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Патент USA US2410093

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Oct 29; 1946-
Filed March 15, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet l
Obt. 29, 1946.
FiledMarch 15, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Qct. 29,1946
Eugene F. Martinec, Cleveland, Ohio
Application March 15, 1943, Serial No. 479,239
2 Claims. (Cl. 33—147)
This invention relates to gauging devices, and
has for an object to provide a simple and effective
device for very accurately gauging various parts
or elements, and one which can be employed to
operate an indicating means, either visible,
audible, element sorting or separating, and the
It is particularly adapted for indicating and
controlling tolerances; that is, indicating when
elements being gauged are‘ within given toler
speci?cation. It is, however, to be understood
the invention is not limited to the speci?c con
struction and arrangement shown but may em
ploy various changes and modi?cations within
the scope of the invention. These drawings are
somewhat diagrammatical, but show the device
, in su?icient detail so that the principles of con
struction and operation may be readily under
In these drawings:
Fig. 1 is a top plan view and partial section
ances, or separating them so that elements within
showing one form of the assembled device, details
the given tolerances are placed together and sep
of the wiring being omitted;
arated from those outside those tolerances.
Fig. 2 is a front, elevation and partial vertical
It is also an object to provide such a device
section, the section being substantially on line
which may be contructed and assembled as a unit,
'2—2 of Fig. 1;
to be assembled and adjusted independently of
Fig. 3 is a vertical. section substantially on line
its application, and may be mounted as such a
unit on an application locating support in position
for gauging the desired parts or elements involved,
3—3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatical view showing one
arrangement of electrical connections which may
and at the same time may be used in connection 20 be used and its relation to the gauging element
with the device with which it is so located to
controlioperation of the device on the elements
to be gauged to maintain them accurately within
predetermined small limits.
and the ‘article to be gauged;
Figs. 5 and 6 are diagrammatical views of the
indicating arm showing modi?ed arrangements;
Fig. 7 is a. side elevation and edge view of the
Another object is to provide a device com-' 25 indicating arm of Fig. 5 showing one way in which
prising a complete assembled unit which may be 7 the light controlling element carried by the arm
located and used as such, and includes a light
may be mounted, and
sensitive element with means connected there
Figs. 3 to 12 are diagrammatical views in
with for connecting it with indicating means to
be controlled, a light‘ element to provide a light 30 dicating some examples of-di?erent applications
for which the device may be used.
beam to the light-sensitive element, a movable
This invention was developed for the purpose
means positioned to be aiiected by the element
of ?lling a de?nite need on the part of industry
to be gauged, and means located between the
for gauging equipment capable of not only auto
light element and the cell element to control the
light beam to the cell element including a mov 35 matically gauging parts or elements to within
.0001 inch or less, but which also could be used
able member operated by said movable means to
to automatically grade them and sort them
be positioned in accordance with dimensions of
into bins or receptacles according to size. Gauges
the element to be gauged.
now largely employed are dependent upon the
Another object is to provide a device in which
human element to correctly read the gauge, and
it is possible to vary the tolerances desired with
then depend on the operator to sort the articles
out 'in any way disassembling the gauge unit.
according to such readings in the correct re
Still another object is to provide a gauging
ceptacle. The ordinary dial type of gauge is
unit that will not only automatically gauge parts
rather dlfjClllt to read and becomes extremely
to within .0001 inch or less, but may also be em
ployed to automatically grade them or sort them 45 tiresome to the operator where a large number of
pieces are handled, resulting in liability to error,
into receptacles according to size.
which tendency increases as the number of pieces
A particular object is to provide a gauging
handled is increased. In an attempt to remedy
means which will not only automatically gauge
this condition several so-called electro-limit
the elements within close limits, but in which the
gauges and other types of electric gauges have
errors due to the human element in reading a
been developed which spread the indication of
gauge and depending on’ such, readings are
size over a much larger dial area so as to make
them easier for the operator to read. All the
_ - Withv the foregoing and other objects in view I
electric gauges are extremely critical devices and
have devised the construction illustrated in the
require considerable setting and maintaining of
accompanying drawings forming a part of this 55
adjustment and in addition are quite expensive
and complicated. In spite of the larger dial area
for any given tolerance provided by these electric
type gauges, they are still subject to the human
element in correctly reading and sorting the
To overcome these cli?iculties and problems
I have devised the present construction which
locate the housing and the gauging means carried
thereby with respect to the gauging table or sup-
port indicated diagrammatically at G, and permit
locating of the device in zero position in respect
to its master or standard element it with which
the elements to be gauged are to be compared, as
will be more fully described later. The collar ! i
may be clamped in desired position on the post or
will not only automatically register extremely
support Q, and, after loosening the clamping sore a‘
small tolerances, but may also be employed to 10 $23, the housing may be raised ‘or lowered by the
sort the measured piece into its correct recep
tacle. In this invention the extremely simple gear
type dial gauge, which over a good many years
micrometer screw l3 to the desired position and
then clamped in this position by again tightening
or setting the screw l0.
has proved to be extremely durable and ac—
curate, is employed, and there is built around it
and'assembled therewith in a complete unit,
Mounted in the housing, as for example in the
chamber ll, is a light-sensitive or photocell ele
means of translating the reading given by the dial
source such as a relatively small ?lament in
gauge into any amount of energy necessary for
correctly indicating the reading or doing any type - ‘
ment hi, and in the adjacent chamber 3 is a light
candescent electric light element 1 5 to provide a
beam of light to be projected on the cell element
of feeding, grading, sorting, feed or adjustment 20 H3. Located between the light element and the
control and the like.
This has been accom
plished without in any way affecting the accuracy,
life or simplicity of the dial gauge.
This new device makes use basically of the indi
cator hand of the dial gauge for interrupting in 25
various ways a beam of light focused on a photo
cell element which may be used directly or asso
cell element is means for controlling the light
beam which means is in turn controlled by a
means responsive to variations in the dimensions
of the elements to be gauged. For this purpose,
although various types of gauging or measuring
mechanism may be used, I prefer a typical gear
type dial gauge [8 which has over a good man
ciated with an extremely stable, simple and eco
years of use proven to be extremely durable and
nomical ampli?er. No special equipment in the
form of special vacuum tubes, relays or other 30 accurate. A satisfactory type of this mechanical
gauging element is illustrated somewhat diagram~
similar equipment is necessary, as standard de
matically and comprises a movable stem I‘! guided
vices readily available on the market may be
for vertical sliding movement and projecting from
employed. As a beam of light offers absolutely
the housing in position to engage the element to
no resistance to the passage of a solid through
be gauged, such as the master gauge block [8 used
it, it will be understood that this system or device
for setting the device, and the elements to be
in no way affects the stability and accuracy of
gauged, such as the circular element I9 (Fig. 4).
the simple dial gauge. The device is so con
It will be understood this stem need not directly
structed and arranged that no specia1 optical sys
engage the element being gauged, but could en
tem is required and a standard small type lamp
developed for projector use may be employed, All 40 gage an intervening member whose position is
determined by the element so that the position
vacuum tubes and relays used may be of standard
types produced in large quantities for other pur
poses and therefore may be readily secured on the
, Referring ?rst to Figs. 1 to 7, the device com"
pri'ses‘a small and compact housing I made of suit
able material, preferably a suitable molded plastic
material or a die-casting, and may for conven»
of the stem is determined by this element, ., An
example of such an arrangement is disclosed in
my copending application ?led of even date here
with. This movable stem I‘! is connected by a
rack 20 and suitable gearing 2! with an indicating
arm 22, the gearing being such as to step up or
amplify the movement of stem H to give a much
larger movement of the indicating arm. This
ience and simplicity of molding comprise two or
more sections secured together, as for example in 50 arm may move over a suitable indicating dial
the present case a body portion 2 having suit
23 and have a zero setting slot 24 or other indi
able chambers 3, 4 and 5 in which are mounted
cating means to indicate when it is in zero posi
various elements of the device, and some or all of
tion over the dial. A spring 25 tends to shift
which may open through one side of the housing,
the stem i? downward to engage the article being
as for example the top thereof to facilitate mount
ing the elements in these chambers, and which
The arm 22 is extended to a position between
chambers may be closed by a suitable top or
the photocell element and the light element and
closure section 6. The housing also includes a
is provided with means 26 so positioned that dur
split lateral extension or frame 7! having an open
ing the measuring operation it cooperates with a
ing 8 therethrough to receive and embrace an
slot 2'! in a Wall 28 located between the cell ele
application locating post or support 9 and on
ment and the light element for passage of a light
which it is adjustable to permit location in the
beam fromv the light element to the cell element
proper desired position and on which it may be
and at the proper time, depending on the size and
clamped in adjusted position by a clamping screw
shape of the member 26 on the indicating arm
Hi. There is also provided a locking collar i i also 65 and the location of this arm, to interrupt the light
embracing the post or support 9 and split so that
beam to the cell element and therefore cause op
it may be clamped in the desired position on this
eration of this element to control some device,
post or support by a similar clamping screw 12.
such for example as an indicating device, as either
Frame portion ‘I is connected to this collar by a
visible or audible indicating means, or a suitable
micrometer adjusting screw is mounted for turn
sorting or separating mechanism for the elements
ing movements in the collar and having threaded
gauged, The term “indicating means” is used in
connection with the housing frame ‘I. This may
a broad sense as meaning any one of a number of
be a single or double micrometer screw as desired,
different devices, such for example as a visible
and is designed for close micrometer adjustments
indicator, an audible signal, sorting means, ad
between the collar and the housing to properly 75 justing means, etc., or any device aifected or con
trolled by the reaction of a cell due to interrup
ment l9 being gauged should interrupt the light
- In the diagrammatical View as shown in Fig. 4,
beam passing through the slot 21 onto the photo
cell element 14, it will cause the resistance of this
the’cell I4 is shown as connected by suitable wir
ing 29 with a suitable source of current, as a bat
tery-30 and coil 3] operating the clapper 32 of a
30 cannot force sufficient current through the coil
3! of the signal device to keep the spring biased
tion or change of the light beam.
signal bell 33. This particular indicator is shown
merely by way of example to indicate some device
element to increase to a point where the battery
clapper ‘32 down against the coil. The biasing
spring 38 will then pull the clapper against ‘the
signal bell 33 giving a single stroke audio signal.
controlled by the cell. The'mechanical gauging
‘element I6 is also shown diagramatically, and in 10 As the indicating arm 22, as shown in Fig. 4,
again uncovers the slot either by going up past
stead of showing the gear train connection be
the slot because the element 19 is oversize, or fall
tween the ‘stem 11 and the gauging arm 22, merely
ing back due to removal of the element or part [9
a; conventional connection is shown to indicate
under the gauging stem I1, the resistance of
that movement of the stem I1 upwardly swings
the free end of the arm 22 upwardly or clockwise. 15 the photocell I4 is again lowered allowing su?'i
cient current to flow through the circuit to again
As shown in Figs. 2 to 7, various shapes and
the clapper 32 down and away from the sig
sizes of elements may be carried by the indicating
nal bell.
arm to cooperate with the slot 21 to control the
If the indicating arm 22 is originally set so that
light ‘beam. depending on tolerances or other ef
covers the slot 21 to interrupt the light beam
fects d esired,it being preferred that these elements
be detachably mounted in the arm 22 so that
' they may be changed to secure the effect desired.
In the present case, by way of example, four dif
ferent shapes and sizes of these elements‘ are
shown, indicated by the numerals 26, 26a, 26b and
26c, these being shown as thin plates slipped into
the forked end 22a of the indicator arm, the sides
of which may be spring ‘elements frictionally grip
ping and holding the removable element.
when a master part or element l8 of exactly the
[correct size is placed under the gauge stem l1, it
will be seen that when a part or element I9 to be
gauged is inserted under the gauge stem and
that element is smaller than the master element,
no signal will be given because the indicating
arm of the gauging unit will not be forced high
audible signal 33 may also be mounted in the
housing as indicated, and if relays or other oper
ating mechanism are desired as well as amplify
ing tubes and devices for amplifying the current
from the cell element, they may also be mounted
in the housing, as indicated diagrammatically at
34, making a self-contained gauging unit which
may be assembled and adjusted independently
and separately from its position of use, and then
it may be mounted at the position of use on a
suitable support, such as‘for example the applica
tion locating post or support 9 on a gauging or
‘sorting device,2or on a machine tool where the
enough to interrupt the light beam, and con
sequently no signal will result.
If the piece or
element being gauged is of the correct size, the
arm will come up and cover the slot 21, thus in
terrupting the light beam and cause one stroke
of the clapper 32 against the bell 33. If on the
other hand the piece or element is too large, the
indicating arm 22 will pass beyond the slot 21 in
terrupting the light beam once going up, result
in a signal, and once coming down, when the
part or element being gauged is removed from
under the stem l1, resulting under these condi
tions in a total of two strokes of the clapper
against the bell; The upward movement of the
indicating arm 22 may be limited by a stop pin
device is to‘ be used for adjusting the operating
It will'therefore be seen that in this particular
tools, such for example as ‘a grinding wheel'to
broad arrangement used as an example, no signal
control grinding of a series of articles within close
signi?es that'the element being gauged‘ is too
tolerances and adjust the grinding, operation for
small, one signal that the element is of the cor
variations in the wheel as it wears, for example.
' rect size, and two signals that the element being
Thus as shown in Fig.’ 1 there may be an attach
gauged is too large. This principle, as will be
ment cap 35 for plugging the device into a source 50 further pointed out, can be modi?ed to indicate
of electric power, as for example the outlet from
various conditions and secure different resulting
a house wiring system, and, another plug 36 con
operations or eiie‘cts in accordance with permis
nected by a ?exible cable extension 31 from the
sible tolerances and desired results.
device to connect it with a ?eld application, suchv
Some of these effects and conditions are 11
‘as an indicating device, including a sorting, ad
lustrated in Figs. 2, 5, 6, and 8 to 12.
justing or, similar ?eld application as indicated
Referring to Fig. 5, the tip 26b on the indicat
' ‘ As above indicated, the arm 22 is so positioned
ing arm can be substituted for the tip 25a of Fig.
4. The slot 21 is exactly the same as that in Fig.
that during the measuring operation it may pass
4, but the tip 26b has been made considerably
between the light source 15 and the light-sensitive
than the tip 26a. With the tip 26a of sub
cell element M, particularly through a light beam 60 wider
stantially the same width as the slot 21 or only
passing through the slot 21 from the light source
slightly larger the piece or element [9 being
to the cell element. The completed unit is so con
gauged had to be exactly the correct size if only
structed physically that the. only light that can
one signal was to result." However, if the tip
reach the cell element is through this slot, and 65 26b is made wide enough so that the slot 21 is
‘although the indicator arm with its element 25 is
covered, both if the part it) being gauged is one
shown mounted between the slot and the source
of the light beam, the same effect would be se
cured if it were mounted between the slot and the
measuring unit too small or one measuring unit
too large, the operator will still hear only one
signal for all parts varying from one unit under
positioned to interrupt the light beam at a given 70 the desired size to one unit over the desired size;
cell element, it being required only that it be
location or locations.
'- As'indicated, from the broad and fundamental
operation of the unit it will be understood that if
the indicating arm 22 (‘speci?cally the element 26,
126a, 26b or 26c) during measurement of an ele 75
thus giving‘ tolerances plus or minus one meas
uring unit. It will be evident that by using tips
261) of different widths, any tolerances desired
may be secured.
In the arrangement of .-Fig'. 6, the-principle is
the same, the slot 21 being the same as in the
previous forms ,and'the indicating arm being sim
ilar except that the tip 260 is so shaped and ar
ranged that, instead of light falling on the photo
cell element I4 by the beam through the slot‘ 21
at all times except when an element IQ of the cor
rect size is under the gauge stern l1, light falls on
the photocell element only when an element l9 of
the correct size is under the stem of the gauge,
signal impulses; or it may be used to control
various devices as machine tools and the like to
adjust metal Working operations to maintain the
parts within certain size limits, or it may be used
to automatically measure and control size varia
tions, temperature variations, pressure variations
and the like of minute nature, and to do it very
A few examples of these di?erent
applications are illustrated in Figs. 8 to 12.
Fig. 8 shows the application similar to the ap
plication of Figs. 1 to 6, but indicates the device
and at all other times no light falls on the photo
cell element. This arrangement is sometimes de
sirable depending on the type of signal or other
as used for measuring a somewhat different
manifestation it is desired that the varying resist
shaped article {55 very accurately to .0001 inch
ance of the photocell element, due to the light
or less, and it may be used for actuation of sorting
falling on it, is to produce. In this arrangement 15 devices, feeding ?xtures, or use of instruments
the tip 260 has an opening 39 of a width depend
for general mass production by all types of fabri
ing on the tolerances desired so that when the
cation shops and Warehouses.
element l9 being gauged is within these toler
Fig. 9 indicates how the same automatic gauge
ances the slot 21 will be within or in alignment
may be applied to the superaccurate control of
withthe opening 39 and the light beam will pass 20 minute changes of liquid or gas pressure in con
to the cell element. On both sides of the open
?ned vessels of all types permitting the most
ing 39 the member 260 is extended and made
simple control for these and other processes, as
su?iciently wide so that at all other times, when
for example sensitive chemical processes in many
the element being gauged is either below or above
industries. As illustrated, the device is mounted
the permissible tolerances, the slot 21 is covered 25 (on an application support as in Fig. 3) with the
and the light beam cut oif. This is really a
gauging stem ll of the gauging unit resting on a
reversal of the arrangement of Figs, 2, 4 and 5,
bellows 56 or other shaped device sensitive to pres—
in that the light passes to the cell when the ele
sure changes within a vessel 51, and records it
ment being gauged is within the permissible toler
to .0001 inch or less with positive accuracy. The
ances instead of being cut oif as in the arrange 30 device may be used to control changes from me
ments of Figs. 2, 4 and 5, but the principle is the
chanical, temperature or other causes.
same in both cases.
In Fig. 10 is indicated how this gauging device
It will be seen in Fig. 2 that the removable tip
or unit may be applied for measuring or con
26 of the indicating arm 22 is arranged entirely
trolling minute temperature variations with very
below the center line of the arm or the zero line. 35 exacting control, the device being shown respon
With this arrangement light will pass to the cell
sive to movements of a bi-metallic element which
element through the slot 21 at all sizes of the ele
is sensitive to temperature changes. Thus it is
ment 19 being gauged at or below the exact size,
shown with the gauging stem l1 engaging a bi
but when this element is of any size or any
metallicithermostat or element 58, responsive to
adopted measuring units above the exact size,
temperature changes in any device or location,
there will be one signal when the slot 21 is cov
as for example in an electric resistance coil 59,
ered by the piece 26, and there will be two signals
or the vessel 60, or it could be responsive to tem
only when the piece is larger than the permitted
perature changes in pipes, tubes,‘ wires, and so
largest tolerance size. Therefore, in this arrange
forth. This will provide an extremely accurate
ment only a given number of measuring units of 45 means for controlling all heating operations of
tolerance ‘above the exact size will be allowed, but
buildings, processes and other treating needs.
anything at or under the exact size will give no
Still another example is illustrated in Fig. 11
where the same gauging device or unit is indi
It is to be understood the signal 33 is shown
cated for the high-pressure safety control of boil
merely by way of example, but that the varying 50 ers or other pressure tanks by having the gauging
resistance of the photocell element due to the
stem l'l resting on the explosion plate 6| of a
light beam being interrupted can be utilized for
boiler 62 thereby assuring a supersensitive means
any purpose desired. Thus for example it may
of indication or safety control for the boiler or
be used when properly connected through suit
tank before the plate bursts, with resulting dam
able ampli?ers to produce any type of signal such 55 age to and extensive shut-down of equipment. It
as audio, visual, etc., or may be used to translate
will be understood that all types of receivers and
the interruptions of the light beam through suitable ampli?ers and associated electrical circuits,
relays and electrically actuated mechanical means
closed cycle equipmentmay be given this pro
_ tection.
Fig. 12 shows how this device may be used for
to do any type of sorting, rejection of parts being 60 testing or indicating in the ?eld, laboratory or
gauged, or controlling of associated machinery
testing shop actual de?ections of beams, rails,
in manufacturing said parts.
machine frames, and so forth in operation to en
The drawings show the device speci?cally em
able the securing of safety control of loading, and
ployed for gauging round and similar articles,
so forth. ‘As illustrated, the gauging unit is
but it is to be understood it is not limited to 65 mounted on a suitable adjustable support 63 so
such uses, but may be employed in a large number
that the gauging stem ll engages a beam, shaft
of different applications. For example, in addi
or similar element 64 supported on spaced sup
tion to gauging the sizes or dimensions of various
ports 65 and loaded intermediate the supports
articles and indicating these sizes, it may be used
by load 66 under a bridge rail machine 61. This
for controlling a device for sorting the articles 70 will indicate deflection of the beam or other mem
according to size, as described in my copending
ber under the applied load, and ‘could be used in
applications ?led of even date herewith, Serial
actual ?eld application to control the load or
Nos. 479,241 and 479,242 and designated Cases
other actions or operations according to de?ec
D and E; or by using any other type of standard
tion of the loaded element. This provides accu
counting or sorting equipment that operates on 75 rate means for weighing moving vehicles of great
weight, or indicating whether they are over a
certain weight limit,v without their being stopped
to do so. To illustrate, it may be used for overload
weighing control on state highways of automo-v
bile trucks and similar vehicles and trains and
other means of transportation of heavy articles.
cell element as to give an indication when said
slots are in alignment, a mechanical gauging
element including a movable member positioned
to be affected by the element to be gauged, and
an operative connection from the latter movable
member to the control member to shift said con
trol member to correspond with the size of the
The elements actually controlled are not shown
element being gauged.
in these ?gures, as it will be understood they
2. A gauging device comprising a photocell ele
may be various devices and it is therefore be
lieved to be unnecessary to illustrate them. The 10 ment, means for connecting said element with
a device to be controlled, a light element posi
device may provide automatic control or actua
to provide a light beam to the cell ele
tion of relays, switches, valves, motors, or other
ment, a wall member between the light and the
equipment in starting, stopping, or adjusting any
cell provided with a slot therein for passage of
operation involved.
the light beam, an arm including a head movable
Having set forth the nature of my invention,
over said slot and provided with a slot adapted
what I claim is:
to be brought into alignment with the ?rst slot,
1. A gauging device comprising a photocell ele
said second slot being wider than the ?rst slot
ment, means for connecting said element with an
and of a width equal to movement of the head
indicating means to be controlled thereby, a light,
element positioned to provide a light beam to the 20 caused by a variation of more than one measur
ing unit in the element being gauged, ‘said head
cell element, means between the light element
being of a Width to cover the ?rst slot to interrupt
and the cell element to control the light beam
the light beam except when the slots are in align
comprising a wall member and a movable control
ment, said device to be controlled being so con
member over the wall member, one of said mem
nected with the cell ‘element as to be operated
bers having a narrow slot therein for the light
a given manner whenever the slots are in
beam and the other member having a slot of
alignment, a movable member in position to be
su?'icient width so that the ?rst slot is in align
ment therewith both if the part being gauged
» is of the correct given size and at least one meas
uring unit different from the correct size, said 30
indicating means being so connected with the
affected by the element being gauged, and an
operative connection from said member to the
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