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Патент USA US2410088

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‘ Oct. 29,1946.
' 2,410,087 '
Filed Feb. 25, 1942
‘MM/M7278 7-1:
sou/ms ‘
Patented Oct. 29,1946
I I Charles V. Litton, Redwood City, Calif., assignor
to International Standard Electric Corporation,
New York,N. Y.,.a corporation of Delaware
Application February 25, 1942, Serial No. 432,226
(Cl. 250-17)
5 Claims.
damps the associated circuit to such a degree that
it proves impossible to obtain waves to produce
and more particularly to high power wave—im
extremely short impulses in the trains lasting for
pulse generators and transmitters.
hundreds of cycles. Quick quenching gaps do not
At the present time considerable attention is
solve this dif?culty for ultra short waves because
being given to so-called. “pulse transmission”
even the quickest gap has a deionization time of
systems. These systems are proposed for trans
the order of hundreds of cycles of these ultra
mission of “wave-impulse” (i. e. very brief trains
short waves. Furthermore, the resonant cir
of ultra-high frequency carrier waves) for ‘object
cuits of known spark transmitters generally‘ have
detection such as in the case of airplane de
tectors. They are also coming into more general 10 too high a ratio of resistance to inductance to
produce by. shock excitation a wave train which
use for ordinary communication, for example,
endures for several hundred cycles before falling
with time modulation of the wave-impulses, since
to half its initial amplitude. Accordingly, if at
tubes may then- be used at a much higher power
tempts were made to transmit such ultra short
level than. incontinuous signaling, as they are
wave impulses over the’ known type systems en
needed for only a small percentage of the time.
ergy sent would be so weak that it would be
For this purpose various types of development
useful for only very short distances.
have been undertaken in an endeavor to pro
According to‘ one feature ofv my invention, the
duce powerful wave-impulses tuned to a desired
abrupt current interruption is produced by a vi
ultra-high frequency. Such endeavors have gen
erally been directed to the use of D. C. impulses 20 bratingmember and the tuned circuit is pref
erably a closed resonant chamber.
(i. e. very brief surges of direct current or voltage)
In a preferred embodiment of the invention
for modulating or keying an ultra short wave
the vibrating member is arranged at least par
oscillation generator of conventional. type.
tially within a closed chamber forming the tuned
Alternatively, it has been proposed to produce
circuit and is vibrated by control impulses which
wave-impulses at low power levels with cathode
may be‘ time modulated.
ray tubes, and then amplify these low level im
A. better understanding of my invention will
pulses. One of the di?iculties- of these impulse
be had from the particular desscription‘ thereof
transmission systems resides in. the fact that‘ it is
made with reference to the» accompanying draw
quite di?icult to amplify wave-impulse energy
because of the wide wave band involved. It is, .‘ ing in which: U
Fig. 1- is a circuit diagram used to explain my
therefore, desirable. if possible, to produce wave
impulses directly at an energy level highenough
‘Fig. 2 is one form- of a preferred embodiment
for transmission.
of any invention; and
According. to my invention. the powerful wave
Fig. 3 is another form thereof.
' impulses for transmission are produced by" use
In accordance with the present invention,v I
of an abrupt current breaking device operated
This invention relates to impulse generators
within a closed vessel, either evacuated or under
pressure of some inert I gas, associated with a
tuned high quality oscillating circuit, that is, a
circuit having a low ratio of resistance to, in
ductive reactance, so as. to induce damped wave
trains by shock excitationof said circuit.
The well known spark transmitter is, of course,
propose to utilize a. system in which an abrupt
current interruption is produced by means of
an enclosed switch arrangement connected-in a
circuit, as. shown in Fig. 1. This enclosed switch
may then operate in a vacuum or under‘ pressure
of. some inert gas so that large currents may be
broken substantially instantaneously without
arcing at the contacts. In this, ?gure the in
wave trains by shock excitation. However, 45 closed switch Ml is illustrated as having a con
tact element It supported' on vibrating rod l2.
known spark transmitters are generally arranged
Rod I2. is vibrated by means of anielectromagnet
to make use of the abrupt circuit. closure caused
it by energy applied to the windings of this mag~
by gaseous breakdown for effecting the shock ex
net.~. If the pulses of energy applied to H3 are
citation. An abrupt circuit interruption is much
more suitablev since it may theoretically approach 50 time modulated, rod i2 is preferably substantially
damped. or resonant at a frequency considerably
an instantaneous, in?nite change of voltage and
different from the frequency of the’ energy ap
an in?nite rate of change of current instead of
plied to magnet I3' so that it will be capable of
merely a ?nite charge. of voltage. and a ?nite rate
following the time. modulation. Contact H; is
of; change of current. Also a spark gap when
broken down o?ers e?ective resistance which 56 arranged: in serieswitha source of D. C. voltage
an impulse generator which produces damped
M, which is preferably a source capable of giv
ing a high current for a short period of time.
This may, for example, be an ordinary lead cell
storage battery. Coupled in this series circuit
is a tank circuit diagrammatically shown at l5,
consisting of an inductance and a condenser. In
actual practice, such a tank circuit should gen
erally consist of a closed resonant chamber in
wardly from chamber 25, the upper end of this
member 32 being substantially in line with one
of the walls of the chamber. Contacts 36, 31 are
directly connected to chamber 25 and may be
made integral therewith if desired. Thus, as
member 32 is vibrated by D. C. control impulses
in the windings of relay l3, source 24 is permit
ted to complete a direct current circuit. Upon
order that an extremely low ratio of resistance
breaking this circuit, the impulses of direct cur
to inductance will be achieved. The series cir 10 rent produce shock excitation of the resonant
cuit is then completed, as magnet I3 is energized,
circuit 25. In order that the direct current sup~
by means of two contact elements I6, I? which
ply may be well distributed, it is preferable that
are alternately engaged by contact H to cause
separate parallel connection from battery M to
a high current to ?ow through the inductance of
different parts of chamber 25 be made. Accord
the tank circuit and then abruptly interrupt such
ingly, I provide a number of separate leads 24
current so as to shock excite circuit l5 which will
from battery M to different points on the Walls
then oscillate at its resonant frequency. Con
of resonant chamber 25.
tacts II, It; and I1 are maintained within the
A still further modi?cation of a circuit in ac
envelope of ID which is either ?lled with an inert
cordance with my invention is shown in Fig. 3.
gas under pressure or preferably evacuated to a 20 This system is substantially similar to that shown
high degree so that the large currents produced
in Fig. 2 except that tuned resonant chamber
in the circuit may be interrupted substantially
25 is not made annular in form as in Fig, 2.
without arcing. Thus, upon periodic energiza
Furthermore, instead of sealing the glass enve
tion of magnet l3, exceedingly steep wave fronts
lope to a metal member forming part of the cham
are produced by each abrupt interruption of the 25 ber, a portion‘ of the glass envelope inclosing
series circuit thus inducing very high power wave
switch 39 is merely extended into the chamber
trains in tank circuit 15 which may be then
radiated from antenna H3 or transmitted to any
through an opening in disc 38 which forms one
enough so that the Waves in 15 are not too highly
In the preferred arrangement, the impulse
tures of my invention and several speci?c em
transmitter according to my invention is used
with a time modulation system. This is shown
diagrammatically in Fig. 1 in which the impulse
source 20 produces spaced D. C. impulses which
are time modulated by signals from source 2! in
the time modulation circuit 22. Details of this
system are not disclosed in the present applica
tion since they form no part of the present in
vention. Systems of this type, however, are
lustration and not as a limitation on the scope
inclosing end Wall of resonant chamber 25. This
other load circuit. Preferably the capacity be
particular construction in many cases may be
tween l2 and l6, I‘! should be as small as possible. 30 preferable to that in Fig. 2.
Also the coupling to antenna I8 should be loose
While I have described above the principal fea
known and these systems operate by causing a
time displacement of the impulses in accordance
with applied signals so that these signals may
be reproduced at the receiving end. This type of
system is shown, for example, in U. S. patent to
bodiments thereof, it should be distinctly under
stood that this description is made by way of il
of my invention. The features of my invention
may be readily applied to many different struc
tural arrangements which will present themselves
to one skilled in the art to which this invention
What is claimed is:
1. An impulse generator for generatingzshort
wave trains of high power comprising a source
of direct current energy, an enclosed vibrator
switch arrangement in series circuit with said
source, electro-mechanical means for operating
said switch arrangement to alternately make and
break said series circuit to produce high current
A. H. Reeves, No. 2,266,401, dated December 16,
impulses, and a tuned circuit comprising asub
50 stantially closed resonant chamber forming at
The time modulated D. C. impulses are then
least part of the envelope of said enclosed switch
applied to the winding of relay l3 to operate
and arranged in circuit with said switch for shock
switch It! so that wave impulses corresponding
to these time modulated D. C. impulses but of
great power are applied to load I 8.‘
The showing of Fig. 1 illustrates the tuned
circuit conventionally as a coil and a condenser.
In actual operation, however, such a circuit is
di?‘icult to make of high enough quality for the
purpose of my invention. For this reason, it is
preferred to use some form of closed resonant
chamber. Fig. 2 illustrates one form of my in
vention using such closed resonant circuit. In
this ?gure the impulse source 20, signal source
2|, time modulator 22 and control magnet I3 are
shown in the same relationship as shown in Fig.
However, in place of the tuned circuit I5,
I provide a closed resonant chamber 25 to which
the load antenna I8 is coupled by means of a
excitation by said impulses.
2. An impulse generator according to claim 1
further comprising a time modulatedv impulse
means for controlling said electro-mechanical
means, and an output circuit'coupled to said
tuned circuit.
3. An impulse transmitter system. comprising
a source of direct current energy, an inclosed
switch in series with said source for making and
breaking a direct current circuit including said
source, electro-magnetic means for operating said
inclosed switch, impulse means to operate said
switch to produce high power direct current im
pulses, a resonating circuit tuned to a selected
radio frequency comprising a substantially closed
resonant chamber forming at least a part of the
envelope of said enclosed switch arranged for
shock excitation by said impulses and coupled to
said direct current circuit, and an output circuit
coupled to said tuned circuit.
coaxial line 25 and a loop 21. The inclosed switch
30 is preferably attached directly to a portion of
the walls of resonant chamber 25 so that this
chamber 25 forms in part an envelope for the
{1. An impulse transmitter according to claim 3,
inclosed switch. The magnetically controlled vi
further comprising means for time modulating
brating member 32 of the switch 30 extends out 75 impulses from said impulse means, whereby en
ergy in said output circuit consists of high power
time modulated radio frequency impulses.
5. An impulse generator for generating ‘short
wave trains of high power comprising a source of
direct current energy, a stationary contact and a
vibratory contact in series with said source, elec
tromagnetic means for operating said vibratory
contact to alternatively make and break said se
ries circuit to produce impulses, a tuned circuit
comprising a substantially closed annular reso
nant chamber forming at least a part of a gas
tight enclosure for said contacts and arranged
in circuit with said contacts for shock excitation
by said impulses, and an output circuit coupled
to said resonant chamber.
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