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Oct. 29', 1946.
2,410,126
J. W. OLSON
MACHINE FOR'IMPREGNATING ELECTRIC INSULATION
Filed Sept. 16, 1943
MOL TE1V 6'4 TUE/4N T
IINVENTOR.
Q1 0 Ly.” W‘ 011%
ATTORNEYS
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
2,410,126
UNITED, STATES PATENT OFFICE
FOR IMPREGNATING ELECTRIC
INSULATION
John W. Olson, Hastin gs-on-Hudson, N. Y., as
signor to Anaconda Wire and Cable Company,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Application September 16, 1943, Serial No. 502,631
1
'9 claims. (01. 91_13>,
This invention relates to insulated electric con
ductors, and has for its object the provision of
certain improvements in saturating or impreg
nating the ?brous insulation of such conductors
with a bituminous or asphaltic saturant.
Certain types of electric conductors and cables
are insulated with ?brous material, such as paper,
cotton'and the like, impregnated with a Water
2
the United States patent of'Johnson and Olson
No. 2,228,766, there is disclosed a combined and
simultaneous drying and evacuating of the?brous
insulation with immediate impregnation by the
saturant.
In passing the dried and evacuated
covered Wire immediately and directly into the
hot saturant, atmospheric pressure is permitted
to force the saturant to a considerable height in
At ‘
normal 'room‘ temperatures, the saturant is usu 10 an upright evacuated chamber, thus, in eiiect,
sealing the end of the chamber communicating
proo?ng bituminous or asphaltic-saturant.
ally a solid or very viscousv material,’ and it is
with‘ the bath of hot saturant. Such simultane
hencethe ‘usual practice to heat the saturant to
ous drying and evacuating requires careful regu
-a temperature at which vit is a mobile liquid,
lation and control to satisfactorily attain the two
usually about, 350-375“ F. When the ?brous in
objectives.
,
sulation is immersedv in this hot molten saturant, 15
The present invention contemplates an im
excessive moisture ‘in the ?brous material is
proved apparatus for impregnating the ?brous
promptly volatilized, frequently with explosive
insulation of electric conductors and cables with
violence. Under normal'atmospheric conditions,
a hot saturant, particularly of the bituminous or
the ?brous insulation usually contains 4-5% of
asphaltic type. More particularly the invention
moisture,’ vand when such ?brous insulation is
20 aims to provide an improved apparatus for seal
immersed in the hot saturant a substantial pro
ing the exit or rear end of a vacuum chamber in
portion, if not all, of, this moistureis volatilized
direct
operative communication with a hot satu
with» attendant objectionable ebullition and foam
rant ‘bath beneath the surface thereof. In ac
ing of the bath of hot saturant. The ?brousin
cordance with the invention, the electric con
sulation is frequently a hard, tough, dense mate 25 ductor
surrounded by, or covered with ?brous
rial such askraft paper, and evenwhen substan
insulation is drawn through a die loosely sur
tialy dry such materialis dif?cultly and often
rounding it and positioned at the exit end of a
incompletelyimpregnated with the saturant. In
vacuumcham'ber into a bath of hot saturant ‘in
‘other cases the ?brous insulation isa'a compara
tively soft porous paper, such as towelingstock, 30' direct communication with the vacuum chamber,
and saturant drawn toward the die by the vacuum
crumpled, and twisted about the conductor, and
within the chamber is arti?cially chilled. The
, characterized by a multiplicity of minute inter
thus chilled saturant cooperates with the die and
stitial spaces which are di?icultly ?lled with the
the
covered conductor traveling therethrough to
saturant solely-by capillary action.
'
eiic-ctively seal the exit end of the vacuum cham
Bulk-drying of the ?brous insulation prior to
ber. _The invention further contemplates a novel
impregnation has heretofore been commercially
combination of apparatus .for carrying out the
l practiced. > In accordance with the customary
practice, the conductor covered with the ‘?brous
insulation is wound on reels and dried-for about
16 hours in a dry kiln at a temperature of about
200-2500 F. The covered wire is usually tightly
wound on the reel to a radial thickness of about
one foot. The inner turns on the reel are seldom
satisfactorily dried, and frequently contain up- to
3% of moisture, Moreover, due to the physical
discomfort in entering the drykiln, the workmen
usually take out two or more reels at a time, and
often appreciable moisture is 're-absorbed bythe
?brous material while the reel is exposed to the
atmosphere awaiting to be .run ‘through the '
saturant.
Vacuum oven drying has also been proposed
for drying the ?brous insulation prior to impregg
nation with the hot saturant, but this hasvproved
foregoing improvements in impregnating ?brous
insulation with a saturant.
'.
The foregoing‘ and other novel features of the
invention will be better understood from the fol-'
lowing‘ description taken in conjunction with the
accompanying drawing, in which
Fig. lgis. an elevation, partly in section, of a
co-mbinationof apparatus embodying the inven
tion,: and‘ particularly adapted for practicing the
aforementioned improvements in impregnating
?brous insulation with a saturant, and
'
Fig.2 is, an enlarged sectional elevation of the
end‘of the Vacuum chamber, in theapparatus of
Fig. Loommunicating with the saturant.
The, drawing illustrates the impregnation of a
layer of ?brous insulation 5 surrounding and
covering an electric conductor 6, either stranded
little, if any, better than simple kilndrying. - In 55 or solid, With ahot molten saturant l’, The cov~
ered conductor is drawn (in thedirection of, the
2,410,126
arrows) from an unwinding reel or the like (not
shown) through the bath or saturant onto a wind
ing-up reel or the like (not shown) in a substan
tially continuous manner. Within the bath of
24 near the forward end of the device. The dies
l3 and [9 may be of different sizes to accom
modate different sizes of covered conductor. As
previously stated, the covered conductor makes
~ saturant, several convolutions of the covered con
ductor are drawn over the surface of a rotatably
mounted drum 8. The drum 8 may, if desired, be ‘
appropriately driven by any suitable source of
a tight fit in the die l3 and a loose fit in. the
die l9.
In practicing the invention the covered con
ductor is drawn through the sealing die 13 into
the vacuum chamber II. In its travel through
power, or it may rotate freely and all the power 10 the vacuum chamber, air and other gases are
required to draw the covered wire through the
apparatus may be applied to the aforementioned
winding-up reel. The rate of travel of the con
ductor and the number of convolutions wound
around the drum 3 are correlated to provide a
sufficiently long immersion period to completely,
and satisfactorily impregnate the ?brous insula
almost completely removed from the interstitial
spaces of the ?brous insulation. The evacuated
covered conductor is drawn through the exit die
IQ of the vacuum chamber and immediately con
tacts the saturant which is drawn up the exten
sion 11 into the prolong [6 as a result of the
vacuum and the comparatively loose fit between
the covered conductor and the die 19. However,
the saturant will not pass beyond the die l9 into
the vacuum chamber, because of the cooling ef
tion. With a hot molten saturant of bituminous
or asphaltic nature maintained at a temperature
of about 350-375" F., immersion times of from 6
to 20 minutes are common. It is to be unden
fect of the water jacket 20. The arti?cial cooling
stood, however, that the invention is not limited
at the exit end of the vacuum chamber chills
to saturants of this nature, but is applicable to
the saturant in the adjacent part of the prolong
any kind of saturant for the ?brous insulation of
IE to a very viscous and almost solid condition,
electric conductors and cables. The saturant ‘i is
and this chilled saturant cooperates with the die
contained in a tank 9. A wiper I!) secured to one 25 19 and the traveling covered conductor to- ef
side of the tank removes excess saturant from the
fectively seal the exit end of the vacuum chamber.
covered conductor as it is drawn from the tank.
At the same time, the travel of the covered con
It will be understood that the drum 8 is provided
ductor through the die IE! keeps the die clear,
and carries back into the hot saturant in the
> with a “pusher” device of conventional construc
tion for properly aligning the ?rst and last con
prolong or extension any accumulation of chilled
volutions of covered conductor thereon with the
saturant that might otherwise tend to clog the
respective points of supply and withdrawal.
die. The exit end of the vacuumtube is thus
In accordance with the embodiment of the in
sealed by the die 19, and the traveling covered
vention illustrated in the drawing, the covered
conductor in conjunction with the chilled satur
conductor is drawn through an'evacuating device 35 ant surrounding the covered conductor as it en
immediately preceding its immersion in the bath
ters the prolong I6.
of hot saturant. The evacuating device comprises
The invention provides a simple and effective
an elongated vacuum chamber H connected by a
apparatus for saturating or impregnating the
pipe [2 to an air pump or other suitable means
40 ?brous insulation of electric conductors and ca
(not shown) for maintaining as high a vacuum as
bles with hot molten saturant. Evacuating and
possible in the chamber, say approximating 30
impregnating are carried out in a substantially
inches of mercury. In practice, the vacuum
continuous and rapid manner. The sealing of
chamber H may be from 3 to 5 feet in length, or
the exit end of ‘the vacuum chamber by the
even longer if necessary. It is preferably cylin
chilled saturant in cooperation with the adjacent
drical with a sectional diameter several times the
die is simple, effective and automatic. The ap
diameter of the largest covered conductor to be
paratus is of simple construction and of suitable
passed therethrough. A removable steel die I3
proportions for mill operations. The dies l3 and
is mounted at the entrance or forward end of the
vacuum chamber, and is secured in position by a
19 are readily changed, and no loss of time is
involved in changing these dies to conform to
threaded nut I4. The traveling covered conductor 50 covered conductors and cables of di?erent sizes.
?ts tightly in the die l3 and effectively seals this
I claim:
end of the vacuum chamber.
The exit or rear end of the vacuum chamber has
an inner shoulder l5 and a prolong Hi to which is
coupled an extension I‘! extending below the sur
face of the bath of saturant. The diameter of the
prolong and extension may be somewhat less
than the diameter of the vacuum chamber, but
1. The combination with means for holding a
hot saturant bath for impregnating ?brous insu
) lationsurrounding an electric conductor, of an
elongated vacuum chamber operatively commu
nicating with said chamber and having a remov
able die at each end thereof for sealing the ends
of the chamber when the conductor with its cov
still sufficient to freely accommodate the largest
ering of ?brous insulation is drawn through the
covered conductor to be passed therethrough. 60 chamber and the saturant in a substantially con
The extension is coupled and secured to the pro
tinuous manner.
2. In the combination of claim 1, a tubular
long by a threaded nut 18.
Aremovable steel die I!) abuts against the shoul
extension communicating at one end with and
der l5 and is ?rmly held in position by the travel
ing covered conductor which ?ts loosely in this die.
A water jacket or chamber 20 surrounds the die
I9, and serves to arti?cially cool the die. Any
other suitable means for arti?cially cooling the
die l9 and the exit end of the vacuum chamber
may be provided. An opening or manhole 2i
and a cover 22 therefor are provided in the vacu
um chamber near the exit end for permitting ac
cess to the chamber when changing the die l9.
removably attached to the vacuum chamber and
extending at the other end into and beneath the
surface of the saturant.
3. In the combination of claim 1, a tubular
extension communicating at one end with and
removably attached to the vacuum chamber and
extending at the other end into and beneath the
surface of the saturant, andv a man-hole in the
vacuum chamber approximate the end attached
to said extension for facilitating access to the
The evacuating device is supported by a bracket
23 secured to the side of the tank 9 and a post 75 adjacent die,
2,410,126
4. In the combination of claim 1, arti?cial cool
ing means associated with the die in that end
of the vacuum chamber adjacent the saturant
bath,
>5. The combination with means for holding a
hot saturant bath for impregnating ?brous insu
lation surrounding an electric conductor, of an
elongated vacuum chamber having one end in
communication with the saturant bath beneath
'
6
8. The combination with means for holding a
hot saturant bath forv impregnating ?brous insu
lation surrounding an electric conductor, of an
elongated vacuum chamber, a tubular extension
communicating at one end with and removably
attached to the vacuum chamber and extending
at the other end into and beneath the surface of
the saturant, a die at the forward end of the
the surface thereof, a die at the forward end of 10 chamber adapted to ?t tightly about the covered
conductor, a die at the rear end of the chamber
the chamber adapted to ?t tightly about the cov
adapted
to ?t loosely about the covered con
ered conductor, a die at the rear end of the
ductor,
and
a water jacket operatively surround
chamber adapted to ?t loosely about the covered
ing the die at the rear end of the vacuum cham
conductor, and arti?cial cooling means associated
ber.
with the die at the rear end of the chamber.
15
9. The combination with means for holding a
6. The combination of claim 5 in which each
of the dies is removable.
'
7. The combination with means for holding a
hot saturant bath for impregnating ?brous insu
lation surrounding an electric conductor, of an
elongated vacuum chamber, a tubular extension
communicating at one end with and removably
attached to the vacuum chamber and extending‘
at the other end into and beneath the surface of
the saturant, a die at the forward end of the
hot saturant bath for impregnating ?brous insu
lation surrounding an electric conductor, of an
elongated vacuum chamber, a tubular extension
communicating at one end with and removably
attached to the vacuum chamber and extending
at the other end into and beneath the surface of
the saturant, a removable die at the forward end
of the chamber adapted to ?t tightly about the
covered conductor, a removable die at the rear
end of the chamber adapted to ?t loosely about
chamber adapted to ?t tightly about the covered
the covered conductor, a manhole in the vacuum
conductor, a die at the rear end of the chamber
chamber approximate the end attached to said
adapted to ?t loosely about the covered con
extension for facilitating access to the adjacent
ductor, and arti?cial cooling means approximate
the juncture of said extension and vacuum cham 30 die, and a water jacket operatively surrounding
the die at the rear end of the vacuum chamber.
ber for-chilling saturant drawn toward the adja
cent die by the vacuum within the chamber.
JOHN W. OLSON.
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