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Oct. 29, 1946.
Filed'Jan. 27, 194s
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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Oct'. 29,- `1946.
w. J. MILLER r-:T AL
Filed Jan. 27, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Oct. 29, Y1946
ivmrnop `AND APPARATUS Fon Ar
William J. Miller, swissvale, and Ashley J'. Reek,
Carrick, Pa., assîgnors to Miller Pottery Engi
neerìng Company,` Svvîssvale,- Pa., a corporation -'
of Pennsylvania
Applicata@ January 27, 1943, serial No. 473,670
4 Claims.
This is a continuation in part of our coepend
ing application Serial No. 392,276, filed rMay '7, `
1941, and it has to do with apparatus for ap-.
pendaging pottery ware, particularly the >mold
which is employed to form the appendage.
More particularly, the present invention has to
do with the sprue or that portion of the solidified
material which remains in the fillingopening
after the appendage has set up and the problem
of removal from the remainder of the appendage
without tearing out material forming the ap
pendage. The object is to obtain a clean Abreak
close to the surface of the appendage requiring
little or no sponging or fettling -to remove the
traces thereof.
(Cl. 25-129)
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a view showing a casting unit With
the rear mold section removed illustrating how
the appendageis 'cast and united to the pre
toured ware receiving surface. 5, Fig. 9', of a
partible mold, Figs. 1„ 2 and 3, in leakproof sealed
relation. The partible mold which comprisesl
two mating sections 6 and> 6a is hingedly mounted
on a hinge pin 'I and is opened and closed me-Ã.
chanically in the manner described in our co
pending application. Fluid slip -is fed to. the,
mold through a rubber nozzle 8 fitted into a pipe
9 leading to` a source of supply of iiuid slip and
the appendage, in'this instance a cup handle,
is cast in inverted position. '_
Slip >entering the iilling 'hole 9 of the vmold
passes intothe molding cavity through a gate in
the form of a narrow reduced passage rIi! to one
15 side and at the bottom of the hole having the pro
portions of a slít,-see Figs. 2 and 3, the filling hole
being of such capacity that it Will hold a reserve
supply of slip Yto be fed to the molding cavity> as
the'appendage shrinks and solidiñes. Since thefabricated ware.
20 flow of slip through the outlet I5 of the molding
cavity is blockedby the ware, the appendage be
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary section showing the
comes attached to the> ware as it solidiñes,y a per
restricted passage between the mold cavity and
manent bond ofähigh mechanical strength being '
the ñlling opening.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary section looking down on’l ' formed.l
The material remaining in the iilling hole 9
top of the restricted passage of Fig. 2.
and the slit yI Il after the appendage rhas solidified
Fig. 4 is an elevation of a -mold half illustrating:
forms a sprue I I, Fig. ’7, which is attached tothe
another form of iilling opening.
underside of the appendage by a portionV I2 of
Fig. 5 is a sectional elevation through ther
low mechanical strength or a weakened portion._
center of the mold with the two halves in closed
When the sprue is detached,.it will break throughV
the weakened> portion at substantially the level
Fig. 6 is anenlarged sectional View showing the
of the surface of the appendage or slightly there
above, _as illustrated in Fig. 8. If a 'slightI
Fig. A'l is a sectional View illustrating the iin
prominence I4 remains onthe appendage, this'
like juncture between the spr-ue and the append
may be- removed by sponging orfettling.' Some
times the sprue will break offv flush with the sur
face of the appendage in which case only the
away from the appendage. " ~
~ '
roughened surface need only be rubbed over
Fig. 9 is a plan view of a mold section and rigid
with a sponge to smoothoif the blemish; A sprue
hinge plate on which the same is mounted.A
Fig. 10 is an elevation of one section of a parti 40 connected or Vattached to the appendage by a
weakened portion will break off without tearing
ble mold showing a modified form of pouring hole
outthe material of the appendage and leaving a
and gate.
pit orY cavityl therein which cannot be repairedy
Fig. 111s a topplan view’of the complete mold,
or erased by sponging. Considerable ware is ren
of which one section is illustrated in Fig. 10.
Fig. 8 shows how the sprue of Fig. ’7 is broken
Fig. 12jis a fragmentary View showing how the;
dered second or third grade by _becoming pittedl
sharp edge at the juncture of the sprue with the
in the'manner described and while the pit is in
a concealed location, it nevertheless is discernible
when the cup is raised. l
gate may be filleted to avoid'the production of al
The slit I0 at the bottom of the hole 9 prefer~
With reference to Fig. 1, an appendage cast
ing unit is shown which includes a base AI and 50 ably communicates'with the molding cavity at
the uppermost zone thereof in order that air ven- '
a thruster 2 fully described in our co-pending
Vtrapment will be minimized and complete ñlling
application and therefore not described in detail
of the mold assured. Oi’ course, in actual prac
here. The thruster 2 is actuated by mechanical
tice,> the' seal between the wall of the ware and
linkage 3 to press the Wall `of an inverted piece
of prefabricated pottery Ware 4 against ‘the con 55 the contoured'surface 5l of the mol-d is not en
tirely perfect due to surface irregularities and
air will escape therethrough.
primarily responsible for filling the cavity to its'
limit and driving out the air.
As soon as the
liquid slip reaches the juncture, the solid con
stituents immediately plug the crevice so that
the slip does not leak out.
The mold of Figs. 4, 5 and 6 is made up of sep
arable sections each of which has hinge forma
tions 20 with grooves 2l to ñt the hinge pin 1. A
The gate or slit I0 is illustrative of only one
Y Spring Clip- 22, Fig. 11, may be used to clamp the
form of passage which will produce a weakened
mold sections together. lThis type of-mold may
be used with automatic mold opening and clos
ing machinery or may be opened by hand if pro
bond between the sprue and appendage. Other
shapes or forms of gate than that described may
answer the purpose and therefore we do not de
sire to be limited to this speciñc shape or form Y
of gate illustrated. The dimensions of the gate
should be such that it will not clog as long as the
clay slip will flow. Of course, when the material
solidiñes, all flow through the gate ceases.
The f
vided with the friction roller devices 23 or simi
lar appurtenances such as illustrated in connec
tion with the mold of Fig. 11 which stand out at
an angle from the body of each section on op
posite sides of the mold and are adapted to be
15 engaged and pressed toward one another :to
bond between the sprue and appendage should
spring the mold open in an obvious fashion.
also be strong enough to support-l the weight of ,
In the mold ofrFigs. l0 and 11, the same gen
waste material forming the sprue when the mold' ' eral principles of construction of the pouring
is opened. Sometimes the sprue has a liquid
hole and gate are retained, however, the pouring
center and premature breakage would spatter 20 hole 24 herein is enlarged and cylindrical or el
the ware which is not desired.
liptical in shape and may taper toward the' base
The sprue may be removed from the Vappendage
or may have a straight side if desired, The bot
by knocking it sîdewise along the line of juncture'
tom of the hole has a pronounced taper as at 25
with the appendage, Fig. 8, or it may be pinched
leading into »the slit or gate 2B to the molding
lightly between the thumb and index linger and 25 cavity. In this form of pouring hole, the gate is
directly below the pouring hole whose gate is near
A method of removing the sprue without touch
the top of the molding cavity. Otherwise, »the
ing the same with the fingers is to grasp lthe cup
securely in one hand while it rests on the support
I and then lift it clear and snap off the sprue
by flipping the cup and then abruptly halting it.
This causes the sprue Áto snap off of its own mo
mentum across the weakened portion. This is
mold is the same as that shown in Figs. 4, 5 and
6, and is notched out at 25 at the rear around
the hinge pin in or-der that the sections may pivot
Yon the pin.
, Thus, the present invention also contemplates
a. method of appendaging' pottery ware wherein
the mold and prefabricated ware are ñrst brought
usually done over a receptacle into which the
waste material is thrown. This method speeds up 35 together with the outlet 26 facing the wall of the
the process of removing the sprue by eliminating
cup and then slip is poured or piped into the
excess manual handling.
In Figs. 4, 5 and 6 is Yshown a separable mold
pouring hole and discharged into the , cavity
through a reduced inlet or passage toy form an
appendage having a sprue attached thereto by a
having a pouring hole I5 of globular or spherical
shape whose inlet I6 may be circular or elliptical. 40 weak portion. After the appendage is solidified,
This form of pouring hole produces a` sprue of
the sprue is Vdetached by breaking it oif,'the .Weak
balanced design less apt to crackoff prematurely
portion giving way and permitting a clean sepa
. when the mold is opened. Furthermore, being of
ration substantially flush withpthe surface of the
globular or spherical shape, there are no crevices
or sharp corners for the clay to stick in and the-
.clay slip in the cavity will tend to shrink uni
formly from theV wall thereof. Having an inlet
I B which is small in proportion to the area of the
hole I5, only a small portionV of the contents is;
exposed to atmosphere. This retards setting up
in the sprue before the Yappendage solidiñes.
It will be understood that the wall of .the holes
9 or I5 may be treated or impregnated with oil,`
wax, gum, shellac or other preparation which will
retard the absorbtive characteristics of the plaster
of which the wall is formed in order lthat the
sprue will remain iluid longer than the appendage'`
and thus capable of supplying additional materiali`
to the appendage cavity as solidiflcation sets in._
This treatment may also be administered tothe 60
Walls of the gate 9 or slit I'I, Fig. 5, which isy
formed at the bottomKof a passage I8 communi-l
cating with the spherical hole I5. The sprue thus
formed has the shape of aball supported on a
stem attached -to the appendage by a weakened
portion as at I 2, Fig. 7. The lower wall I9 of the
passage I8 preferably tapers into the slit. TheV
gate Il communicates with the mold cavity at a
point below the uppermost limits of the inverted
mold cavity. We haverfound that this location is 70
also satisfactory and that little or no air entrap
ment results. The volume of clay slip which .thea
hole I5 will hold will produce sufficient sta-tic
head to fill the appendage cavity completely.V Of
course, the static head in the supply` pipe 9 is
Figure 9 shows a mold section Vrepresentative
’Y of any one of those previously described wherein
the hinge formations Zumay be‘omitted and a
metal backing 28 with a hinge formation 29,-sub
stituted therefor. This type of composite Ymold
is shown in Fig. l and the two piecesv ofj‘the
section may be joined by casting the plasterpor
tion on the metal portion. When the plaster
wears out, it is simply knocked off and a new
plaster section cast on the hinge plate. 'Obf
viously the plaster mold may be cast separately
and attached to the hingerplate by screws. - f
In Fig. 12, we have shown how the gate may
be filleted, ’as at 35i, in order to eliminatea sharp
edge at they juncture of Vthe sprue with the ap-Z
pendage. The object is to insure that the sprue
will break oif above Vthe surface of the appendage`
and not tear a hole in the appendage.,_ It will
be understood that the fillet may or may n_ot be
employed,4 as desired.,
In _snapping olf the sprue withoutftouching
itrby hand, the factor oir-inertia is involved due
to the property of the sprue to continue its mo
tion and snap off when the motion of the ware<
is arrested. Therefore, ¿we prefer to refer t0
this operation as one wherein'the sprue is- snapped'
off'by inertia.
Having thus describedV our invention, what we
claim is:
l. A »mold for casting an appendage on pre-'Í
fabricated `>potte‘ryware comprising, a .se-parable
body having a ware engaging surface contoured
body having a ware engaging surface contoured
to ñt the exterior surface of the ware, a molding
to ñt the exterior surface of the ware, a molding
cavity in which the appendage is formed having
cavity in which the appendage is formed having
an outlet through the ware engaging surface
and a pouring passage through which casting
an outlet through the ware engaging surface
and a pouring passage through which casting
slip is poured into the molding cavity formed
with an elongated rslit at they bottom of the pas
slip is poured into the molding cavity formed for
producing a waste piece joined to the appendage
-by an elongated neck that is substantially nar
rower than either the appendage or the waste
sage that is substantially narrower than the
remainder of the pouring passage or the mold
or the waste piece.
2. A mold for casting an appendage on pre
that is substantially narrower than either the
appendage or the waste piece.
piece and provides a rupture area having less 10 ing cavity for producing a waste piece joined
to the appendage by a rupturable elongated neck
resistance to breakage than either the appendage
fabricated potteryware comprising, a separable
body having a ware engaging surface contoured
t0 fit the exterior surface of the ware, a molding
4. In the appendaging of prefabricated pottery
" ware, the method which comprises slip casting
an appendage against the exterior surface `of the
prefabricated ware and forming a waste piece
joined thereto by an elongated neck that is sub
cavity in which the appendage is formed having
an outlet through the ware engaging surface and
a pouring passage through which casting slip
stantially narrower than the appendage or the
is poured into the molding cavity formed for 20 remainder of the waste piece, the waste piece
above the neck having suñicient mass to cause
producing a waste piece joined to the appendage
it to snap off by inertia and, after the cast has
by an elongated neck along the seam line be
been made, removing the ware with the ap
tween mold sections that is substantially nar
rower than either the appendage or the balance
of the waste piece and may be broken off flush
or immediately above the surface of the ap
pendage when pressure is exerted on the Waste
piece across the narrow dimension.
3. A mold for casting an appendage onk pre
fabricated potteryware comprising, a separable
pendage and waste piece attached thereto from
the mold and moving the ware in such a man
ner as to break the restricted neck across the
narrow dimension by the inertia of the waste
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