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Патент USA US2410086

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Oct. 29, 1946.
H. L. LAMBERT
2,410,085
GÍIÍRCUIÄl CONTROLLER
Filed Jane 26, 1945-
2 \sneets-sheet 1 ‘
///’
A5
4844
50
*_
777,4;
ATTORNEYS
Oct. 29, 1946.
'
H. _|_. LAMBERT
~. ‘
- 2,410,085
CIRCUIT ` CONTROLLER
Filed June 26, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
52
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ATTORNEYS
2,410,085
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,410,085
CIRCUIT CONTROLLER
Harry L. Lambert, Enfield, N. Y., assignor, byl
mesne assignments, to Walter J. Pickering, New
York, N. Y.
Application .lune 26, 1943, Serial No. 492,395
13 Claims.
(Cl. 200-80)
2
1
ments oi the invention, and the novel features
This invention relates to circuit controllers,
will be particularly pointed out hereinafter in
and particularly to those which are responsive
connection with the appended claims.
to centrifugal forces for their operation.
In the accompanying drawings:
In my prior Patents No. 2,301,217, issued
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a circuit controller
November l0, A1942, and No. 2,333,533, issued Ul
constructed in accordance with this invention
November 2, 1943, I have disclosed several forms
of a mercury tube switch which may be employed
to control a circuit selectively in accordance with
centrifugal forces acting upon a globule or small
body of mercury or other conducting liquid con
tained within a closed chamber. In all of saidv
prior devices the circuit controlling action can
only be adjusted by shifting the tube switch
bodily to dilïerent distances from the axis about
which it is bodily rotated Vin use.
An object lof the invention is to improve the
adjustment of mercury tube switches of the type
that are responsive to centrifugal forces so as to
and illustrating one embodiment thereof, a. por
tion of the mechanism being broken away to
snow interior parts;
Fig. 2 Vis a transverse, sectional elevation of
the same, the section being taken approximately
along the line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal, sectional elevation
through a mercury tube switch forming part of
this controller, and of the type shown in Figs.
1 and 2;
Fig. 4 ,isl a longitudinal, sectional elevation
through another type of mercury tube switch that
may be employed in the controller of Figs. 1 and 2.
causethem to operate at different speeds.
Fig. 5 is a transverse, sectional elevation
Another object of this invention is to provide, 20
through the device of Fig. f1;
an improved centriíugally operated circuit con
Fig. 6 is a longitudinal, sectional elevation of
troller utilizing _a mercury tube switch, with which
a normally open circuit type of >mercury tube
any adjustment to operate at different speeds
switch >which may be also employed in the con
may be made in a simple manner, and with con
siderable accuracy.
troller of Figs.> 1 and 2;
Another object of the invention is to provide
an improved speed control for an electric motor,
with which the maximum allowed speed for the
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal, sectional> elevation of
still another type of mercury tube switch that
motor may be varied within substantial limits by
maybe employed in thecircuit controller of Figs.
simple adjustments.
Another object of the invention is to provide
an improved, centriiugally operated circuit con
1 and 2;
Fig. 9 is an end elevation of thel same;
Fig. 10 is a vschematic wiring diagram show
troller havingsimple and novel means for vary
ing a motor in series with and controlled by a
ing the speed of rotation at which it will open
orclose a circuit, which may be easily andv
quickly adjusted to vary the speed at which it
becomes effective, and which will be relatively
simple, compact, dependable, durable and inex
circuit controller constructed in accordance with
this invention and having three possible selec
tions of maximum speeds;
will be relatively simple >and inexpensive.
Another object of the invention is to provide
an improved, centriiugally operated, mercury
tube switch which may. by its mounting with
possible selective speeds. ,
In the embodiment oi“v the invention illustrated
~in Figs. 1 to 3, the controller is rotated byÀa shaft
respect to `the axis of rotation, be caused to op
tatable element extending loosely through a block
erate at different yspeeds of such rotation.
Other objects and, advantages will be apparent
from rthe followingV description of some _embodi
2 of suitable insulating material. vA plate 3 of
insulating material is provided with a metallic
sleeve having 4a collar 4 which telescopes over
Fig. 7 is an end elevation of the same;
Fig. 11 is a schematic diagram showing one pos
sible .circuit in which a small controller of the
type shown in Figs. 1 to 4, 8 and 9 may be ein
pensive.
Another object of the invention is to provide 40 ployecl to control the speed of operation of a mo
torwith quick change between two possible but
an improved circuit controller which may be
variable maximums;
utilized to control a circuit; `at any of a plurality
Fig. 12 is a similar diagram illustrating how a
of selected speeds, with which the device may be
normally open circuit switch of the type shown
made responsive to one speed or another by sim
ple manipulations, with which the change in 45 in Figs. 6 and 7 may be employed in the control~
1er mechanism of Figs. 1 and 2 to control the
selected speed limits may be made without stop
speed of> operation of a motor at either of two
ping the operation of the controller, and which
-
t, which may be a moto-r shaft or any other ro
3
4
and is secured upon the end of the shaft I in any
suitable manner, such as by a set screw 5 passing
through the collar 4 and engaging the shaft I.
The collar 4 spaces the plate 3 and the block 2,
and upon the race of the plate 3 towards the
in diameter than the chamber 20. This head 22
is eccentric to the wall of the chamber 2D, as
clearly shown in Fig. 3. In Fig. 3 the axis oi'
head 22 is shown by the line 22a, and the axis oi
chamber 29 is shown by the line 29a. The portion
block 2 are a. plurality of concentric collector
rings 6, -I and 8 which may be countersunk to
of the conductor head 22 within the chamber 2f!
and the portion passing through plate i9 are also
made of pure iron or any alloy or conducting
some extent into the face of the plate 3. These
rings are secured to the plate for rotation there
material not wet by mercury and having approxi
with in any suitable manner, such as by studs 9 10 mately the saine coeiiicient of expansion as the
passing through the plate 3 and the collector
glass of plate I9. The conductor 2i entends some
rings. The studs 9 have shouldered, reduced ends
distance beyond the plate I9 and terminates in
which pass through apertures in the collector
a head 23. Surrounding and telescoping over the
rings, with the free end beyond the ring upset,
periphery of the plate I9 is a metal sleeve or Ier
and the other ends of the studs 9 are also shoul 15 rule 24 which may be electrically connected to
dered and reduced and have riveted thereon
the casing Il in any suitable manner, such as by
spring contact, metal arms I0. The collector
solder or a small piece of welding 25. A disk 28
rings on one face of the plate 3 and the contact
closes the outer end of this sleeve or ferrule
arms I0 on the other face of the plate 3 prevent
24 and is confined therein by the ilange of the
endwise movement of the studs 9 in the plates 3 20 head 23 of the conductor. The chamber within
and definitely anchor the collector rings 6 and l
the ferrule 24 is iilled with a suitable insulating
to the plate 3.
material 27, as usual in electric filament lamp
A pair of spring clamp arms Il and I2 are
bases.
disposed face to face, but spaced with relation to
Within the chamber 20 is disposed a globule or
one another, with their corresponding ends par 25 small body 29 of liquid mercury which, when the
allel and connected by bolts I3. Between their
switch is idle and supported in the position
ends, these arms II and I2 are made oppositely
shown in Fig. 3, will rest upon a side wall of
concave at corresponding zones oi their adjacent
the chamber 20 and touch the head 22. The
faces so as to form between them a socket which
globule or body of mercury 28 is of such size
receives the base I4 or body of a mercury tube 30 that it normally assumes a somewhat `ball~like
switch. In this particular example, there are
form in which a substantial portion thereof is
two of such sockets, one formed adjacent each
held away from the wall against which it rests,
end of the unit formed of the pair of arms II_
or against which it is conlined, by its surface
and I2, and each of which sockets mounts a mer
tension acting in opposition to the forces of grav
cury tube switch. These switches may also, 35 ity upon the mercury.
for convenience, be distinguished from each other
It will be noted from Fig. 3 that the head 22
by the letters A and B. By tightening the bolts
is much nearer one zone in the periphery of the
I3, the arms II and I2 can be brought together
side wall oi" the chamber Eil than it is at the
so as to frictionally and yieldingly clamp between
directly opposite side, because the head ~22 is
them the mercury tube switches A and B. By
eccentric to the chamber 2D. The mercuiy 28
loosening the bolts I3, the switches A and B may
is normally suiiicient in depth to touch the head
be individually rotated about their own axes in
22 when in the widest portion in the space be
their sockets formed between the arms II and
tween the head 22 and the wall of the chamber
I2, and then clamped4 in different rotative posi
2B, as shown in Fig. 3.
tions by retightening of the bolts I3. The cen
When a switch of the type shown in Fig. 3 is
tral portions of the arms II and I2 are provided
mounted between the arms II and I2` as shown
with laterally extending lugs or flanges I5 which
in Figs. l and 2, the arms I I and I2 will grip and
lie ñat against the adjacent face of the plate
3, and the screws I6 pass through these flanges
or lugs I5 and into studs IlJa passing through the
plate 3 and anchored to the central collector ring
8. The Iianges or arms I5 serve in place of the
contact arms I0 to prevent endwise movement
of the studs I0a.
The switches A and B may be similar in con
struction, and in the particular example shown,
each of these switches is provided with a gener
ally spherical shell I'I, see Fig. 3, which has an
opening in one side and a short, outwardly ex
clamp the sleeve or ferrule 24, which is electrically
connected to the casing I`I. When the switch is
so mounted between the arms l I and I2, the head
23 on the outer end of the conductor 2| will abut
against one of the contact arms I0 and provide
an electrical connection between the Contact head
22 within the chamber 20 and a collector ring
on the plate 3, In the examples shown in Figs.
1 and 2, the head 23 of the conductor` 2l of the
switch A will engage with the arm I!) which is
connected through a stud 9 to the collecter ring
l, and the conductor head 23 of the switch B will
tending ñange I8 surrounding such opening. 60 engage the contact arm Ill that is connected
This casing I ‘I is made of conducting material
through a stud 9 through the collector ring 5.
not Wet by mercury, such as a shell made of pure
The sleeves or ferrules I4 of both switches A and
iron, cr of selected alloys. A plate I9 of glass
B will be connected through the arms I I and I2,
having a coefficient of expansion approximately
screw IB and studs Illa tothe collector ring 8.
equal to that of the metal of the casing I'I is 65
A plurality of brushes 23, 3G and 3I are mount
placed across the opening of the casing I'I and
ed in sockets in the block 2 and yieldingly urged
fused to the flange I8 so as to close the casing
outwardly by individual springs 32, Suitable cir
I‘I. By closing this casing I1 with this glass clo
cuit connection are made through the brushes
sure plate I9, it is possible to exhaust the chamber
29, 30 and 3|, so that the wire connected to the
20 within the casing I1 of air and replace it with 70 brush 29 will be connected through that brush
an inert gas, as usual in mercury tube switches.
to one of the collecting rings. The wire connected
A conductor 2| extends through the plate I9
t-o the brush 3U will be connected through that
of glass into the chamber 2U, and ‘within the
brush to another collecting ring, and the wire
chamber 20 it terminates in an exposed Contact
connected through the brush 3l will be connected
head 22 which is generally spherical, but smaller 75 therethrough to another collecting ring. lAny de
'2,410,085
`6
È
siredi-number of mercury -tube switches may be
similarly mounted on the plate 3, ‘with one ter
vswitch B .and to »the motor M; The motor willV
thenv operate and lrotate the plate 3 with the
minal of each connected toa common» collector
ring, --and the other ‘terminal of each «connected
to an individual collector ring, asin the circuit
switches A,`B and ’C thereon.. Whenthe cen
trifugal ~forces acting on the mercury in the Yswitch
-B Aare suiiicient to ’fñatten or distortA the .globule
`of mercury kthereinagainst its surface >tension
-until `vit withdraws from the >head v.22, .this will
.open the circuit to the motor, whereupon ,the
diagram of Fig. l0.`
I
~
`
In the diagramof Fig; lûfthreerof» such-‘switches
A, B and Care similarly clamped or »mounted‘in
sockets on the >plate y3, and each of these switches
lspeed of the motor will fall. Just zas rsoon as
lhas’a terminal thereof connected to the common '10 fthe speed `fallsslightly, the `:surface tension of the
globule of mercury .in theswitch .B will partially
collector'ring which is `connected through a brush
¿restore to the-globule its former `form .cr .shape
to a Acircuit wire 33 of a circuit to becontrolled.
and reestablish contact with the head 22 in .the
The'other terminal of the switch A is `connected
.switch.B, thus recompleting the circuit through
through a brush toa circuit Wire 34 which leads
to a switch contact 35. The other .terminalof 15 the motor M. The circuit of the motor M .-willbe
automatically opened at theswitch B as soon :as
>the switch B is connected by a wire 35 to a switch
Vcontact 31, and the other »terminal of the switch
«C isconnected by a lwire 38 to a switchtcontact 39.
These’contacts 35, »31 and 39 are arranged in a
'suitable »sequence so as to be engaged selectively
the 'speed reaches ‘a selected speed, and will Abe
reclosed as soon asthe speed fallsslightly.
The motor willthus be automatically vgoverned
able about a pivot 4I and provided with an operat
ing handle42. The switch arm 40 is connected by
to run at a speed l»not exceeding this medium
speed for which the switch B is set. While Vthis u
is happening the mercury globules in the; other
switches A and C ywill similarly be ñattened _by
and l2 until the portion of .the chamber 2i) there»
of whichzis farthest from the axis of rotation of
the shaft I will be that which ,Willcause separa
be opened whenever the speed exceeds that speed
for Which the switch in vseries with motor ¿M
is set by rotation about its own axis. Thus, while
tion .of themercury globule from the contact 22 _.
the motor M is running or while it is idle, one
may shift the switcharm -4.!)f‘to place the motor
M under the control of anyone of the lmercury
tube switches A,y B or C. It will be under
stood, -of course, that any desired number of
switches may be mounted onv the plate 3, and
individually made eiîective by a selective swi-tch.
In Figs. 4 :and 5, ,the mercury tube switch is
slightly different than that shown in Figs. l to
3, in that the housing o-rcasing is made of _a cy
lindrical sleeve 44 of pure iron or other grnetal
not wet by mercury, whichis closed atits ends
one at a time by a contact or'switch arm 40 adjust
centrifugal forces to vary-extents, Abut since .the
a wire 43 to one line wire, such as L', the other
line -wire L2 »being -connected to one side of a 25 circuits therethrough are not completed at switch
arm 40„they will have no iníluence on the motor
motor M. The o-ther'side-of the motor M iscon
M- at :this time. When the switch arm '40 is
nected to the ywire 33, so that the motor M will
shifted to either low or high position, it will place
be irl-series with one of the switches A, B and C,
the switches A or C respectively in the _circuit
depending upon the position of the switch con
`tact 40. Each of the switches A, Band C is in- ,0. .of motor M, and `:since those switches are setfor
diiïerent speeds, the circuit of the motor M will
dividually rotated in its socket between arms H
yat .a desired speed, whichspeedwill preferably
and usually be different for each of the switches
For example, the switch A may be set with the
widest distance between >the Contact head 22 and
the side wall of the chamber 20 farthest from the
axis ofthe shaft I, so that smaller _centrifugal
forces will be :required .to ilatten the vglobule of
mercury of that s‘witchsuliiciently to interrupt
the current between the globuleand-thecontact
head >22.
This may be designated ,as a “low
speed.” Similarly, the switch B may be 'set by
rotating it through a partial revolution about
its own axis to place the Zone of the chamber 2!)
having a medium distance between the head and
the chamber wall, farthest from the axis of rota- '
tion, which would be a “medium speed.” The
switch C may be set for high speed by rotating
itthrough a partial »revolution about lits own axis
and in its socket until the shortest distance be
tween »the head and the adjacent chamber wall
is farthest from the axis, and larger-centrifugal
forces ‘will then be required to flatten the globule
thereof sufficiently to remove it‘ from contact
with the head 22. When the shaft l is rotated
by pla-tes'45 and 46 of a glass having approxi
mately the >same coeiiicient of expansiones the
material of which the sleeve 44 is made. A con*
«ductor '41 extends -through one of these glass
plates, such as ‘46, into the chamber 43 within
the cylinder-'44, and is received and supported in
a «recess 49 provided »in Íthe inner face of the other
glass plate 45. The portion of the conductor 41
which passes through theplate 46 may be made
of the -same material as the cylinder 44, so as
to have approximately the same coefllcientof ex
pansionof that of the glass of whichplate 46 is
made, and if desired, the .portion within vthe
>chamber VV48 may be made of a different metal
in this manner, all of the -switches A, B and C
not wet by mercury which is welded to ti'ieend
will be rotated bodily about the same axis, and
of the conductor 41, as shown in Fig. fi. rEhe
as the machine starts, each of the globules will
globule or small body of liquid vmercury
»is
be in contact with a spherical Ahead 22 and with
disposed within the chamber 48 as in the-.switch
a casing i1, so that regardless of whether the.
shown in Figs. 1 to 3.
'switch handle 41’. is set in the high, medium or low
The conductor 41 is eccentric vto the .wail of
positions, a circuit for the motor will be closed
the chamber 48, that is, to the cylinder 44, the
through whichever switch A, B or Cis connected
axis 'of the conductor 41 being shown by the cen
through the switch arm 4i) to the line wire L’.
ter line 5| and the axis of the chamber 5B being
In this example, the shaft l which mounts the
shown
by the center line 52. Thus, the conduc
plate `3 is, of course, either the armature shaft 70 tor 41 will be relatively nearer »the kWall of the
of the-motor M or a shaft which is driven at a de
chamber 48 at one side, and relatively `farther
sired speed ratio therefrom. Let it be assumed,
at the diametrically opposite side of thencham~
for example, that the 'switch handle 42"'is set for
ber, and the distance from the conductor 41 to
a medium speed, as shown in Fig. 10.A This will
complete a circuit through the wire 36 to the 75 `Lthe zones ofthe peripheral wall of the-chamber
2,410,085
48 between these two points will vary progres
sively. The cylinder 44 can be clamped between
the arms II and I2 in place of the switches A
and B and by such clamping it will be electri
cally connected to the arms II and I2 in the
same manner that the casing I'I in Figs. 1 to 3
was, through the ferrule I4, electrically con
nected to the arms II and I2. The outer end of
the conductor 41 will bear against a contact arm
Il) in the same manner as in Figs. l to 3, so that
the type of switch shown in Figs. 4 and 5 can be
substituted for that shown in Figs. 1 to 3 and wil1
function in a similar manner.
8
forces. When a switch of this type is mounted
between the arms II and I2 in Figs. l to 3 in
place of either of the switches A and B, the ellip
tical housing 53 will be clamped frictionally in
the socket between the arms II and I2, so that
it may be rotated individually in its socket, and
about its longitudinal axis which will be the lon
gitudinal axis of the chamber 56, so as to place
any particular peripheral zone oi the wall of
chamber 56 farthest from the axis of the shaft I.
When the shaft I is rotated, the mercury 6I
will, of course, be moved by centrifugal forces
into the zone of the chamber 56, which is farthest
from the axis of rotation of the shaft I, and it
Will be conñned against that zone of the wall un
divided and relatively immovable, as the shaft
I continues its rotation. The mercury globule
6I normally is too short to contact both of the
loops 59 and 6U, but as the speed of rotation with
By rotating the cylinder or sleeve 44 in its
socket between the arms II and I2 through a
part of a revolution, one may set the switch to
position any zone of the periphery of cylinder 44,
against which the mercury may be coniined by
centrifugal forces farthest from the axis of the
shaft I. If at any time, such zone is that which
the shaft I increases, the globule 6I will be ilat
, has the greatest distance to the conductor, then
tened more and more, which causes it to increase
two centrifugal forces necessary to flatten the
its length along the chamber 56 until ñnally it
globule and break contact between the globule
will electrically connect the loops 59 and 60 and
and the center electrode or Contact 41 will be
through them, the conductors 51 and 58. The
less than when the mercury is conñned by ccn 25 speed and consequently the centrifugal forces
trifugal forces in some other part of the cham
which are required to flatten or distort the glob
ber of the switch. Thus, one may, by merely ro
ule 6I until it electrically connects the loops
tating this switch in its socket, vary the speed at
59 and 6I) will vary with the distance between
which the circuit therethrough will be opened.
the loops 59 and 6U at the zone of the chamber
In Figs. 6 and 7, the mercury tube switch is of 30 56 Where the mercury globule happens to be con
the type shown in Figs. 1 and 2 of said Patent No.
ilned by such rotation, or by the distance from
2,301,217. In that type of switch, the housing
the center of the globule and the loop which is
or casing 53 is made generally elliptical in shape
farthest from the center of the globule. For ex
and of glass, but one end portion thereof is made
ample, if the housing `53 is so disposed that the
reentrant in the form of a tubular post 54. The 35 Zone of the chamber 56 having the shortest dis
outer end of this post is closed by an element 55
tance between the loops 59` and 60, is farthest
of insulating material, which may complete the
from the axis of the shaft I, then relatively low
generally elliptical shape of the exterior of the
centrifugal forces will be required to Hatten the
housing 53. In this particular example, the post
globule 5I suiliciently to connect the loops 59
54 may be disposed concentrically of the chani~ 40 and 50, but if the globule is confined in the zone
4ber 56 within the housing. A conductor 5T passes
of the chamber 56, such as shown in Fig. 6, by
through the element 55 and along the interior of
the centrifugal forces, where the distance be
the post 54, approximately to the other end of
tween the loops is the maximum, then a much
the post, then it passes through the wall of the
higher speed will be required to create centrif
post into the chamber 5B, where it terminates as
ugal forces high enough to elongate the globule
a loop encircling the post but in spaced relation
of mercury to the extent necessary to connect
to the Wall of the chamber and the periphery of
the loops 59 and 60 at that side of the chamber
the post 54. Similarly, a conductor 58 extends
56. Obviously, the housing 53 may be rotated in
through the element 55 and the adjacent end
its own socket about its own axis to place any
of the housing 53 into the chamber 56, and there
other part of the chamber 56 farthest from the
it terminates as a loop which encircles the post
axis of shaft I.
54 at that end of the chamber and is largely in
In Figs. 8 and 9, still another form of the switch
spaced relation to both the housing 53 and the
is
shown, in which the housing 62 is generally
post 54.
of cylindrical shape, but provided with a, re
In this particular example, the planes of the 55 entrant end portion to form a hollow, internal
two loops are made convergent in one direction,
post 63, which post, however, extends the full
as shown in Fig. G, and both equally distant from
length of the chamber 64 and is eccentric there
the center of any globule of liquid confined on
to. A conductor 65 passes through one end of
the periphery of the chamber wall by centrifugal
the
housing into the chamber 64 and then is
forces created by bodily rotation of the casing 53, 60 wound
spirally around the post 63 to the other
so that the distance between loops at one side of
end of the chamber B4. A second conductor B6
the chamber 56 will be less than between the
also enters the chamber 54 and is similarly wound
corresponding parts of the loops at the other
spirally about the post 63 in spaced relation to
side of the chamber 56. The distance between
these loops will, of course, progressively vary in 65 the Conductor 65 to the opposite end of the cham
ber 64. Thus, the two conductors are wound
a direction peripherally of the chamber. A glob
spirally in spaced relation to each other on the
ule or small body 6I of mercury in liquid form
periphery of the post 63 from one end of the
is placed within the chamber 56 and its surface
tension acting against the forces of gravity causes
chamber to the other. A globule or body 6l of
this mercury to form a somewhat ball-like form 70 mercury is provided in the chamber 64 as for
as shown in Fig. 6, in which a substantial por
the chambers of all of the other switches de
tion of the mercury is held solely by its surface
scribed herein, so that no matter what zone of
tension away from and against spreading along
the peripheral wall of the chamber of mercury
the wall of the chamber 56 on which it rests
may be confined against it, it will, by its shape,
or against which it is coniined by centrifugal 75 induced by surface tension, normally engage and
2,410,085
electrically connect the spaced turns ofA thefcon-y
ductors 6‘5' and 66.
When the housing E2 is mounted between the
arms II and I3 in Figs. 1 and 2 in place of the
switches A and B, it may be turned about its
own axis in the socket formed” between the larms
II and I2, so as to place'farthest from'the axis
cf the shaft I any desired peripheralzone of the
chamber 64. For example, when the zone of the
chamber 54 having the greatest distance from the
post 63 to the outside wall is placed farthest fromv
the axis', then smaller centrifugal forces will be
required to flatten the globule lo'f mercury suffi
cient to separate from» onel or both of the con
ductors 65 and 65 and' open the circuit between
them through the mercury. Thus, by“ rotating
the housing 62 about its own axis in- its mount
ing between arms II and I2, the speed at which
the'centrifugal forces will hatten' the globule suf
ñciently to break the circuit between the conduc
tors 65 and Sß may be varied.
It will- be understood that in all forms of the
switches, the circuits'through' the switches 'may
be opened or closed depending’ upon the type of
switch, at any selected speed,v and the circuits
through these‘ switches may' be signal- circuits
whichY operate-suitable signals; or any' other' de~
sired apparatus, or if they are included in’series
with» the motor, or a relay controlling a motor,>
they may controll the` speed of the motor- and
prevent such motor frcm"exceedir`1g a selected
speed, which= speed may ber'varied‘ by rotating the
individual switch about its own axis,
In Fig. 11, I have shown diagrammatically 'the
«control of a motor 63 by either of“ two switches of’
be rotated in its mounting until the selected pe
ripheral wall Zone of the chamber thereofA is far
thest from the axis of the shaft If togive the'de
sired high maximum speed control. The' switch'B
should be similarly turned in its socket until» the
selected peripheral zone of the chamber is-farthest
from the axis of the shaft I to give the desired
low maximum speed control'.
Tooperate such a system, the liu'e‘whies'L’ and
L2 are connected to a suitable source of current,
and the switch arm' 8~I is locked toV place it» in
contact with the switch contact 'I-‘i when a» low
maximum speed is desired. When the'motcr’ is
not operating, the »mercury globule in thevswitch
A will complete a circuit through' that switch and
hence the movement of the switch arrn` 8|" into
engagement with contact `-I'I‘V w-ill complete' a cir
cuit through the switch A and the winding v"Ill" of
the relay R. This willl attract thefrelay switch-‘M
vand complete a circuit through the Motor> 63.
The motor will start its rotation', and the mer
cury globules in each of the» switches A andB
will `be thrown- against the peripheral zone of
the sidev wall of- the chamber of thatswitch which
is farthest from< the axis of the» shaft I. As
the speed of the` motor increases, the mercury
globules will. be flattened to increasing extents,
and when the globule in switch A iiattens until
it withdraws from the contact head 22l of that
switch, this will open the circuit-tothe winding
74 of the relay, whereuponl switch arm Ti) `ci the
relay is released and» moved to open position;
This opens theA circuit» of - the motor» and asl the
speed thereof falls, the mercury globule» will be
« returned by its surface tensiontoward» its former
shape in engagement with the contact head 22
in that chamber andreestablish- the circuit there
through.V This againy enercizes the windingf 'Ill
exceed the selected speed of either‘cf> two! pre
determinedspeeds.V In this form of the inven
and recompletes the circuit to the» motor G31'.
tion, a relay is employed for controlling the mo' 40 Thus, the speed of the motor will be` kept below
tor circuit, so that a relatively large motor- may
almaximum determined by the setting lofÉ the
be employed and itsspeed coiïitrolled' 'oy a; >rela
switch A in its individual socket `or mounting.
tively small- capacity, mercury tube' switch.'
When a higher maximum speed'is permissible;
the switch arm- Il-Il is operatedV to engagethe con
In this circuit, the‘line wire L’ is connected
the type shown in Figs. 1“ tos, which: maybe so'
selected or adjusted that the mo'tor‘spe'e'd' will not
to a contact 6% of a relay'R' and the-moveable a'i-‘m` 45 tact arm- 8% which placesthe switch B instead
cr contact ït’of that‘relayis connected' by! a‘wire
'IiV to one terminal ofthe motor @ill ’The ‘other
terminal of the motor e8 is'c'onn'ec't'ed by aiwire 12
to the lline wire L2. The ‘switch arm 'IQ off' there'
lay‘is yieldingly urged into'op‘en' circuit positionîb‘y
of Ain series with the relay- winding and a simi-lar
control of the motor 68f is obtained, 'except that
since the switchl B is set to place farthest from
the axis of shaft I, the wall zone of> the switch
chamber which causes/the' globule to- open ’the
circuit through that switch at afselectedfm‘axi
mum-speed. Hence; a higher speed» may now be
obtained by the'motory 68 before-the globule in
that switch B will be flattened- sufliciently to leave
contact withY the head 22 of that-switch and open
the circuit of' relay winding 74.
A somewhat similar circuit arrangement is
shown in Fig. 12, but the- winding 82 ci' the‘relay
a> spring 73. The windingfïß` of th‘erelay-‘i'sîcon
nected at one side to the line wireV L2, and’ at
its other side‘by a wire ‘i5’ to’th'e ybrush which bears’
upon the collector ringl S; so- thatfthroug'hthat
collector ring it will be connected to'on‘eï ter’
minal ofV each of the mercury' tube switches A and
B which are‘mounted' on the plate `3. The plate
3', in this example, is shown as mounted directly
on the shaft I of the motor Gil, but! it will be'. un
S acts uponV a switch arm` ßßwhich'is urged intoV
derstood that the shaft I may be driven fr’oniithe» 60 closed positionagainst relayV contact íäâ'by a
armature shaft" of the; motor 63’ through a suit'
springaä; Another dirference’is that theswitches
able speed changing mechanism', if desired. The
D and E are oft-he normally open >circuit type,
central electrode of the switch A is connected
such as shown in Figs. 6 and '7. The wire” 15
through a brush and collector ri‘ri’gï and’ a wire»
and
in this
theinstance
wire ‘I9will
willbebeconnected
connected
to to
thethe
switch
switch
'IB ‘to a contact TI of afswitchï is. » The central' 65
electrode of ' the'other switch'f’B' is connected
D.
through a brushY and collectorïring and` a wire
'I9 to another Contact Säl’of‘t'he switch' 18. The
switch 89 has a` contactarm il! which may" be'
Withsuch an arrangementfto start the mc
tor, the line wires ‘Lf and L2 are connected to a
source of current, and immediately a circuit is
established through the relay switch arm“ @3 to
shifted alternately’between the contacts‘ll and 70 the motor 58. At this time, the globule of‘mer
89 so that circuits through the switchcsYA-and B>
may be made alternately available, depending
upon whether ahigh or lcw speed control ofthe
motor 68 is*` desired..
In: this particular -example, the'switch'A should'
cury in each 0f the switches D'and EwillV be
out of contact with the loopsV 59' and Stfsothat
the relay windingl 32 will- beïdeener'gized».
` he
switch arm SI is shifted, however, into engage
ment with‘on‘e of the'contacts ‘I1’ or- 88‘, depending
2,410,085
11
12
a side Wall thereof and of a size to assume a
upon whether the low maximum speed or high
maximum speed is desired.
Assuming that arm 8| engages contact 11, this
of is held away from and against spreading along
will establish a circuit from the winding 82 of the
said Wall, solely by its surface tension opposing
curved form in which a substantial portion there
the action of gravity thereon, a conductor ex
relay through the switch E. As the speed of the
tending into said chamber and therein having a
motor increases, the increasing centrifugal forces
contact with an exposed surface area not wet by
will flatten the globules 6l of the mercury of both.
mercury, eccentric to a transverse periphery of
switches E and E to greater and greater extents
said chamber and spaced from and so disposed
until globule 6| in switch E engages and connects
the loops 59 and B0 of that switch when the de 10 relatively to said chamber wall than when said
housing is rotated bodily about an axis normal to
sired maximum speed has been reached. This
the plane of said transverse periphery and eccen
Will complete a circuit through the winding 82
tric to the axis of said chamber, .said mercury will
and the latter will move its switch arm 83 into
be held by centrifugal forces relatively immov
open circuit position, thus opening the circuit to
the motor 68. The speed of the motor then falls 15 able and undivided against the zone of said wall
farthest from said axis of rotation and elec
and the reduced centrifugal forces then acting on
trically connected to and disconnected from said
the globule 6I of switch E will be overcome by
con-tact area as it is distorted in shape by vary
surface tension of the globule so as to partially
ing centrifugal forces, and a. circuit connection
restore the former shape of the globule and open
the circuit between the loops 5B and SS. This de 20 to said mercury whereby rotary adjustment of
said housing about its own axis to place different
energizes relay winding 82, and spring 85 then
moves relay switch arm 83 back into closed cir
wall zones thereof farthest from its axis of bodily
cuit position. The motor will then again receive
rotation, will vary the speed of said bodily rota
tion at which said electrical connection or dis
power and tend to build up its speed, but at no
time can the speed of the motor increase above 25 connection is made.
2. A circuit controller comprising a hollow
the speed for which the switch E lis set. By shift
housing having a closed chamber with a wall not
ing the switch arm BI to engage contact Bil, the
wet by mercury, a rotatable element, a support
switch D is made effective in place of the switch
carried by said element and mounting said hous
E, and thus a higher speed must be reached be
fore the relay switch 83 will be opened »to prevent 30 ing eccentrically of the axis of rotation of said
element for rotation with said element, said hous
further increase in the speed of the motor. The
ing being separately rotatable, about its own axis,
switches D and 3 are, of course, individually ro
on said support, a body of mercury within and
tatable in their individual mountings so as to set
only partially filling said chamber~ resting upon
them for the desired maximum speed at which
35 a side wall thereof and of a size to assume a
the circuit therethrough is to be closed.
curved form in which a substantial portion there
While mercury is the preferred conducting
liquid for the globule or electrically conducting
liquid because of its relatively high surface ten
sion, any other electrically conducting liquid
of is held away from and against spreading along
said wall, solely by its surface tension opposing
I claim as my invention:
1. A circuit controller comprising a hollow
housing having a closed chamber with a wall not
wet by mercury, a body of mercury within and
disposed eccentrically with respect to said cham
ber, and in contact with said globule while said
globule is confined, undivided and relatively im
movable, against a zone of said wall by centrifugal
only partially filling said chamber, resting upon
forces created by bodily rotation of said housing
gravity, a conductor extending into said chamber
with substantial surface tensions is to be consid 40 and having therein a contact with an exposed
surface area not wet by mercury, eccentric to
ered the broad equivalent of mercury, but when
said housing axis, and spaced from said chamber
other liquids are employed in place of mercury,
wall whereby when said housing is rotated with
the chamber wall and the exposed electrode with
said element, said mercury will be confined by
in the chamber should be of materials not wet by
` centrifugal forces, undivided and relatively im
the liquid used. Other conducting liquids are
movable against the zone of said wall farthest
usually less desirable because they may be subject
from the axis of said element and electrically
to electrolytic decomposition by the electric cur
connected to and disconnected from said contact
rent passing therethrough. The chambers of
area as its shape is varied by the opposing cen
each housing or casing, after introduction there
in of the conducting liquid or mercury, are ex 50 trifugal forces and surface tension, and a cir
cuit connection to said mercury whereby the
hausted of air and the air replaced with an inert
speed at which an electrical connection or dis
gas to increase the effective life of the switches.
connectionis made between said contact area and
'I'his is easily done as usual with mercury tube
said mercury may be varied by adjustment of said
switches, and the use of glass in closing the cham
bers makes easily possible this exhaustion of air 55 housing about its own axis on said support.
3. A circuit controller comprising a rotatable
and replacement of the air with another gas.
element, supporting means carried by and rotat
It is believed that the operation and use of the
able bodily with said element, a hollow housing
devices which have been illustrated and described
mounted by said supporting means eccentrically
will be clear from the foregoing description, but
it will be understood that any of the mercury tube 60 to lthe axis of rotation of said element, addition
ally rotatable about its own axis in said support
switches shown in Figs. 4, 5, 8 and 9 may be used
ing means and having a closed chamber with a
as the switches A and B instead of the type shown
wall not wet by mercury, a globule of mercury
in Fig. 3.
within and only partially filling said chamber
It will also be understood that various changes
in the details, materials and arrangements of 05 and of a size tending to assume a generally ball
like form, when resting upon a side Wall thereof,
parts, which have been herein described and il
solely by action of its surface tension in opposi
lustrated in order to explain the nature of the
tion to gravity, a conductor extending into said
invention, may be made by those skilled in the
chamber and therein having a contact with an
art Within the principle and scope of the inven
tion as expressed in the appended claims.
70 exposed surface area not wet by mercury and so
2,410,085, L
13 L
with said element, but from which said globule
may separate as said globule undergoes changes
in shape underthe opposing forces of surface ten
sion and the centrifugal forces due to its bodily
rotation, and circuit connections to said globule
land conductor 'whereby the. centrifugal forces
necessary to produce engagement or separation
of said globule and contact will vary with rota
tion of said housing about its own axis to vary
the wall zone against which the globule is con
fined by the centrifugal forces created by the
bodily rotation of that housing.
body and conductor in 14
series with each other in
part of a circuit to be controlled by the engage
ment or separation of said body and Contact area.
'7. The controller substantiallyv as set forth in
claim 6, and a support for said housing, in which
said housing may be turned about its own axis,
and an element mounting said support for rota
tion about an axis eccentric to said` housing axis,
whereby the housing may be rotated bodily about
the axis of rotation of said element and also ad
ditionally rotated about its own axis to place
different zones along the periphery of said wall
farthest from said axis of rotation of said element.
4. A circuit controller comprising a hollow
n mercury tube switch comprising a hollow
housing having a closed chamber with a Wall not
wet by mercury, a. globule of mercury within and 15 housing having a closed chamber containing an
only partially filling saidchamber, resting upon
inert gas and with a wall-not wet by mercury, a
a side Wall thereof and of a size to assume a gen
conductor extending into said chamber and hav
ing therein a contact with an exposed surface
erally ball-like form solely by its surface tension
acting against gravity, a conductor extending into
area substantially eccentric to, anal spaced from,
said chamber and therein having a contact with 20 said wall, a globule of mercury within and only
partially filling said chamber and of a size to
an exposed surface area not wet by mercury, lo
assumo a generally ball-like form. solely by its
catedwith respect to said globule whilethe latter
is confined undivided and relatively immovable
against a zone of said wall by centrifugal forces
eurfacetension acting against gravity, the dis
periphery of said Wall by said centrifugal forces,
the speedof said bodily rotationy of said housing
the wall against which the globule is coniîned by
centrifugal forces determining the speed at which
globuic separates froml said contact.
tancefrom each .zone of said Wall to said contact
being less than the thickness of said globule when
as said housing is rotated bodily about an axis
the globule is resting on said zone, and circuit
eccentric to the axis of said chamber, in a posi
connections leading to said globule and said con
ticnto engage with and be separated from said
ductor, wherebywhen said housing is rotated
globule as said globule changes shape under the
about an axis eccentric to .said chamber, the
opposing forces of surface tension and centrifugal
forces due to its bodily rotation, and a circuit con 30 centrifugal forces created by such-rotation will
said globule against a zone of said wall,
nection to said globule, said contact being dis
and flatten the’ globule an amount dependent
posed at difierent'distances from different zones
upon the speed of rotation of said housing, the
of the periphery of said wall vwhereby when said
distance between the Contact and the zone of
globule is conñned in different zones around .the
which will produce engagement or separation of
said globule and contact will vary with the wall
zone against which the globule is confined by
the centrifugal forces set up.
5. The controller substantially as set forth in
claim 4, and a rotatable element, and a support
rotating with said element and mounting said
housing for selective increments of rotation about
said chamber axis to place different zones-of said
chamber side Wall farthest from the axis of ro
tation of said element.
6. A circuit controller comprising a hollow «
housing having a closedchamber with a wall not
wet by mercury, a small body of mercury within
and only partially filling said chamber and of a
size to assume a curved form in which a substan
tial portion thereof is held above and against
spreading along, said wall solely by its surface
tension opposing the action of gravity thereon,
a conductor` extending into said chamber from
the exterior of said housing and within said
chamber having an exposed contact area dis
posed to be engaged by said mercury body or
separated therefrom by changes in shape of said
body under the opposing forces of said surface
tension and tht`~ centrifugal forces acting upon
said body when said housing is rotated about an
axis eccentric thereto, said contact area having
portions thereof disposed at different relative
distances from the center of said mercury body
while the latter is confined against different
peripheral zones of said wall by centrifugal forces
of said rotation, whereby by confining the mer
cury body, undivided and relatively immovable
against different zones of said chamber around
the periphery thereof, the centrifugal forces nec
essary to cause engagement or disengagement
between said mercury body and contact area may
be varied, and means for connecting said mercury
il. A mercury tube switch comprising a ho-llou.1
housing having a closed chamber containing an
inert gas and with a wall not-wet by mercury,
a contact in said chamber having an exposed
surface
disposed at a plurality of different
distances from different zones of the periphery of
said wall at the intersection of said wall by a
piane transverse to said chamber and approxi
mately normal to said wall, «a globule of mercury
within and only partially filling said chamber and
cf a size to assume generally‘ball-like form solely
by its surface tension acting against gravity, the
>distance from different zones of said Wall pe
riphery to said 'contactÍ surface area varying,
whereby when said housing is rotated about an
axis normal to said plane and eccentric to said
chamber, said globule will be confined against
that one of the zones of said wall which is fur
thest from the rotation axis, and variably dis
torted with changes in centrifugal forces as the
speed of rotation varies, said globule by its distor
tion engaging with and separating from said con
tact, and circuit connections to said globule and
said conductor.
lO. A mercury tube switch comprising a hollow
housing having a closed chamber containing an
inert gas and with a Wall not wet by mercury, a
Contact in said chamber having an exposed sur
area disposed at a plurality of different dis
tances from different zones of the periphery of
said wall at the intersection of said wall by a
plane transverse to said chamber and approxi
mately normal to said wall, a globule of mercury
within and only partially filling said chamber and
of a size to assume a generally ball-like form solely
by its surface tension acting against gravity, the
distance from different zones of said Wall pe
riphery to said contact surface area varying, a
15
2,410,085
16
support for said housing in which said housing
mercury as said body is conñned against the por
may be adjusted angularly about an axis of said
tion of said Wall furthest from said chamber axis
chamber normal to said plane, whereby when said
when said housing is rotated about an axis parallel
housing and support are bodily rotated about an
to but offset from said chamber axis, and ilai
s' s parallel to but offset from said chamber axis,
tened against said Wall and released to dilïerent
:d globule will be confined on a zone of said wall
extents by varying centrifugal forces acting on
p ,riphery which is furthest from said axis of rota
said body and created by its rotation about said
tion, and as the speed of rotation varies, oppos~
parallel and offset axis, said conductor being dis
ing centrifugal forces and surface tension of said
posed at different distances from the center of
globule will distort said globule and cause separa 10 said body as said body is confined against difier
tion and engagement of said globule and contact
ent peripheral Zones of said portion cf said wall
at selected speeds, which varies with the distance
which, is furthest from said chamber axis, whereby
io
contact from said peripheral Wall Zone
the speed of rotation at which engagement and
against which the globule is then conñned, and
disengagement of said body and conductor occurs
circuit connections to said globule and said con--~
:may be varied by disposing of said different Wall
ductor from outside said housing.
sones furthest from said axis of rotation and con
l1. A mercury tube switch comprising a hollow
nections to said body and said conductor` from
liom sing having a closed chamber containing an
the exterior of said housing.
inert gas and with a Wall not Wet by mercuryJ said
13. A mercury tube switch comprising a holloul
wall being circular in the transverse cross section
housing having a closed chamber containing an
formed by a plane containing a radius of curva»
inert gas and a wall not wet by mercury, Said wall
ture of said wall, a contact within said chamber
being circular in transverse cross section, a sur
and substantially eccentric to said center of cur»
face of generation, and arcuate in the generat
vature not spaced from said wall, a globule of
ing line intermediate of its ends, a Contact within
mercury within and only partially filling said 25 said chamber, extending oblique to the axis of
chamber, and of a size to normally assume a
generation and disposed in spaced relation along
generally ball-like form solely by its surface ten~
said generation axis from the zone of said Wall
sion acting against gravity, and circuit connec
furthest from that axis, a body of mercury within
tioi'is leading to said globule and said contact
and only partially filling said chamber, con
from the exterior of said housing, whereby when
fined undivided and relatively immovably on a
said housing is rotated about an
parallel to,
zone of said wall furthest from said generation
but offset from the axis of said chamber passing
axis when said housing is rotated about another
through the center' of curvature of said cross sec
`ais parallel to and offset from said generation
tion of said wall, said globule will be conñned
axis, and of a size such that its surface tension
against said wall at said section in engagement 35 acting against gravity holds it in a curved form
with said Contact, and as the speed of rotation
with a substantial portion away from said Wall
increases, said globule will be flattened against
Zone, whereby the centrifugal forces acting on said
said wall to increasing extents until it separates
body, by reason of said rotation, in opposition to
from said contact.
the surface tension of said body will distort saidl
12. A circuit controller comprising a hollow
body and elongate it in a direction generally
housing with a closed chamber containing an
parallel to said generation axis, said Contact being
inert gas and a wall not wet by mercury,
wall
positioned along- said generation axis for eiifrage~
being a closed surface of generation about an axis
ment by and separation from said body as the
of said chamber, a body of mercury within and
distortion of the body varies at selected speeds,
only partially iilling said chamber and of a size
r which speed at which said engagement or separa
ro normally hold a substantial portion of it, by
tion occurs will vary with the zone of said wall
the action of its surface tension alone in opposi
against which said body is confined, and circ
tion to gravity, in curved forni and away from
connections to said body and said contact from
the zone of said wall on which it may be resting,
a conductor within said chamber in a position to
be engaged by and separated from said body of
the exterior of said housing.
`
50
HARRY L. LAMBERT.
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