oven H-l through duct D. The small volume hour cycle. In practice operating three “eight of products of combustion resulting from the pre 65 hour cycles” each twenty-four hours can be ef heated air burning some of the coke, then enter fected. duct H-'l (see Figs. 2, 5, and 7) and pass to a 'The control of oven floor temperature is neces stack through open damper D-l. sary in order not to produce cracking of the oil During the coking of tar, some carbon is de vapors when oil, tar, or the like is continuously posited over certain areas of the oven ñoor; to 70 sprayed over the floor surface. After the calcin burn this carbon air as required is introduced ing of the coke in the oven before pushing the (see TE‘igs. l and 2) lthrough air ports H-3 from coke, the entire ñoor area is overheated due to pipe F-S into oven chamber CEI-I. the combustion of so-me of the coke. The pro« The transverse flues C-I and C-2, referred cedure preferably used ,is as follows: All gas to to in the foregoing as being used alternately for 75 the burners in the heating ?lues under the oven 2,410,0741 1”.'0 , . for the conversion of straight chain hydrocar bons to aromatics, such as benZol, toluol vand Xylol. For the purpose of evolving hydrocarbon vapors floor is'shut off and the floor temperature is re duced from an average temperature of about 2000° F. to about 1350° F. This quick drop in temperature is induced by the cold air forced into the oven through ports I~I-3, while scurñng the small amount- of surface floor carbon. As the oil covers the iioor, the gas is then turned on and the burners in the heating flues ignited from the stored heat in the brick walls. from oil residues, tar and the like in the oven, a . controlled amount of heat is supplied. by the heating flue system which preferably has an odd number of nues in series, such, for example, as ñve 'as shown in the drawing. 'I‘he velocity of flow in the fiues is preferably about thirty to As the coke increases in depth over the floor sur face, more gas is used at the burners to raise the about thirty-five feet per second. temperature as required for coking the incoming the heating system, each fiue has a cross-section of about one hundred square inches; whereas When a rich fuel, such as oil or coke oven gas, is burned in Y oil on stream which is being deposited over the ever increasing depth of coke until at the end oi' when a lean gas is used, each flue has a cross the oil input, when the coke bed is about 7 inches section of about one hundred and thirty square thick on an average, then the temperature in the inches. Each set of regenerators (Rf-I, Rf-2 heating flues is raised to an average temperature and R--S or R-IS, R-ä and lit-6) has a vvolume of about 2750° F., which is necessary to complete of about 600 cubic feet and is capable of han the coking of the oil carbon residue on the top dling about 800 cubic feet of outgoing hot waste surface of the coke. 20 gas or incoming air per minute vwhich means that The foregoing description covers the distilla the temperature Aof vthe Waste gas is preferably tion of the oil in the broad oven, whereas the reduced from about 2750° F. to about 550° F. and next one relating to an important feature of this the air is preheated from about 70° F. to about invention concerns the production of aromatic 1700° F. As is custo-mary, the valves of the Isley hydrocarbons from straight chain hydrocarbons system have to be reversed from time to time evolved in the oven. It has been found that the and, as a general rule, the interval of reversal exothermic reaction temperature relating to the f is preferably about 15 minutes. With the afore conversion of straight chain hydrocarbons to said arrangement, about 130 cubic feet of gas aromatic hydrocarbons will average about 1350° per minute (75,000 B. t. u.’s) or one half of one F., and also that Contact of the oil vapors with 30 gallon of oil (75,000 B. t. u.’s) are burned in the hot surfaces of the cracking and heat treating main heating flues under the oven whereas about chamber is required to bring about the reaction 50 cubic feet of gas (28,500 B. t. u.’s) are burned in the oil vapors, to wit: the conversion of in the auxiliary heating flues whereby electrode straight'chain hydrocarbons to aromatic hydro coke, gas, aromatics and other -by-products are produced in the novel cracking and coking oven. It is to be observed that the present invention contemplates not only a‘single oven but a plu rality of such ovens. Due to the unique combi carbons. To insure the contact of the hot hy` drocarbon vapors with hot cracking and heat treating surfaces, meansfor providing turbulence of the Yhot vapors has been provided. I have found that radiated heat of a temperature higher than 1350° F. will not release the aromatic light nation of structural elements in the present cracking and coking oven, it is possible to con struct and operate a single oven or two, three, four, five or more ovens in contradistinction to the large slot ovens which require the building of large numbers of ovens in order to make the structure practical, economical and commercial. When a plurality of ovens similar to the one illustrated in Fig. 1 are yto be constructed then the steel work and buck stays are removed to the end of the battery of ovens and the pipes sup piying air and fuel are incorporated directly in the brick work. Of course, the conventional aux oils from the oil vapors. In other words, I have discovered that it is necessary to cause the hy drocarbon vapors to contact the hot surfaces in order to effect ~the conversion of hydrocarbons and the formation of aro-matics from straightl chain hydrocarbons. The upper heating system as previously de scribed with superimposed vapor cracking nues has been especially incorporated in the oven structure as a means for producing vapor tur bulence and surface contact as required for theA production or aromatic oils. The present invention provides a novel crack ing and coking oven which in actual practice is preferably about forty feet long inside oven doors K-l, about nine feet in width throughout from iliaries are employed. As these are well known and understood by those skilled in the art, the conventional auxiliaries have not been illustrated and described. Reference to any appropriate publication will give the illustration of the aux iliaries and a description. Thus, for instance, reference may `be had to the following textbooks: the pusher-end door to the discharge-end doo-r, and about two and one half feet in height or depth. Associated with the roof of the oven is a cracking chamber constituted of a plurality (30 Coal Carbonization, flo-y Horace C. Porter (The Chemical Catalog Company, Inc., New York, of ñues, preferably eight, each of which has a New York) i free cross-sectional area of about one hundred square inches. Although the cracking lchamber H-d is heated in part from th-e heat coming from oven H--|, the independent heating iiues 6 pro vide additional heat required for cracking and heat treating the hydrocarbon vapors. Each separate heating íiue preferably has a cross-sec Coal Carbonization, by John Roberts (Pittmanl Si Sons, New York, New York) (i5 . International Handbook of the~ By-Product Coke Industry, by Dr. W. Gluud, translated by D. L. Jacobson (The> Chemical Catalog Company, New York, New York) ~ ‘ Petroleum Technology Scientific Principles, by tional area of about sixty to about one hundred Leo Gurwitsch and Harold Moore (D.~ Van square inches depending upon the volume of oil 70 Nostrand C‘o., Inc., New York, New York) vapor and has a control for the a-mount of fuel to be burned and thus the amount of heat evolved Furthermore, the present inventionv provides a and the temperature attained. »tis preferred vto control the heat and to maintain a wall tempera ture of about 1800° E’. in the cracking chamber method of p'yrolytically treating hydrocarbons to cause a conversion thereof and the provision of a broad cracking and coking oven in which the 2,410,074” aforesaid method can be carried into practica' including the cracking of straight chain hydro carbons like parafñns occurring in petroleum and the like, to lconvert them into aromatic hydro 12 rectangular type being broader than it is high and adapted to receive carbonaceous material capable of evolving upon being heated volatile vapors including straight chain hydrocarbon va pors and a residue capable of being carbonized and coked, and a main heating system located under substantially the entire sole of said oven from a fluid hydrocarbon mass and canbonizing to eiîect a substantially uniform heating of sub the residue thereof into coke. In the new crack stantially the entire sole whereby vapors are ing and coking oven the main heating flues are 10 evolved from carbonaceous material in said oven located under the sole or ñoor of the oven which and some heat is supplied to said cracking cham provides the heat for evolving the vapors from ber, for pyrolytically treating carbonaceous ma the fluid hydrocarbon mass in the oven, for the terial including fluid hydrocarbon masses such coking of the residue of said mass, and for sup as petroleum, heavy oil, oil residue, tar, and the plying a part of vthe heat for the cracking .cham 15 like to evolve vapors containing straight chain -ber superimposed above and associated with the hydrocarbons such as paraffin hydrocarbons and roof of the oven, Whereas the auxiliary heat nues then cracking said straight chain hydrocarbons are provided directly under the cracking chamber and converting them into aromatic hydrocar for the purpose of controlling the heat treatment of the hydrocarbon vapors coming from the oven 20 bons such as benzol, toluol and xylol while car bonizing the residue into good coke having ac and passing through the channels or flues of the ceptable qualities and properties, the improve cracking chamber, whereby the hydrocarbons are ment which comprises a refractory cracking converted, particularly the straight chain or par chamber superimposed above and associated with afiin hydrocarbons, into aromatic hydrocarbons. The theory underlying the pyrolysis of hydro 25 said oven for cracking and heat treating said hy drocarbon vapors to effect pyrolysis therein and carbons is not completely understood at the pres conversion of straight chain hydrocarbons into ent time and the mechanism of the chemical re aromatic hydrocarbons, said cracking chamber actions involved is very complex. In the con being divided into a plurality of longitudinally version of hydrocarbons, a variety of reactions extending Zones by means of partitions extending occurs including decomposition, polymerization, ` longitudinally thereof, each of said partitions and side reactions. The aforesaid reactions in clude those of the endothermic type as well as ' having a multiplicity of projections for producing those of the exothermic type. Generally speak turbulence in said hydrocarbon vapors, means ing, the decomposition of hydrocarbons belongs connecting said coking oven with said cracking carbons, such as benzol, toluol, xylol, naphtha lene, anthracene, and the like, while evolving vapors containing straight chain hydrocarbons to the endothermic type, whereas those relating to polymerization belong to the exothermic type. . chamber to conduct the volatile vapors including In the conversion of straight chain hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons it appears that the first reactions are of the decomposition variety and are subsequently followed by those of a polymer izing variety which may also be accompanied with various side reactions. Although many fac top of said oven and the bottom of said cracking chamber for supplying the rest of the heat re tors are involved, it appears that the more im portant are temperature, time or space velocity, turbulence of the vapors, pressure, concentration, contacting surfaces and catalysts. Under cer tainconditions, such products as butadiene may be formed. By controlling the conditions in the cracking and heat treating chamber a variety of products can be produced. It is understood, however, that the present invention is not to be restricted to and dependent upon any theory in cluding the foregoing. Although the present invention has been dis closed in connection with a preferred embodiment thereof, variations and modiñcations mayV be re sorted to by those skilled in the art without de parting from the true spirit and scope of the invention as disclosed in the foregoing specifica straight chain hydrocarbon vapors evolved in said coking oven to said cracking chamber, and an auxiliary heating system interposed between the quired in said chamber, said auxiliary heating system having independent control whereby the temperature in the cracking chamber may be independently controlled relative to that of the coking oven and desired aromatic temperatures may be maintained within said cracking chamber to effect the desired pyrolysis of vapors therein including the conversion of straight chain hy 50 drocarbon vapors into aromatic hydrocarbon va pors. 2. In a refractory cracking and coking oven of the broad rectangular sole-fired type having a broad refractory coking oven of the long rectan gular type being broader than it is high and adapted to receive carbonaceous material includ ing fluid hydrocarbon masses such as petroleum, heavy oil, cil residues, tar and the like capable of evolving volatile vapors including straight chain tion and defined by the appended claims. Thus, 60 hydrocarbons upon being heated, a door provided at each end of the oven for sealing the same for instance, the present method and coking and against the admission of air, and a main heating cracking oven can be used for coking and d_is tilling coal tar and coal tar pitches, for the re system located underneath the sole of said oven for providing suñicient heat to evolve said vapors covery of a variety of compounds including .creo sote and tar acids. The novel method may like 65 from the said carbonaceous material and to coke the residue thereof and for providing substan Wise be used for the treatment of peat for the tially uniform heat throughout the sole of said recovery of volatile products including volatile oven without cracking straight chain hydrocar oils. Moreover the novel process and oven can bons therein and without overcoking residue in be used for heating of oil shales for the recovery of various icy-products including oil and fractions 70 one part and undercoking residue in another part of the oven, for pyrolyticaly treating carbona thereof. ceous material including nuid hydrocarbon I claim: masses such as petroleum, heavy oil, oil residue, l, In a refractory cracking and coking oven of tar, and the like to evolve vapors containing the broad rectangular sole-fired type having a straight chain hydrocarbons such as parafiin hy sealable broad refractory coking oven of a long 2,410,074 Y 14 drocarbons and then cracking said straight chain , 2.. hydrocarbons and converting them into aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzol, toluol and xylol while carboniaing the residue into’good coke hav ing acceptablequalities and properties, the im provement which comprises a refractory crack ing chamber superimposed above and V_associated with the roof of said coking oven, said cracking chamber beiner divided into a plurality of longi tudinally extending zones by means of partitions extending longitudinally thereof, each of said partitions having a multiplicity of projections for producing turbulence in said hydrocarbon vapors, and said partitions being in heat conducting rela tionship with the heated bottom of the cracking chamber, whereby heat is transmitted to the cracking zones by the walls thereof as well as by the bottom thereof, a flue connecting said oven with said cracking chamber for conducting va pors >from said oven toisaid chamber, and an ture in the cracking chamber may be independ ently controlled relative to >that of the coking oven and desired aromatic cracking tempera tures may be maintained Within said cracking chamber to effect the desired pyrolysis of vapors » therein including the conversion of straight chain hydrocarbon vapors into aromatic hydrocarbon vapors, and independent burners disposed in the ' flues' or the auxiliary heating system whereby the temperature' in the cracking chamber> may be independently controlled relative to that of the coke oven.> 4. In a refractory cracking and coking oven of the broad rectangular sole-fired type having a scalable broad refractory coking‘oven of a long rectangular type being broader than it is high and adapted to receive» carbonaceous material capable of evolving upon being heated volatile vapors including straight ‘chain hydrocarbon vapors and a residue capable of being carbonized auxiliary lheating system located underneath said and coked, and a main heating system located cracking chamber and above the roof of said Arudder substantially the entire sole of said oven to effect a substantially uniform heating of sub stantially the entire sole whereby vapors are evolved from carbonaceous material in said oven and some heat is supplied to said cracking cham ber forpyrolytically treating carbonaceous ma tcrial including kfluid hydrocarbon masses such coking oven for supplying a desired and con trolled amount of heat to establish predeter mined thermal conditions Within said cracking chamber> to cause the conversion of straight chain hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons in cluding benzol, toluol, and xylol whereby the tern perature in theV cracking chamber may be in as petroleum, heavy oil, oil residue, tar, and the dependently controlled relativev to that of the 30 like t0 evolve vapors containing straight chainy coking oven.v ' ‘ hydrocarbons such as parafñn hydrocarbons and 3. In a refractory cracking and coking oven of the broad rectangular sole-fired type having a scalable broad refractory coking oven of a long rectangular type being broader than it is high 35 then cracking said straight chain hydrocarbons and converting them into aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzol, toluol and Xylol while carbonizing the residue into >good coke having acceptable and adapted to >receive carbonaceous material capable of evolving upon being heated volatile vapors including straight chain hydrocarbon qualities and properties, the improvement which ' comprises a refractory cracking chamber super imposed above and associated with said oven for cracking and heat treating said hydrocarbon bonized and-coked, anda main heating system 40 vapors to effect pyrolysis therein and conversion located under substantially the entire sole of said of straight chain hydrocarbons into aromatic oven to effect a substantially uniform heating- of vided hydrocarbons, into a plurality said cracking of vaporchamber cracking being and heat substantially the entire sole whereby vapors are evolved from carbonaceous material in said oven treating flues by meansvof partitions capable of and some heat is supplied to said'cracking cham 45 producing turbulence in said hydrocarbon vapors, ber, for pyrolytically treating carbonaceous ma means` connecting >said coking oven with said terial including- fluid hydrocarbon masses ysuch , cracking chamber to conduct the volatile vapors including straight chain hydrocarbon vapors as petroleum, heavy oil, oil residue, -tar, and the like to evolve vapors containing straight chain evolved` in said coking oven to said cracking hydrocarbons such as parañin hydrocarbons and 50 chamber, and an auxiliary heating system inter then' cracking said straight chain hydrocarbons posed between thetop of 'said oven and the bot and converting them into yaromatic hydrocarbons tom of said cracking chamber forA supplying the' such as benzol, toluol and xylol While carbcnizing rest >of the .heat'required in said chamber,v said’ the residue into good coke having acceptable auxiliary `heating, system having independent qualities and propertiesthe improvement which 55 control whereby the temperature in the cracking comprises a refractory cracking chamber super chamber may be independently controlled rela-1; imposed above and associated with said oven for tive to that of Vthe coking oven and- desired cracking and heat treating said `hydrocarbon aromatic cracking temperatures may7 be main vapors to eilect pyrolysis therein and conversio-n tained' within said cracking chamber to effect of straight chain hydrocarbons into aromatic hy 60 the desired' pyrolysis of vapors therein including drocarbons, said cracldng chamber being divided the conversion of straight chain hydrocarbon into a plurality 0f` longitudinally extending Zones vapors into aromatic hydrocarbon vapors. ` by means ci“ partitions extending longitudinally 5. In a refractory cracking and coking oven of thereof, eachof said partitions having a multi the-broad rectangular sole-ñred type having a plicity of projections for producing turbulence 65 broad refractory coking oven of the long rec in said hydrocarbon vapors, means connecting tangular type being broader than, it is high and said coking oven with said cracking chamber to adapted to receive carbonacecus material includ conduct the volatile vapors including straight ing iiuid hydrocarbon masses such as petroleum, ~ chain hydrocarbon vapors evolved-in said'coking heavy oil, oil residues, tar and‘the'like capable oven to said cracking chamber, and an auxiliary 70 of evolving volatile vapors including' straight heating system interposed between the top> of said chain'hydrocarbons upon being heated, a door oven and the bottom of said cracking chamber provided at- each endof the oven forsealing the _for supplying the rest of the heat required same against the admission of air. and amain said chamber, said auxiliaryheating system hav heating system located underneath the sole of ing independent control whereby the tempera-ï saidbven for providing sufñci‘ent heat tov evolve vapors and a residue lcapable of f being~ car 16?k said vapors from the said carbonaceous material and to coke the residue thereof and for providing substantially uniform heat throughout the sole of said oven without cracking straight chain hy drocarbons therein and Without overcoking resi due in one part and undercoking residue in an other part oi the oven and for pyrolytically treat ing carbonaceous material including fluid hy drocarbon masses such as petroleum, heavy oil, oil residue, tar, and the liketo evolve vapors con taining straight chain hydrocarbons such as par afñn hydrocarbons and then cracking said straight chain hydrocarbons and converting them into aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzol, toluol and Xylol while carbonizing the residue into good coke having acceptable qualities and properties, posed above and associated with said oven for cracking and heat treating said hydrocarbon va pors to efîectpyrolysis therein and conversion of _ straight chain hydrocarbons into aromatic hy drocarbons, said cracking chamber being divided into a plurality oí vapor cracking and heat treat ing ?lues by means of partitions capable of pro ducing turbulence in said hydrocarbon vapors, means connecting said ccking oven with said cracking chamber to conduct the volatile vapors including straight chain hydrocarbon vapors evolved in said coking oven to said cracking chamber, an auxiliary heating system interposed between the top of said oven and the bottom of f said cracking chamber for supplying the rest of the heat required in said chamber, said auxiliary heating system having independent control the improvement which -comprises a refractory whereby the temperature in the cracking cham cracking chamber superimposed above and as ber may be independently controlled relative to sociated with the roof of said coking oven, means connecting said coking oven> with said cracking 20 that of the coking oven and desired aromatic cracking temperatures may be maintained within chamber for conducting vapors from said oven said cracking chamber to eiïect the desired DY to said chamber, said cracking chamber contain rolysis of vapors therein including the conver ing at least one vapor cracking and heat treat sion of straight chain hydrocarbon vapors into ing iiue made by means of partitions in heat conducting relationship with the heated bottom 25 aromatic hydrocarbon vapors, and independent burners disposed in the nues of lthe auxiliary of the cracking chamber whereby heat is trans heating system whereby the _temperature in the mitted to the cracking Íiue by the walls thereof cracking chamber may be independently con as Well as by the bottom thereof, and an auxil trolled relative to that of the coke oven. iary heating system located underneath said 7. In a refractory cracking and coking oven of cracking chamber and above the roof of said 30 the broad rectangular sole-ñred type having a coking -oven for supplying a desired and con sealabie broad. refractory coking oven of a loner trolled amount of heat to establish predetermined rectangular type being broader than it is high thermal conditions within said cracking cham and adapted to receive carbonaceous material ber to cause the conversion of straight chain hy drocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons including benZol, toluol, and xylol whereby the tempera ture in the cracking chamber may be independ ently controlled relative to that of the coking capable of evolving upon being heated volatile vapors including straight chain hydrocarbon va pors and a residue capable of being carbonized and ccked, and a main heating system located under the soie of said oven for providing suffi . 6. ïn a refractory‘cracking and coking oven of 40 cient heat to evolve said vapors from said carbo lnaceous material in said o-ven and to coke the the broad rectangular sole-iired type having a residue thereof and i'or‘ providing substantially scalable broad refractory coking oven of a long uni-form heat throughout the sole ofA said oven rectangular type being broader than it is high oven. without cracking and without overcoking residue and adapted to receive carbonaceous material capable of evolving upon being heated volatile 45 in one part and undercoking residue in another part of the oven and for pyrolytically treating vapors including straight chainv hydrocarbon va carbonaceous material including fluid hydrocar pors and a residue capable of being carbonized bon masses such as petroleum, heavy oil, oil resi and coked, and a main heating system located due, tar», and the like to evolve vapors containing under the sole of said oven for providing sufíi cient heat to evolve said vapors-from said car to straight chain hydrocarbons therein such as par añin hydrocarbons and then cracking said bonaceous material in said oven and to coke the straight chain hydrocarbons and converting them residue thereof and for providing substantially into aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzol, tolu uniform heat throughout the sole of said oven ol and Xylol while carbonizing the residue into without »cracking’and without overcoking residue good coke having acceptable qualities and prop in one part and undercoking residue in another erties, a chimney system for conducting hot waste part of the oven and for pyrolytically treating products of combustion from said main heating carbonaceous material including fluid hydrocar system to the atmosphere, and a heat regenera bon masses such as petroleum, heavy cil, oil tive system interposed between said main heat residue, tar, and the like to evolve vapors con taining straight chain hydrocarbons therein such 60 ing system and said chimney system for exchang ing heat from the hot waste products of combus as paraiiin hydrocarbons and then cracking said tion coming from said heating system to preheat straight chain hydrocarbons and converting them incoming air and/or gas going to said heating into aromatic hydrocarbons such as benZol, system, the improvement which comprises a re toluol and Xylol while carbonizing theresidue into good coke having acceptable qualities and 65 fractory cracking chamber superimposed above and associated with said oven for cracking and properties, a chimneysystem for conductinghot heat treating said hydrocarbon vapors to effect waste products of combustion from said/main pyroylsis therein and conversion of straight chain heating system to the atmospheregand a heat‘ hydrocarbons into aromatic hydrocarbons, said exchange system interposed between said main heating system and said chimney system for ex 70 cracking chamber being divided into a plurality of vapor cracking and heat treating ñues by changing heat from the hot waste products of means of partitions' capable of producing turbu combustion coming from said heating system to lence in said hydrocarbon vapors and extending ` preheat incoming air -and/or gas going to said substantially from one end of said oven to sub heating system, the improvement which com prises a refractory cracking chamber superim.. 75 stantially the other end, means connecting said 2,410,074 17 18 coking oven With said cracking chamber to con duct the volatile vapors including straight chain hydrocarbon vapors evolved in said coking oven to said cracking chamber, an auxiliaryrheating system interposed between the top of said oven and the bottom of said cracking chamber for and desired aromatic cracking temperatures may be maintained Within said cracking chamber to eiîect the desired pyrclysis of vapors therein in cluding the conversion of straight chain hydro carbon vapors into aromatic hydrocarbon vapors, a multiplicity of projections in said flues for pro supplying the rest of the heat required in said ducing turbulence in said hydrocarbon vapors, chamber, said auxiliary heating system compris and independent burners disposed in the flues of ing a plurality of ñues extending underneath sub the auxiliary heating system whereby the tem stantially the entire cracking chamber and hav 10 perature in the cracking chamber may be inde ing independent control whereby the temperature pendently controlled relative to that of the coke in the cracking chamber may be independently oven. controlled relative to that of the coking oven CHARLES H. HUGHES.