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Oct. 29, 1946.
w. A. TOLSON
‘
HEAT RESPONSIVE DEVICE
Filed May 1, 1943
2,410,317
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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27
3nventor
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Oct. 29, 1946.
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2,410,317
w. A. TOLSON
HEAT RESPONSIVE DEVICE
Filed May 1, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 '
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2,419,317
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT GFFHQE
2,410,317
HEAT RESPONSIVE DEVICE
William A. Tolson, Princeton, N. J., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
Delaware
Application May 1, 1943, Serial No. 485,315
9 Claims. (Cl. 1'18—6.8)
1
vices, and especially to a system forproducing
visible images of bodies radiating infra-red heat
rays.
2
Referring to Fig. 1, a motor | including a shaft
3 is arranged to drive a mirror 5 which is pivoted
on the end of the shaft. The pivoted portion 1
is biased by a spring 9, so that a roller ||, secured
This invention relates to heat responsive de
'
to the mirror, engages a cam surface l3.
The cam surface I3 is a portion of a sleeve l5,
In copending application Serial No. 470,520,
?led December 29, 1942, by Ray D. Kell and Wil
liam A. Tolson, for Heat responsive indicators,
which surrounds the shaft 3. The sleeve includes
a gear [1, which meshes with a second gear l9,
The second gear is secured to a shaft 2|, on which
means of which a visible indication of a body
is fastened a third gear 23. The last mentioned
radiating infra-red rays may be produced. That
gear is driven by gear 25, which is fastened to
device provides a system in which the direction of
the motor shaft 3. By way of example, the gear
the body radiating the rays may be determined.
train is arranged so that the sleeve I5 is rotated
The system disclosed in the said copending ap
fourteen times, while the motor shaft is rotated
plication does not lend itself to resolving two or
more images when the heat is radiated by two 15 ?fteen times. This ratio will establish a helical
scanning pattern, whereby the image will be
or more objects. In fact, the system of the co
scanned as the mirror is moved past a heat re
pending application, instead of resolving two or
sponsive member hereinafter described. It should
more sources of infra-red radiations, will inte
be realized that moving the image past the aper
grate and form a single image of the radiating
bodies and form a single indication of the rela 20 ture is equivalent to having a ?xed image and a
movable scanning means.
tive direction of the “center of heat” of the area
The mirror 5 is formed on the surface of a
under observation.
magnetic plate 21. The magnetic plate is asso
The instant invention is distinguished with
there is disclosed a heat responsive device by
respect to the above described copending applica
ciated with four ?eld structures 29, 3|, 33, 35.
visible images. If the heat radiating surfaces are
of large area compared to the total ?eld which is
plate 21 rotates and pivots, it successively ap
proaches the ?eld structures 29, etc. and thus
tion in that several different sources of infra-red 25 Each ?eld structure includes a permanently mag
netized core 31 and a ?eld winding 39-“. As the
radiations may be resolved into corresponding
induces electromotive forces in the ?eld windings.
scanned, a silhouette or, in some cases, a half
tone "heat picture” will be formed so that the 30 The ?eld windings 39-“ are serially connected
in diagonal pairs, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
heat radiating body may be generally identi?ed.
Referring to Fig. 3, it will be seen that the di
Thus, one of the objects of the instant inven
agonally
connected ?eld windings 39—4| are re
tion is to provide an improved heat responsive
system for forming visible images of one or more .
sources of infra-red radiations. Another object 35
is to provide an improved system for resolving the
spectively connected to ampli?ers 43-65. The
outputs of the ampli?ers are applied to vertical
and horizontal de?ecting elements 41-49 of a
cathode ray tube 5|. The cathode ray tube in
cludes the usual anode and cathode connections.
The control electrode 53 of the cathode ray
tube
5| is connected to the output of an ampli?er
40
and the locations of such bodies. An additional
55,
whose
input signals are derived from a heat
object is to provide an improved means for and
responsive cell 51 which includes a small aper
method of scanning an area including one or ,
ture 59. The heat responsive cell may be of the
more heat radiating objects, thereby to establish
type
disclosed in Wolff Patent 2,234,328, granted
a silhouette or half-tone “heat”. picture of the
45 March 11, 1941, for Radiant energy receiving de
scanned area.
vices. The cell is positioned so that the image
The invention will be described by referring to
will be applied to the aperture 59, in order that
the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is
the image may establish the required scanning.
a plan view, partly in section, of the scanning
images from a pair of heat radiating bodies
whereby separate visible images may be formed
to show the approximate heat radiating surfaces
_ The aperture size should be of the order of the
is an elevational view of a portion of the scanning 50 smallest subdivision of the image which is to be
mechanism employed in the invention, Figure 2
mechanism, Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of
one embodiment of the invention, and Figure 4 is
a graph illustrating the nature of the scanning
pattern. Similar reference numerals indicate
similar elements in the drawings.
reproduced. The heat responsive portion of the
device and the scanning mechanism preferably
include‘ a spherical re?ector 6|, which applies
the image to the mirror 5 and hence to the aper
65 ture 59.
2,410,317
3
The operation of the system is as follows: The
heat rays from an area to be scanned are re
?ected from the spherical mirror 6| to the ro
tating mirror 5. As the mirror 5 rotates, de
?ecting currents are synchronously generated and
are applied in 90° phase relation to the de?ect
ing ampli?ers 434-45. These de?ecting currents
cause the cathode ray beam 5| to be rotated in
synchronism with the mirror. As each element
of the heat image is applied to the heat respon
sive cell 59, a corresponding potential is estab
lished which is applied to the control electrode
53 of the cathode ray tube. This potential varies
4
means, means connecting said de?ecting means
and said generating means whereby said ray is
de?ected in synchronism with said scanning, and
means for applying said corresponding currents
to said ray controlling means to vary said ray in
accordance with said elements whereby an image
of said objects is established on said ?uorescent
screen.
4. A heat responsive device including means
for establishing a heat image of a scene includ
ing heat radiating objects, means for scanning
said image whereby said image is divided into.
elements, means for generating electric currents
in accordance with the heat rays to cause a cor
varying in synchronism with said scanning, heat
responding variation of the cathode ray beam 15 responsive means for converting applied heat into
and hence an indication on the ?uorescent screen
electric currents, means for applying said image
of the cathode ray tube.
Thus, a picture or im
elements to said heat responsive means to con
age is formed which corresponds to the infra
vert said elements into corresponding electric
red or heat rays which are radiated from the ob
jects within the scene to be scanned. The na
currents, a cathode ray tube including a ?uores
20 cent screen and ray de?ecting means and a ray
ture of the scanning is represented in linear
controlling means, means connecting said de?ect
coordinates in Fig. 4, which shows the oscilla
ing means and said generating means whereby
tions of the mirror.
said ray is de?ected in synchronism with said
The foregoing system will indicate the locations
scanning, and means for applying said corre
of the heat radiating bodies with respect to the
sponding currents to said my controlling means
central axis of the scanning pattern. If it is
to vary said ray in accordance with said elements
desired to indicate the ‘approximate distance of
whereby a visible image of said objects is estab
the source of the heat radiations, a pair of the
lished on said ?uorescent screen.
5. A heat responsive device including means
devices may be located on the common base line,
whereby a simple system of triangulation may be 30 for establishing an image of a scene including
heat radiating objects, means for scanning said
employed to indicate the distance of any one of
the objects within a scanned area.
scene whereby said scene is divided into elements,
I claim as my invention:
means for generating quadrature phase electric
1. A heat responsive device including means for
currents varying in synchronism with said scan
establishing an image of a scene including heat 35 ning, heat responsive means for converting ap
radiating objects, means for scanning said image
plied heat into electric currents, means for ap
whereby said image is subdivided into elements,
plying said scene elements to said heat responsive
a heat detector for converting said applied image
means to convert said elements into correspond
elements into electric currents, and an indicator
ing electric currents, a cathode ray tube includ
including elements responsive to scanning volt 40 ing a ?uorescent screen and ray de?ecting means
ages and elements responsive to applied currents,
and a ray controlling means, means for applying
said current responsive elements being connected
said quadrature phase currents to said de?ecting
to said heat detector for indicating said electric
currents and said elements responsive to scanning
means whereby said ray is de?ected in synchro
nism with said scanning, and means for applying
voltages being energized in synchronism with the 45 said corresponding currents to said ray control
operation of said scanning means thereby to form
ling means to vary said ray in accordance with
a visible image of said scene.
said elements whereby an image of said objects
2. A heat responsive device including means
is established on said ?uorescent screen.
for establishing an image of a scene including
6. A heat responsive device including means
heat radiating objects, means for scanning said 50 for establishing a heat image of a scene includ
scene whereby said scene is subdivided into ele
ing heat radiating objects, means for scanning
ments, 9. heat detector, means for applying said
said image whereby said image is divided into
elements to said heat detector to establish elec
elements, means for generating quadrature phase
tric currents corresponding to said applied ele
electric currents varying in synchronism with
ments, and an indicator including elements re 55 said scanning, heat responsive means for con
sponsive to scanning voltages and elements re
verting applied heat into electric currents, means
sponsive to applied currents, said current respon
for .applying said image elements to said heat
sive elements being connected to said heat de
responsive means to convert said elements into
te'ctor for indicating said electric currents and
corresponding electric currents, a cathode ray
said elements responsive to scanning voltages 60 tube including a ?uorescent screen and ray
being energized in synchronism with the opera
de?ecting means and a ray controlling means,
tion of said scanning means thereby to form a
means for applying said quadrature phase cur
visible image of said scene.
rents to said deflecting means whereby said
3. A heat responsive device including means for
ray is de?ected in synchronism with said scan
establishing an image of a scene including heat 65 ning, and means for applying said corresponding
radiating objects, means for scanning said scene
currents to said ray controlling means to vary
whereby said scene is divided into elements,
said ray in accordance with ‘said elements where
means for generating electric currents varying in
by a, visible image of said objects is established
synchronism with said scanning, heat responsive
on said ?uorescent screen.
means for converting applied heat into electric 70
7. A heat responsive device including a spheri
currents, means for applying said scene elements
cal mirror and a rotating and oscillating mirror
to said heat responsive means to convert said
for forming a moving image of a scene includ—
elements into corresponding electric currents, a
ing objects radiating heat, an apertured heat re
cathode ray tube including a ?uorescent screen
sponsive means for converting applied heat into
and ray de?ecting means and a ray controlling 75 electric currents, said apertured heat responsive
2,410,817
means being located so that said image is scanned
as it passes said aperture, means for generating
quadrature phase currents varying in synchro
nism with said mirror movements, a cathode ray
tube including a ?uorescent screen and de?ecting
ing image of a scene including objects radiating
heat, an apertured heat responsive means for
converting applied heat into electric currents,
said apertured heat responsive means being lo
cated so that said image is scanned as it passes
said aperture, means for generating currents
varying in synchronism with said mirror move
ments consisting of four ?ux responsive ?eld
electrodes so that said ray is de?ected in syn
structures located at ninety-degree intervals with
chronism with said mirror movements, and means
to the axis of said mirror and responsive
for applying the currents derived from said heat 10 respect
to movements of the- magnetic portion of said
responsive means to said ray controlling means
~ electrodes and ray controlling means, means for
applying said quadrature phase currents to said
so that said ray is varied to correspond to the
mirror, a cathode ray tube including a ?uorescent
screen and de?ecting electrodes and ray control
image scanned by said apertured heat respon
ling means, means for applying the currents gen
sive means whereby a. visible image correspond
ing to said scene is formed by the application of 15 erated in said ?eld structures to said electrodes
so that said ray is de?ected in synchronism with
said ray to said cathode ray tube ?uorescent
screen.
8. A device according to claim '7 including am
said mirror movements, and means for applying
‘the currents derived from said heat responsive
means to said ray controlling means so that said
ray is varied to correspond to the image scanned
20
and said de?ecting electrodes, and an ampli?er
pli?ers located between said generating means
interposed between said apertured heat respon
sive means and said ray controlling means.
by said apertured heat responsive means whereby
a visible image corresponding to said scene is
formed by the application of said my to said
9. A heat responsive device including a spheri
cathode ray tube fluorescent screen.
cal mirror and a rotating and oscillating mirror,
WILLIAM A. TOLSON.
including a, magnetic portion, for forming a mov 25
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