Патент USA US2410086код для вставки
Oct. 29, 1946. H. L. LAMBERT 2,410,085 GÍIÍRCUIÄl CONTROLLER Filed Jane 26, 1945- 2 \sneets-sheet 1 ‘ ///’ A5 4844 50 *_ 777,4; ATTORNEYS Oct. 29, 1946. ' H. _|_. LAMBERT ~. ‘ - 2,410,085 CIRCUIT ` CONTROLLER Filed June 26, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 52 y, „14M @mi @@m@ ATTORNEYS 2,410,085 Patented Oct. 29, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,410,085 CIRCUIT CONTROLLER Harry L. Lambert, Enfield, N. Y., assignor, byl mesne assignments, to Walter J. Pickering, New York, N. Y. Application .lune 26, 1943, Serial No. 492,395 13 Claims. (Cl. 200-80) 2 1 ments oi the invention, and the novel features This invention relates to circuit controllers, will be particularly pointed out hereinafter in and particularly to those which are responsive connection with the appended claims. to centrifugal forces for their operation. In the accompanying drawings: In my prior Patents No. 2,301,217, issued Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a circuit controller November l0, A1942, and No. 2,333,533, issued Ul constructed in accordance with this invention November 2, 1943, I have disclosed several forms of a mercury tube switch which may be employed to control a circuit selectively in accordance with centrifugal forces acting upon a globule or small body of mercury or other conducting liquid con tained within a closed chamber. In all of saidv prior devices the circuit controlling action can only be adjusted by shifting the tube switch bodily to dilïerent distances from the axis about which it is bodily rotated Vin use. An object lof the invention is to improve the adjustment of mercury tube switches of the type that are responsive to centrifugal forces so as to and illustrating one embodiment thereof, a. por tion of the mechanism being broken away to snow interior parts; Fig. 2 Vis a transverse, sectional elevation of the same, the section being taken approximately along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a longitudinal, sectional elevation through a mercury tube switch forming part of this controller, and of the type shown in Figs. 1 and 2; Fig. 4 ,isl a longitudinal, sectional elevation through another type of mercury tube switch that may be employed in the controller of Figs. 1 and 2. causethem to operate at different speeds. Fig. 5 is a transverse, sectional elevation Another object of this invention is to provide, 20 through the device of Fig. f1; an improved centriíugally operated circuit con Fig. 6 is a longitudinal, sectional elevation of troller utilizing _a mercury tube switch, with which a normally open circuit type of >mercury tube any adjustment to operate at different speeds switch >which may be also employed in the con may be made in a simple manner, and with con siderable accuracy. troller of Figs.> 1 and 2; Another object of the invention is to provide an improved speed control for an electric motor, with which the maximum allowed speed for the Fig. 8 is a longitudinal, sectional> elevation of still another type of mercury tube switch that motor may be varied within substantial limits by maybe employed in thecircuit controller of Figs. simple adjustments. Another object of the invention is to provide an improved, centriiugally operated circuit con 1 and 2; Fig. 9 is an end elevation of thel same; Fig. 10 is a vschematic wiring diagram show troller havingsimple and novel means for vary ing a motor in series with and controlled by a ing the speed of rotation at which it will open orclose a circuit, which may be easily andv quickly adjusted to vary the speed at which it becomes effective, and which will be relatively simple, compact, dependable, durable and inex circuit controller constructed in accordance with this invention and having three possible selec tions of maximum speeds; will be relatively simple >and inexpensive. Another object of the invention is to provide an improved, centriiugally operated, mercury tube switch which may. by its mounting with possible selective speeds. , In the embodiment oi“v the invention illustrated ~in Figs. 1 to 3, the controller is rotated byÀa shaft respect to `the axis of rotation, be caused to op tatable element extending loosely through a block erate at different yspeeds of such rotation. Other objects and, advantages will be apparent from rthe followingV description of some _embodi 2 of suitable insulating material. vA plate 3 of insulating material is provided with a metallic sleeve having 4a collar 4 which telescopes over Fig. 7 is an end elevation of the same; Fig. 11 is a schematic diagram showing one pos sible .circuit in which a small controller of the type shown in Figs. 1 to 4, 8 and 9 may be ein pensive. Another object of the invention is to provide 40 ployecl to control the speed of operation of a mo torwith quick change between two possible but an improved circuit controller which may be variable maximums; utilized to control a circuit; `at any of a plurality Fig. 12 is a similar diagram illustrating how a of selected speeds, with which the device may be normally open circuit switch of the type shown made responsive to one speed or another by sim ple manipulations, with which the change in 45 in Figs. 6 and 7 may be employed in the control~ 1er mechanism of Figs. 1 and 2 to control the selected speed limits may be made without stop speed of> operation of a motor at either of two ping the operation of the controller, and which - t, which may be a moto-r shaft or any other ro 3 4 and is secured upon the end of the shaft I in any suitable manner, such as by a set screw 5 passing through the collar 4 and engaging the shaft I. The collar 4 spaces the plate 3 and the block 2, and upon the race of the plate 3 towards the in diameter than the chamber 20. This head 22 is eccentric to the wall of the chamber 2D, as clearly shown in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3 the axis oi' head 22 is shown by the line 22a, and the axis oi chamber 29 is shown by the line 29a. The portion block 2 are a. plurality of concentric collector rings 6, -I and 8 which may be countersunk to of the conductor head 22 within the chamber 2f! and the portion passing through plate i9 are also made of pure iron or any alloy or conducting some extent into the face of the plate 3. These rings are secured to the plate for rotation there material not wet by mercury and having approxi with in any suitable manner, such as by studs 9 10 mately the saine coeiiicient of expansion as the passing through the plate 3 and the collector glass of plate I9. The conductor 2i entends some rings. The studs 9 have shouldered, reduced ends distance beyond the plate I9 and terminates in which pass through apertures in the collector a head 23. Surrounding and telescoping over the rings, with the free end beyond the ring upset, periphery of the plate I9 is a metal sleeve or Ier and the other ends of the studs 9 are also shoul 15 rule 24 which may be electrically connected to dered and reduced and have riveted thereon the casing Il in any suitable manner, such as by spring contact, metal arms I0. The collector solder or a small piece of welding 25. A disk 28 rings on one face of the plate 3 and the contact closes the outer end of this sleeve or ferrule arms I0 on the other face of the plate 3 prevent 24 and is confined therein by the ilange of the endwise movement of the studs 9 in the plates 3 20 head 23 of the conductor. The chamber within and definitely anchor the collector rings 6 and l the ferrule 24 is iilled with a suitable insulating to the plate 3. material 27, as usual in electric filament lamp A pair of spring clamp arms Il and I2 are bases. disposed face to face, but spaced with relation to Within the chamber 20 is disposed a globule or one another, with their corresponding ends par 25 small body 29 of liquid mercury which, when the allel and connected by bolts I3. Between their switch is idle and supported in the position ends, these arms II and I2 are made oppositely shown in Fig. 3, will rest upon a side wall of concave at corresponding zones oi their adjacent the chamber 20 and touch the head 22. The faces so as to form between them a socket which globule or body of mercury 28 is of such size receives the base I4 or body of a mercury tube 30 that it normally assumes a somewhat `ball~like switch. In this particular example, there are form in which a substantial portion thereof is two of such sockets, one formed adjacent each held away from the wall against which it rests, end of the unit formed of the pair of arms II_ or against which it is conlined, by its surface and I2, and each of which sockets mounts a mer tension acting in opposition to the forces of grav cury tube switch. These switches may also, 35 ity upon the mercury. for convenience, be distinguished from each other It will be noted from Fig. 3 that the head 22 by the letters A and B. By tightening the bolts is much nearer one zone in the periphery of the I3, the arms II and I2 can be brought together side wall oi" the chamber Eil than it is at the so as to frictionally and yieldingly clamp between directly opposite side, because the head ~22 is them the mercury tube switches A and B. By eccentric to the chamber 2D. The mercuiy 28 loosening the bolts I3, the switches A and B may is normally suiiicient in depth to touch the head be individually rotated about their own axes in 22 when in the widest portion in the space be their sockets formed between the arms II and tween the head 22 and the wall of the chamber I2, and then clamped4 in different rotative posi 2B, as shown in Fig. 3. tions by retightening of the bolts I3. The cen When a switch of the type shown in Fig. 3 is tral portions of the arms II and I2 are provided mounted between the arms II and I2` as shown with laterally extending lugs or flanges I5 which in Figs. l and 2, the arms I I and I2 will grip and lie ñat against the adjacent face of the plate 3, and the screws I6 pass through these flanges or lugs I5 and into studs IlJa passing through the plate 3 and anchored to the central collector ring 8. The Iianges or arms I5 serve in place of the contact arms I0 to prevent endwise movement of the studs I0a. The switches A and B may be similar in con struction, and in the particular example shown, each of these switches is provided with a gener ally spherical shell I'I, see Fig. 3, which has an opening in one side and a short, outwardly ex clamp the sleeve or ferrule 24, which is electrically connected to the casing I`I. When the switch is so mounted between the arms l I and I2, the head 23 on the outer end of the conductor 2| will abut against one of the contact arms I0 and provide an electrical connection between the Contact head 22 within the chamber 20 and a collector ring on the plate 3, In the examples shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the head 23 of the conductor` 2l of the switch A will engage with the arm I!) which is connected through a stud 9 to the collecter ring l, and the conductor head 23 of the switch B will tending ñange I8 surrounding such opening. 60 engage the contact arm Ill that is connected This casing I ‘I is made of conducting material through a stud 9 through the collector ring 5. not Wet by mercury, such as a shell made of pure The sleeves or ferrules I4 of both switches A and iron, cr of selected alloys. A plate I9 of glass B will be connected through the arms I I and I2, having a coefficient of expansion approximately screw IB and studs Illa tothe collector ring 8. equal to that of the metal of the casing I'I is 65 A plurality of brushes 23, 3G and 3I are mount placed across the opening of the casing I'I and ed in sockets in the block 2 and yieldingly urged fused to the flange I8 so as to close the casing outwardly by individual springs 32, Suitable cir I‘I. By closing this casing I1 with this glass clo cuit connection are made through the brushes sure plate I9, it is possible to exhaust the chamber 29, 30 and 3|, so that the wire connected to the 20 within the casing I1 of air and replace it with 70 brush 29 will be connected through that brush an inert gas, as usual in mercury tube switches. to one of the collecting rings. The wire connected A conductor 2| extends through the plate I9 t-o the brush 3U will be connected through that of glass into the chamber 2U, and ‘within the brush to another collecting ring, and the wire chamber 20 it terminates in an exposed Contact connected through the brush 3l will be connected head 22 which is generally spherical, but smaller 75 therethrough to another collecting ring. lAny de '2,410,085 `6 È siredi-number of mercury -tube switches may be similarly mounted on the plate 3, ‘with one ter vswitch B .and to »the motor M; The motor willV thenv operate and lrotate the plate 3 with the minal of each connected toa common» collector ring, --and the other ‘terminal of each «connected to an individual collector ring, asin the circuit switches A,`B and ’C thereon.. Whenthe cen trifugal ~forces acting on the mercury in the Yswitch -B Aare suiiicient to ’fñatten or distortA the .globule `of mercury kthereinagainst its surface >tension -until `vit withdraws from the >head v.22, .this will .open the circuit to the motor, whereupon ,the diagram of Fig. l0.` I ~ ` In the diagramof Fig; lûfthreerof» such-‘switches A, B and Care similarly clamped or »mounted‘in sockets on the >plate y3, and each of these switches lspeed of the motor will fall. Just zas rsoon as lhas’a terminal thereof connected to the common '10 fthe speed `fallsslightly, the `:surface tension of the globule of mercury .in theswitch .B will partially collector'ring which is `connected through a brush ¿restore to the-globule its former `form .cr .shape to a Acircuit wire 33 of a circuit to becontrolled. and reestablish contact with the head 22 in .the The'other terminal of the switch A is `connected .switch.B, thus recompleting the circuit through through a brush toa circuit Wire 34 which leads to a switch contact 35. The other .terminalof 15 the motor M. The circuit of the motor M .-willbe automatically opened at theswitch B as soon :as >the switch B is connected by a wire 35 to a switch Vcontact 31, and the other »terminal of the switch «C isconnected by a lwire 38 to a switchtcontact 39. These’contacts 35, »31 and 39 are arranged in a 'suitable »sequence so as to be engaged selectively the 'speed reaches ‘a selected speed, and will Abe reclosed as soon asthe speed fallsslightly. The motor willthus be automatically vgoverned able about a pivot 4I and provided with an operat ing handle42. The switch arm 40 is connected by to run at a speed l»not exceeding this medium speed for which the switch B is set. While Vthis u is happening the mercury globules in the; other switches A and C ywill similarly be ñattened _by and l2 until the portion of .the chamber 2i) there» of whichzis farthest from the axis of rotation of the shaft I will be that which ,Willcause separa be opened whenever the speed exceeds that speed for Which the switch in vseries with motor ¿M is set by rotation about its own axis. Thus, while tion .of themercury globule from the contact 22 _. the motor M is running or while it is idle, one may shift the switcharm -4.!)f‘to place the motor M under the control of anyone of the lmercury tube switches A,y B or C. It will be under stood, -of course, that any desired number of switches may be mounted onv the plate 3, and individually made eiîective by a selective swi-tch. In Figs. 4 :and 5, ,the mercury tube switch is slightly different than that shown in Figs. l to 3, in that the housing o-rcasing is made of _a cy lindrical sleeve 44 of pure iron or other grnetal not wet by mercury, whichis closed atits ends one at a time by a contact or'switch arm 40 adjust centrifugal forces to vary-extents, Abut since .the a wire 43 to one line wire, such as L', the other line -wire L2 »being -connected to one side of a 25 circuits therethrough are not completed at switch arm 40„they will have no iníluence on the motor motor M. The o-ther'side-of the motor M iscon M- at :this time. When the switch arm '40 is nected to the ywire 33, so that the motor M will shifted to either low or high position, it will place be irl-series with one of the switches A, B and C, the switches A or C respectively in the _circuit depending upon the position of the switch con `tact 40. Each of the switches A, Band C is in- ,0. .of motor M, and `:since those switches are setfor diiïerent speeds, the circuit of the motor M will dividually rotated in its socket between arms H yat .a desired speed, whichspeedwill preferably and usually be different for each of the switches For example, the switch A may be set with the widest distance between >the Contact head 22 and the side wall of the chamber 20 farthest from the axis ofthe shaft I, so that smaller _centrifugal forces will be :required .to ilatten the vglobule of mercury of that s‘witchsuliiciently to interrupt the current between the globuleand-thecontact head >22. This may be designated ,as a “low speed.” Similarly, the switch B may be 'set by rotating it through a partial revolution about its own axis to place the Zone of the chamber 2!) having a medium distance between the head and the chamber wall, farthest from the axis of rota- ' tion, which would be a “medium speed.” The switch C may be set for high speed by rotating itthrough a partial »revolution about lits own axis and in its socket until the shortest distance be tween »the head and the adjacent chamber wall is farthest from the axis, and larger-centrifugal forces ‘will then be required to flatten the globule thereof sufficiently to remove it‘ from contact with the head 22. When the shaft l is rotated by pla-tes'45 and 46 of a glass having approxi mately the >same coeiiicient of expansiones the material of which the sleeve 44 is made. A con* «ductor '41 extends -through one of these glass plates, such as ‘46, into the chamber 43 within the cylinder-'44, and is received and supported in a «recess 49 provided »in Íthe inner face of the other glass plate 45. The portion of the conductor 41 which passes through theplate 46 may be made of the -same material as the cylinder 44, so as to have approximately the same coefllcientof ex pansionof that of the glass of whichplate 46 is made, and if desired, the .portion within vthe >chamber VV48 may be made of a different metal in this manner, all of the -switches A, B and C not wet by mercury which is welded to ti'ieend will be rotated bodily about the same axis, and of the conductor 41, as shown in Fig. fi. rEhe as the machine starts, each of the globules will globule or small body of liquid vmercury »is be in contact with a spherical Ahead 22 and with disposed within the chamber 48 as in the-.switch a casing i1, so that regardless of whether the. shown in Figs. 1 to 3. 'switch handle 41’. is set in the high, medium or low The conductor 41 is eccentric vto the .wail of positions, a circuit for the motor will be closed the chamber 48, that is, to the cylinder 44, the through whichever switch A, B or Cis connected axis 'of the conductor 41 being shown by the cen through the switch arm 4i) to the line wire L’. ter line 5| and the axis of the chamber 5B being In this example, the shaft l which mounts the shown by the center line 52. Thus, the conduc plate `3 is, of course, either the armature shaft 70 tor 41 will be relatively nearer »the kWall of the of the-motor M or a shaft which is driven at a de chamber 48 at one side, and relatively `farther sired speed ratio therefrom. Let it be assumed, at the diametrically opposite side of thencham~ for example, that the 'switch handle 42"'is set for ber, and the distance from the conductor 41 to a medium speed, as shown in Fig. 10.A This will complete a circuit through the wire 36 to the 75 `Lthe zones ofthe peripheral wall of the-chamber 2,410,085 48 between these two points will vary progres sively. The cylinder 44 can be clamped between the arms II and I2 in place of the switches A and B and by such clamping it will be electri cally connected to the arms II and I2 in the same manner that the casing I'I in Figs. 1 to 3 was, through the ferrule I4, electrically con nected to the arms II and I2. The outer end of the conductor 41 will bear against a contact arm Il) in the same manner as in Figs. l to 3, so that the type of switch shown in Figs. 4 and 5 can be substituted for that shown in Figs. 1 to 3 and wil1 function in a similar manner. 8 forces. When a switch of this type is mounted between the arms II and I2 in Figs. l to 3 in place of either of the switches A and B, the ellip tical housing 53 will be clamped frictionally in the socket between the arms II and I2, so that it may be rotated individually in its socket, and about its longitudinal axis which will be the lon gitudinal axis of the chamber 56, so as to place any particular peripheral zone oi the wall of chamber 56 farthest from the axis of the shaft I. When the shaft I is rotated, the mercury 6I will, of course, be moved by centrifugal forces into the zone of the chamber 56, which is farthest from the axis of rotation of the shaft I, and it Will be conñned against that zone of the wall un divided and relatively immovable, as the shaft I continues its rotation. The mercury globule 6I normally is too short to contact both of the loops 59 and 6U, but as the speed of rotation with By rotating the cylinder or sleeve 44 in its socket between the arms II and I2 through a part of a revolution, one may set the switch to position any zone of the periphery of cylinder 44, against which the mercury may be coniined by centrifugal forces farthest from the axis of the shaft I. If at any time, such zone is that which the shaft I increases, the globule 6I will be ilat , has the greatest distance to the conductor, then tened more and more, which causes it to increase two centrifugal forces necessary to flatten the its length along the chamber 56 until ñnally it globule and break contact between the globule will electrically connect the loops 59 and 60 and and the center electrode or Contact 41 will be through them, the conductors 51 and 58. The less than when the mercury is conñned by ccn 25 speed and consequently the centrifugal forces trifugal forces in some other part of the cham which are required to flatten or distort the glob ber of the switch. Thus, one may, by merely ro ule 6I until it electrically connects the loops tating this switch in its socket, vary the speed at 59 and 6I) will vary with the distance between which the circuit therethrough will be opened. the loops 59 and 6U at the zone of the chamber In Figs. 6 and 7, the mercury tube switch is of 30 56 Where the mercury globule happens to be con the type shown in Figs. 1 and 2 of said Patent No. ilned by such rotation, or by the distance from 2,301,217. In that type of switch, the housing the center of the globule and the loop which is or casing 53 is made generally elliptical in shape farthest from the center of the globule. For ex and of glass, but one end portion thereof is made ample, if the housing `53 is so disposed that the reentrant in the form of a tubular post 54. The 35 Zone of the chamber 56 having the shortest dis outer end of this post is closed by an element 55 tance between the loops 59` and 60, is farthest of insulating material, which may complete the from the axis of the shaft I, then relatively low generally elliptical shape of the exterior of the centrifugal forces will be required to Hatten the housing 53. In this particular example, the post globule 5I suiliciently to connect the loops 59 54 may be disposed concentrically of the chani~ 40 and 50, but if the globule is confined in the zone 4ber 56 within the housing. A conductor 5T passes of the chamber 56, such as shown in Fig. 6, by through the element 55 and along the interior of the centrifugal forces, where the distance be the post 54, approximately to the other end of tween the loops is the maximum, then a much the post, then it passes through the wall of the higher speed will be required to create centrif post into the chamber 5B, where it terminates as ugal forces high enough to elongate the globule a loop encircling the post but in spaced relation of mercury to the extent necessary to connect to the Wall of the chamber and the periphery of the loops 59 and 60 at that side of the chamber the post 54. Similarly, a conductor 58 extends 56. Obviously, the housing 53 may be rotated in through the element 55 and the adjacent end its own socket about its own axis to place any of the housing 53 into the chamber 56, and there other part of the chamber 56 farthest from the it terminates as a loop which encircles the post axis of shaft I. 54 at that end of the chamber and is largely in In Figs. 8 and 9, still another form of the switch spaced relation to both the housing 53 and the is shown, in which the housing 62 is generally post 54. of cylindrical shape, but provided with a, re In this particular example, the planes of the 55 entrant end portion to form a hollow, internal two loops are made convergent in one direction, post 63, which post, however, extends the full as shown in Fig. G, and both equally distant from length of the chamber 64 and is eccentric there the center of any globule of liquid confined on to. A conductor 65 passes through one end of the periphery of the chamber wall by centrifugal the housing into the chamber 64 and then is forces created by bodily rotation of the casing 53, 60 wound spirally around the post 63 to the other so that the distance between loops at one side of end of the chamber B4. A second conductor B6 the chamber 56 will be less than between the also enters the chamber 54 and is similarly wound corresponding parts of the loops at the other spirally about the post 63 in spaced relation to side of the chamber 56. The distance between these loops will, of course, progressively vary in 65 the Conductor 65 to the opposite end of the cham ber 64. Thus, the two conductors are wound a direction peripherally of the chamber. A glob spirally in spaced relation to each other on the ule or small body 6I of mercury in liquid form periphery of the post 63 from one end of the is placed within the chamber 56 and its surface tension acting against the forces of gravity causes chamber to the other. A globule or body 6l of this mercury to form a somewhat ball-like form 70 mercury is provided in the chamber 64 as for as shown in Fig. 6, in which a substantial por the chambers of all of the other switches de tion of the mercury is held solely by its surface scribed herein, so that no matter what zone of tension away from and against spreading along the peripheral wall of the chamber of mercury the wall of the chamber 56 on which it rests may be confined against it, it will, by its shape, or against which it is coniined by centrifugal 75 induced by surface tension, normally engage and 2,410,085 electrically connect the spaced turns ofA thefcon-y ductors 6‘5' and 66. When the housing E2 is mounted between the arms II and I3 in Figs. 1 and 2 in place of the switches A and B, it may be turned about its own axis in the socket formed” between the larms II and I2, so as to place'farthest from'the axis cf the shaft I any desired peripheralzone of the chamber 64. For example, when the zone of the chamber 54 having the greatest distance from the post 63 to the outside wall is placed farthest fromv the axis', then smaller centrifugal forces will be required to flatten the globule lo'f mercury suffi cient to separate from» onel or both of the con ductors 65 and 65 and' open the circuit between them through the mercury. Thus, by“ rotating the housing 62 about its own axis in- its mount ing between arms II and I2, the speed at which the'centrifugal forces will hatten' the globule suf ñciently to break the circuit between the conduc tors 65 and Sß may be varied. It will- be understood that in all forms of the switches, the circuits'through' the switches 'may be opened or closed depending’ upon the type of switch, at any selected speed,v and the circuits through these‘ switches may' be signal- circuits whichY operate-suitable signals; or any' other' de~ sired apparatus, or if they are included in’series with» the motor, or a relay controlling a motor,> they may controll the` speed of the motor- and prevent such motor frcm"exceedir`1g a selected speed, which= speed may ber'varied‘ by rotating the individual switch about its own axis, In Fig. 11, I have shown diagrammatically 'the «control of a motor 63 by either of“ two switches of’ be rotated in its mounting until the selected pe ripheral wall Zone of the chamber thereofA is far thest from the axis of the shaft If togive the'de sired high maximum speed control. The' switch'B should be similarly turned in its socket until» the selected peripheral zone of the chamber is-farthest from the axis of the shaft I to give the desired low maximum speed control'. Tooperate such a system, the liu'e‘whies'L’ and L2 are connected to a suitable source of current, and the switch arm' 8~I is locked toV place it» in contact with the switch contact 'I-‘i when a» low maximum speed is desired. When the'motcr’ is not operating, the »mercury globule in thevswitch A will complete a circuit through' that switch and hence the movement of the switch arrn` 8|" into engagement with contact `-I'I‘V w-ill complete' a cir cuit through the switch A and the winding v"Ill" of the relay R. This willl attract thefrelay switch-‘M vand complete a circuit through the Motor> 63. The motor will start its rotation', and the mer cury globules in each of the» switches A andB will `be thrown- against the peripheral zone of the sidev wall of- the chamber of thatswitch which is farthest from< the axis of the» shaft I. As the speed of the` motor increases, the mercury globules will. be flattened to increasing extents, and when the globule in switch A iiattens until it withdraws from the contact head 22l of that switch, this will open the circuit-tothe winding 74 of the relay, whereuponl switch arm Ti) `ci the relay is released and» moved to open position; This opens theA circuit» of - the motor» and asl the speed thereof falls, the mercury globule» will be « returned by its surface tensiontoward» its former shape in engagement with the contact head 22 in that chamber andreestablish- the circuit there through.V This againy enercizes the windingf 'Ill exceed the selected speed of either‘cf> two! pre determinedspeeds.V In this form of the inven and recompletes the circuit to the» motor G31'. tion, a relay is employed for controlling the mo' 40 Thus, the speed of the motor will be` kept below tor circuit, so that a relatively large motor- may almaximum determined by the setting lofÉ the be employed and itsspeed coiïitrolled' 'oy a; >rela switch A in its individual socket `or mounting. tively small- capacity, mercury tube' switch.' When a higher maximum speed'is permissible; the switch arm- Il-Il is operatedV to engagethe con In this circuit, the‘line wire L’ is connected the type shown in Figs. 1“ tos, which: maybe so' selected or adjusted that the mo'tor‘spe'e'd' will not to a contact 6% of a relay'R' and the-moveable a'i-‘m` 45 tact arm- 8% which placesthe switch B instead cr contact ït’of that‘relayis connected' by! a‘wire 'IiV to one terminal ofthe motor @ill ’The ‘other terminal of the motor e8 is'c'onn'ec't'ed by aiwire 12 to the lline wire L2. The ‘switch arm 'IQ off' there' lay‘is yieldingly urged into'op‘en' circuit positionîb‘y of Ain series with the relay- winding and a simi-lar control of the motor 68f is obtained, 'except that since the switchl B is set to place farthest from the axis of shaft I, the wall zone of> the switch chamber which causes/the' globule to- open ’the circuit through that switch at afselectedfm‘axi mum-speed. Hence; a higher speed» may now be obtained by the'motory 68 before-the globule in that switch B will be flattened- sufliciently to leave contact withY the head 22 of that-switch and open the circuit of' relay winding 74. A somewhat similar circuit arrangement is shown in Fig. 12, but the- winding 82 ci' the‘relay a> spring 73. The windingfïß` of th‘erelay-‘i'sîcon nected at one side to the line wireV L2, and’ at its other side‘by a wire ‘i5’ to’th'e ybrush which bears’ upon the collector ringl S; so- thatfthroug'hthat collector ring it will be connected to'on‘eï ter’ minal ofV each of the mercury' tube switches A and B which are‘mounted' on the plate `3. The plate 3', in this example, is shown as mounted directly on the shaft I of the motor Gil, but! it will be'. un S acts uponV a switch arm` ßßwhich'is urged intoV derstood that the shaft I may be driven fr’oniithe» 60 closed positionagainst relayV contact íäâ'by a armature shaft" of the; motor 63’ through a suit' springaä; Another dirference’is that theswitches able speed changing mechanism', if desired. The D and E are oft-he normally open >circuit type, central electrode of the switch A is connected such as shown in Figs. 6 and '7. The wire” 15 through a brush and collector ri‘ri’gï and’ a wire» and in this theinstance wire ‘I9will willbebeconnected connected to to thethe switch switch 'IB ‘to a contact TI of afswitchï is. » The central' 65 electrode of ' the'other switch'f’B' is connected D. through a brushY and collectorïring and` a wire 'I9 to another Contact Säl’of‘t'he switch' 18. The switch 89 has a` contactarm il! which may" be' Withsuch an arrangementfto start the mc tor, the line wires ‘Lf and L2 are connected to a source of current, and immediately a circuit is established through the relay switch arm“ @3 to shifted alternately’between the contacts‘ll and 70 the motor 58. At this time, the globule of‘mer 89 so that circuits through the switchcsYA-and B> may be made alternately available, depending upon whether ahigh or lcw speed control ofthe motor 68 is*` desired.. In: this particular -example, the'switch'A should' cury in each 0f the switches D'and EwillV be out of contact with the loopsV 59' and Stfsothat the relay windingl 32 will- beïdeener'gized». ` he switch arm SI is shifted, however, into engage ment with‘on‘e of the'contacts ‘I1’ or- 88‘, depending 2,410,085 11 12 a side Wall thereof and of a size to assume a upon whether the low maximum speed or high maximum speed is desired. Assuming that arm 8| engages contact 11, this of is held away from and against spreading along will establish a circuit from the winding 82 of the said Wall, solely by its surface tension opposing curved form in which a substantial portion there the action of gravity thereon, a conductor ex relay through the switch E. As the speed of the tending into said chamber and therein having a motor increases, the increasing centrifugal forces contact with an exposed surface area not wet by will flatten the globules 6l of the mercury of both. mercury, eccentric to a transverse periphery of switches E and E to greater and greater extents said chamber and spaced from and so disposed until globule 6| in switch E engages and connects the loops 59 and B0 of that switch when the de 10 relatively to said chamber wall than when said housing is rotated bodily about an axis normal to sired maximum speed has been reached. This the plane of said transverse periphery and eccen Will complete a circuit through the winding 82 tric to the axis of said chamber, .said mercury will and the latter will move its switch arm 83 into be held by centrifugal forces relatively immov open circuit position, thus opening the circuit to the motor 68. The speed of the motor then falls 15 able and undivided against the zone of said wall farthest from said axis of rotation and elec and the reduced centrifugal forces then acting on trically connected to and disconnected from said the globule 6I of switch E will be overcome by con-tact area as it is distorted in shape by vary surface tension of the globule so as to partially ing centrifugal forces, and a. circuit connection restore the former shape of the globule and open the circuit between the loops 5B and SS. This de 20 to said mercury whereby rotary adjustment of said housing about its own axis to place different energizes relay winding 82, and spring 85 then moves relay switch arm 83 back into closed cir wall zones thereof farthest from its axis of bodily cuit position. The motor will then again receive rotation, will vary the speed of said bodily rota tion at which said electrical connection or dis power and tend to build up its speed, but at no time can the speed of the motor increase above 25 connection is made. 2. A circuit controller comprising a hollow the speed for which the switch E lis set. By shift housing having a closed chamber with a wall not ing the switch arm BI to engage contact Bil, the wet by mercury, a rotatable element, a support switch D is made effective in place of the switch carried by said element and mounting said hous E, and thus a higher speed must be reached be fore the relay switch 83 will be opened »to prevent 30 ing eccentrically of the axis of rotation of said element for rotation with said element, said hous further increase in the speed of the motor. The ing being separately rotatable, about its own axis, switches D and 3 are, of course, individually ro on said support, a body of mercury within and tatable in their individual mountings so as to set only partially filling said chamber~ resting upon them for the desired maximum speed at which 35 a side wall thereof and of a size to assume a the circuit therethrough is to be closed. curved form in which a substantial portion there While mercury is the preferred conducting liquid for the globule or electrically conducting liquid because of its relatively high surface ten sion, any other electrically conducting liquid of is held away from and against spreading along said wall, solely by its surface tension opposing I claim as my invention: 1. A circuit controller comprising a hollow housing having a closed chamber with a wall not wet by mercury, a body of mercury within and disposed eccentrically with respect to said cham ber, and in contact with said globule while said globule is confined, undivided and relatively im movable, against a zone of said wall by centrifugal only partially filling said chamber, resting upon forces created by bodily rotation of said housing gravity, a conductor extending into said chamber with substantial surface tensions is to be consid 40 and having therein a contact with an exposed surface area not wet by mercury, eccentric to ered the broad equivalent of mercury, but when said housing axis, and spaced from said chamber other liquids are employed in place of mercury, wall whereby when said housing is rotated with the chamber wall and the exposed electrode with said element, said mercury will be confined by in the chamber should be of materials not wet by ` centrifugal forces, undivided and relatively im the liquid used. Other conducting liquids are movable against the zone of said wall farthest usually less desirable because they may be subject from the axis of said element and electrically to electrolytic decomposition by the electric cur connected to and disconnected from said contact rent passing therethrough. The chambers of area as its shape is varied by the opposing cen each housing or casing, after introduction there in of the conducting liquid or mercury, are ex 50 trifugal forces and surface tension, and a cir cuit connection to said mercury whereby the hausted of air and the air replaced with an inert speed at which an electrical connection or dis gas to increase the effective life of the switches. connectionis made between said contact area and 'I'his is easily done as usual with mercury tube said mercury may be varied by adjustment of said switches, and the use of glass in closing the cham bers makes easily possible this exhaustion of air 55 housing about its own axis on said support. 3. A circuit controller comprising a rotatable and replacement of the air with another gas. element, supporting means carried by and rotat It is believed that the operation and use of the able bodily with said element, a hollow housing devices which have been illustrated and described mounted by said supporting means eccentrically will be clear from the foregoing description, but it will be understood that any of the mercury tube 60 to lthe axis of rotation of said element, addition ally rotatable about its own axis in said support switches shown in Figs. 4, 5, 8 and 9 may be used ing means and having a closed chamber with a as the switches A and B instead of the type shown wall not wet by mercury, a globule of mercury in Fig. 3. within and only partially filling said chamber It will also be understood that various changes in the details, materials and arrangements of 05 and of a size tending to assume a generally ball like form, when resting upon a side Wall thereof, parts, which have been herein described and il solely by action of its surface tension in opposi lustrated in order to explain the nature of the tion to gravity, a conductor extending into said invention, may be made by those skilled in the chamber and therein having a contact with an art Within the principle and scope of the inven tion as expressed in the appended claims. 70 exposed surface area not wet by mercury and so 2,410,085, L 13 L with said element, but from which said globule may separate as said globule undergoes changes in shape underthe opposing forces of surface ten sion and the centrifugal forces due to its bodily rotation, and circuit connections to said globule land conductor 'whereby the. centrifugal forces necessary to produce engagement or separation of said globule and contact will vary with rota tion of said housing about its own axis to vary the wall zone against which the globule is con fined by the centrifugal forces created by the bodily rotation of that housing. body and conductor in 14 series with each other in part of a circuit to be controlled by the engage ment or separation of said body and Contact area. '7. The controller substantiallyv as set forth in claim 6, and a support for said housing, in which said housing may be turned about its own axis, and an element mounting said support for rota tion about an axis eccentric to said` housing axis, whereby the housing may be rotated bodily about the axis of rotation of said element and also ad ditionally rotated about its own axis to place different zones along the periphery of said wall farthest from said axis of rotation of said element. 4. A circuit controller comprising a hollow n mercury tube switch comprising a hollow housing having a closed chamber with a Wall not wet by mercury, a. globule of mercury within and 15 housing having a closed chamber containing an only partially filling saidchamber, resting upon inert gas and with a wall-not wet by mercury, a a side Wall thereof and of a size to assume a gen conductor extending into said chamber and hav ing therein a contact with an exposed surface erally ball-like form solely by its surface tension acting against gravity, a conductor extending into area substantially eccentric to, anal spaced from, said chamber and therein having a contact with 20 said wall, a globule of mercury within and only partially filling said chamber and of a size to an exposed surface area not wet by mercury, lo assumo a generally ball-like form. solely by its catedwith respect to said globule whilethe latter is confined undivided and relatively immovable against a zone of said wall by centrifugal forces eurfacetension acting against gravity, the dis periphery of said Wall by said centrifugal forces, the speedof said bodily rotationy of said housing the wall against which the globule is coniîned by centrifugal forces determining the speed at which globuic separates froml said contact. tancefrom each .zone of said Wall to said contact being less than the thickness of said globule when as said housing is rotated bodily about an axis the globule is resting on said zone, and circuit eccentric to the axis of said chamber, in a posi connections leading to said globule and said con ticnto engage with and be separated from said ductor, wherebywhen said housing is rotated globule as said globule changes shape under the about an axis eccentric to .said chamber, the opposing forces of surface tension and centrifugal forces due to its bodily rotation, and a circuit con 30 centrifugal forces created by such-rotation will said globule against a zone of said wall, nection to said globule, said contact being dis and flatten the’ globule an amount dependent posed at difierent'distances from different zones upon the speed of rotation of said housing, the of the periphery of said wall vwhereby when said distance between the Contact and the zone of globule is conñned in different zones around .the which will produce engagement or separation of said globule and contact will vary with the wall zone against which the globule is confined by the centrifugal forces set up. 5. The controller substantially as set forth in claim 4, and a rotatable element, and a support rotating with said element and mounting said housing for selective increments of rotation about said chamber axis to place different zones-of said chamber side Wall farthest from the axis of ro tation of said element. 6. A circuit controller comprising a hollow « housing having a closedchamber with a wall not wet by mercury, a small body of mercury within and only partially filling said chamber and of a size to assume a curved form in which a substan tial portion thereof is held above and against spreading along, said wall solely by its surface tension opposing the action of gravity thereon, a conductor` extending into said chamber from the exterior of said housing and within said chamber having an exposed contact area dis posed to be engaged by said mercury body or separated therefrom by changes in shape of said body under the opposing forces of said surface tension and tht`~ centrifugal forces acting upon said body when said housing is rotated about an axis eccentric thereto, said contact area having portions thereof disposed at different relative distances from the center of said mercury body while the latter is confined against different peripheral zones of said wall by centrifugal forces of said rotation, whereby by confining the mer cury body, undivided and relatively immovable against different zones of said chamber around the periphery thereof, the centrifugal forces nec essary to cause engagement or disengagement between said mercury body and contact area may be varied, and means for connecting said mercury il. A mercury tube switch comprising a ho-llou.1 housing having a closed chamber containing an inert gas and with a wall not-wet by mercury, a contact in said chamber having an exposed surface disposed at a plurality of different distances from different zones of the periphery of said wall at the intersection of said wall by a piane transverse to said chamber and approxi mately normal to said wall, «a globule of mercury within and only partially filling said chamber and cf a size to assume generally‘ball-like form solely by its surface tension acting against gravity, the >distance from different zones of said Wall pe riphery to said 'contactÍ surface area varying, whereby when said housing is rotated about an axis normal to said plane and eccentric to said chamber, said globule will be confined against that one of the zones of said wall which is fur thest from the rotation axis, and variably dis torted with changes in centrifugal forces as the speed of rotation varies, said globule by its distor tion engaging with and separating from said con tact, and circuit connections to said globule and said conductor. lO. A mercury tube switch comprising a hollow housing having a closed chamber containing an inert gas and with a Wall not wet by mercury, a Contact in said chamber having an exposed sur area disposed at a plurality of different dis tances from different zones of the periphery of said wall at the intersection of said wall by a plane transverse to said chamber and approxi mately normal to said wall, a globule of mercury within and only partially filling said chamber and of a size to assume a generally ball-like form solely by its surface tension acting against gravity, the distance from different zones of said Wall pe riphery to said contact surface area varying, a 15 2,410,085 16 support for said housing in which said housing mercury as said body is conñned against the por may be adjusted angularly about an axis of said tion of said Wall furthest from said chamber axis chamber normal to said plane, whereby when said when said housing is rotated about an axis parallel housing and support are bodily rotated about an to but offset from said chamber axis, and ilai s' s parallel to but offset from said chamber axis, tened against said Wall and released to dilïerent :d globule will be confined on a zone of said wall extents by varying centrifugal forces acting on p ,riphery which is furthest from said axis of rota said body and created by its rotation about said tion, and as the speed of rotation varies, oppos~ parallel and offset axis, said conductor being dis ing centrifugal forces and surface tension of said posed at different distances from the center of globule will distort said globule and cause separa 10 said body as said body is confined against difier tion and engagement of said globule and contact ent peripheral Zones of said portion cf said wall at selected speeds, which varies with the distance which, is furthest from said chamber axis, whereby io contact from said peripheral Wall Zone the speed of rotation at which engagement and against which the globule is then conñned, and disengagement of said body and conductor occurs circuit connections to said globule and said con--~ :may be varied by disposing of said different Wall ductor from outside said housing. sones furthest from said axis of rotation and con l1. A mercury tube switch comprising a hollow nections to said body and said conductor` from liom sing having a closed chamber containing an the exterior of said housing. inert gas and with a Wall not Wet by mercuryJ said 13. A mercury tube switch comprising a holloul wall being circular in the transverse cross section housing having a closed chamber containing an formed by a plane containing a radius of curva» inert gas and a wall not wet by mercury, Said wall ture of said wall, a contact within said chamber being circular in transverse cross section, a sur and substantially eccentric to said center of cur» face of generation, and arcuate in the generat vature not spaced from said wall, a globule of ing line intermediate of its ends, a Contact within mercury within and only partially filling said 25 said chamber, extending oblique to the axis of chamber, and of a size to normally assume a generation and disposed in spaced relation along generally ball-like form solely by its surface ten~ said generation axis from the zone of said Wall sion acting against gravity, and circuit connec furthest from that axis, a body of mercury within tioi'is leading to said globule and said contact and only partially filling said chamber, con from the exterior of said housing, whereby when fined undivided and relatively immovably on a said housing is rotated about an parallel to, zone of said wall furthest from said generation but offset from the axis of said chamber passing axis when said housing is rotated about another through the center' of curvature of said cross sec `ais parallel to and offset from said generation tion of said wall, said globule will be conñned axis, and of a size such that its surface tension against said wall at said section in engagement 35 acting against gravity holds it in a curved form with said Contact, and as the speed of rotation with a substantial portion away from said Wall increases, said globule will be flattened against Zone, whereby the centrifugal forces acting on said said wall to increasing extents until it separates body, by reason of said rotation, in opposition to from said contact. the surface tension of said body will distort saidl 12. A circuit controller comprising a hollow body and elongate it in a direction generally housing with a closed chamber containing an parallel to said generation axis, said Contact being inert gas and a wall not wet by mercury, wall positioned along- said generation axis for eiifrage~ being a closed surface of generation about an axis ment by and separation from said body as the of said chamber, a body of mercury within and distortion of the body varies at selected speeds, only partially iilling said chamber and of a size r which speed at which said engagement or separa ro normally hold a substantial portion of it, by tion occurs will vary with the zone of said wall the action of its surface tension alone in opposi against which said body is confined, and circ tion to gravity, in curved forni and away from connections to said body and said contact from the zone of said wall on which it may be resting, a conductor within said chamber in a position to be engaged by and separated from said body of the exterior of said housing. ` 50 HARRY L. LAMBERT.