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. NOV». 5, 1946.
‘
A. KALrr|NsKY_ `
2,410,448
SCAVENGE SYSTEM FOR ENGINES
Filed May l1, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet`l
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' INVENTOR
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vNOV. 5, 1946.
'
, A, KALrnNsKY
SCAVENGE SYSTEM FOR'- ENGINES
Filed'May 11, 1945
' 2,410144‘8'
2 sheets-sheet 2
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INVENTOR
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Patented Nov. 5, 1946
2,410,448
UNITED sTATEs PATENT oFFxcE
SCAVEN GE SYSTEM FOR ENGINES
Andrew Kalitinsky, Eagleville, Conn., assignor to
vUnited Aircraft Corporation, East Hartford,
Conn., a corporation of Delaware
»
Application May 11, 1943, Serial No. 486,611
(Cl. 12B-51)
' 16 Claims.
1
The present invention relates to an air scav
clude the racks 34 on the compressor pistons
meshing with a pinion 36.
Intake manifold 38 conducts air to intake valves
enging system l‘or an opposed piston engine and
is especially adapted for a free-piston engine
and-compressor unit.
In conventional opposed piston engines the
‘l0 through which air alternately enters opposite
ends of the compressor cylinders.
scavenge ports are at one end of the engine cyl
inder and the exhaust ports at the opposite end.
When the ports are uncovered by the pistons,
the cool scavenging air enters one end of the
cylinder and pushes the burned gases out of the
exhaust ports at the other end. The cool air
passes over, and cools, the head of the piston
adjacent the scavenge ports, but the other piston
is continuously subjected only to the high tem
peratures of the burned gases. An object of this
invention is to provide for directing cool scavenge
air onto the heads of both pistons.
This object is accomplished by providing scav
enge ports at both ends of the engine cylinder
so that the scavenging air enters the cylinder 20
The vcom
pressed air leaves the cylinder through discharge
valves 42, also at opposite ends of the compressor
cylinders, and passes through scavenge mani
fold 4t through ports 46 and 48 which are un
covered by pistons l2 and i4 at the end of the
power stroke, thereby permitting air to be blown
through the engine cylinder and exhaust ports
56 and 52 into exhaust manifold 54. Valves 46
and 42 may be the type shown in the Huff Patent
No. 1,599,414, dated September 14, 1926, in which,
as shown in Fig. 3, each valve includes spring
pressed valve blades 49 engaging seats 5|.
~
The engine scavenge ports 46 and 46 are spaced
apart in a position to be uncovered by the engine
pistons at the outer ends of their stroke. The
over the heads of both pistons. For efficient re
exhaust ports 56 and 52 are also spaced apart and
moval of the burned gases, however, the general
adjacent the scavenge ports. Each scavenge port
flow of the gases should be in one direction from
¿i6 or 48 consists of a number of openings in the
one end to the other of the engine cylinder. One
engine cylinder, as seen more particularly in Fig.
feature of the invention provides for maintain 25 2,
and the total area of the openings forming
ing a general one-direction iiow of gases within
the engine cylinder even though scavenging gases
are admitted at both"`ends of the cylinder. For
this purpose the scavenge’port area at one end
port 46 is considerably larger than the total area
of the openings forming port 48. With the'scav
enge ports communicating with the scavenge
44 and located adjacent the heads of '
of the 'cylinder is greater than at the other, and 30 manifold
the opposed pistons when they are at the outer
an vexhaust port is provided adjacent the end `of
ends of their strokes, the cool scavenge air passes
the cylinder which has the smaller, scavenge port
over the heads of both pistons as soon as the
area.
ports are uncovered. »
Other objects and advantages will be apparent
Each exhaust port 5U or 52 comprises a num
from the specification and claims, and from the 35 ber of openings and the total area of the open
accompanying drawingswhich illustrate what is
now considered to be a preferred embodiment of
ings forming port 52 is considerably greater than
the area of the openings forming port 56. Thus
the exhaust ports, which are adjacent and be'
Fig. 1 is a sectional View through the engine
tween the scavenge ports, are so arranged that
and-compressor unit.
40 thelarger exhaust port is at the end of the en
Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional View of the en->
gine cylinder opposite to the larger scavenge port.
gine cylinder.
k
Both
exhaust ports 56 and 52 are connected to
Fig. 3 is'a fragmentarysectional view of one
the invention.
of the air valves.
`
Y
The unit shown includes an engine cylinder
_ the ‘manifold 54 through which all the compressed
gases are discharged to do useful work.
During'the strokes of the pistons in both direc
tions, air in the compressor cylinders is delivered
lllAhaving reciprocating pistons I2 and I4 t0
which compressor pistons I6 and i8 in cylinders
under pressure to scavenge manifold ¿ifi to pro
26 and 22 are integrally connected. VSleeves 24
and 26 attached to the compressor pistons com
vide for the desired scavenge action when- pistons
uncover the scavenge ports 46 and 48 during
plete the reciprocating piston assemblies. The
sleeves in combination with stationary lpistons
28 and 36 form air spring cylinders.
'
The piston assemblies are moved apart by the
burning of -fuel injected into engine cylinder I6
by one or more devices 32. Air compressed in
the air spring cylinders on the power stroke re
turns the piston assemblies. The assemblies are
50 their outward stroke.
-
When the pistons reach the outer end of their
normal strokes (the position shown in Fig. 2),
all of the ports are uncovered and cool scaveng
ing air Yenters at both ends of the cylinder over
the heads of the opposed pistons.
A relatively
large proportion of the scavenge air entering the
larger scavenge port 46 establishes substantially
a one-direction iiow of gases axially of the en-.
always maintained at equal distances from the
gine cylinder, the gases discharging primarily
center of the engine by a linkage which may in 60 throughthe
larger exhaust `port 52.. .Scavenge
2,410, 44s
3
4
being larger than the scavenge port at the other
air entering port 48 serves to aid in cooling the
head of piston I4 before exhausting through port
end.
10. In an engine, a cylinder, opposed pistons
movable alternately toward and away from each
other in said cylinder, said cylinder having scav
limited to the speciñc embodiment herein illus
`enge and exhaust ports adjacent one end of the
trated and described, but may be used in other
cylinder to be uncovered by one of the pistons
ways without departure from its spirit ,as deñned
in its outward movement, the other end of the
by the following claims.
cylinder having a scavenge port adapted to be
I claim:
.
.
uncoyered Yby the other piston during its outward
10
l. In an engine, a cylinder .with opposed pistons
movement, the scavenge port at said one end of
reciprocating therein, said cylinder having-spaced
the cylinder being smaller than the other.
intake ports adapted to be uncovered by the pis
ll. In a scavenging system, an engine cylinder,
tons during their reciprocation, and an exhaust
opposed >pistons reciprocating in said cylinder,
port between said intake ports, one intake port
and sets of scavenge ports in said cylinder ad
being larger than the other.
‘ jacent opposite ends -thereof to be uncovered -by
2. In an engine, a cylinder with `.opposed »pis-`
the `opposed pistons as they reach the outer ends
tons reciprocating therein, said cylinder lhaving
of their strokes, each set including at least one
spaced intake ports adapted to be uncovered by
row of ports extending circumferentially of the
the pistons during their-reciprocation andan ex
cylinder. .if
haust port adjacent each intake port, said ex 20
12. In a scavenging system, an engine cylin
52.
>
`
~
It is to be understood Vthat the invention is not
haust ports being located between -the intake
ports, one intake port being `larger than the other.
der, opposed pistons reciprocating in said `cyl
inder, sets of scavenge >ports in said cylinder ad
jacent opposite ends thereof to be uncovered by
tons movable therein, said cylinder having ,axial
the opposed pistons as they reach the outer ends
ly spaced intake ports and an exhaust port ad 25 of their strokes, and at least one set of exhaust
jacent each intake port, one exhaust `port being
ports in said cylinder between said scavenge ports
larger than the other.
and adjacent one set of said scavenge ports.
4. Inv an engine, a cylinder with opposed pis
13. In a scavenging system, an engine cylin
tons movable therein, said cylinder having axially
der, opposed pistons reciprocating in said cylin
spaced intake vports and an exhaust port adjacent 30 der, sets of scavenge ports in said cylinder adia
each intake port, one intake port being larger
cent opposite ends thereof to be uncovered by
than the other.
the opposed pistons _as they reach the outerends
5. In an engine, a cylinder with‘opposed pistons
of their strokes, and sets of exhaust 4_ports be
movable therein, said cylinder -having axially
tween said scavenge ports, there being one set
35
spaced intake ports and an exhaust port adjacent
of exhaustv ports adjacent each end vof the cyl
each intake port, one exhaust fport being larger
inder.
than the other, and the intake port „adjacent the
14.. In a scavenging system, an engine cylin
3. In an engine, a cylinder with opposed pis
larger exhaust port being smaller _than the .other
intake port.
6. In an engine, a cylinder with opposed pis
tons reciprocating therein, said cylinder having
axially spaced exhaust ports _adapted ¿to fbe lm
40
covered by the pistonsduring ¿their reciprocation
and an intake port-adjacenteach exhaust port,
said exhaust ports being located between the in
take ports, one exhaust »port Vbeing 'larger than
the other.
'
i
der, opposed pistons reciprocating in said cylin
der, scavenge ports adjacent .opposite ends ofsaid
cylinder to be uncovered `by the _opposed pistons
as they reach the outer ends of their strokes, and
at least one exhaust port _between the scavenge
ports and `adjacent the rscavenge port at one end
of the cylinder, the scavenge port to .which .the
exhaust port is adjacent being smaller kin arca
than the scavenge port adjacent the oppositevend
of the cylinder.
7. In an engine, a cylinder `wi-tlïi ¿opposed Ypis-_
l5. In a free-piston engine and compressor, _an
tons reciprocating therein, said cylinder having
engine cylinder, opposed pistons reciprocating
axially spaced exhaust .ports adapted Yto be Aun- : therein, at least one compressor cylinder, ra corn
' covered by the pistons during their ,-reciprocation`
pressor piston in said compressor cylinder and
and an >intake Vport adjacent nach ,exhaust sport,
movable with one of the pistonsl in the engine
said exhaust ports being located ìbetweenzthe in
cylinder, scavenge ports adjacent opposite ends
take ports, :one intake portibeing larger ¿than -the
of the engine cylinder to be uncovered by the
pistons as they reach the outer ends ,of their
8. In an engine, ¿a cylinder, vopposed,ipistons
strokes, and a manifold connecting the Acompres
movable ¿alternately `toward and :away _from each
sor cylinder to said scavenge vports for delivery
other in said cylinder, Vsaid rcylinder ,havingscaiv
of compressed gases to said engine cylinder ad
enge and exhaust pQrîtS adjacent :One end .of the
jacent oppcsite ends thereof and in front of bothV
other.
,
'
-
cylinder -to be uncovered byoneof the pistons vin
its outwardmovement, `the, ,other end or the cyl
inder having atleast one scavenge port :toibe -un-‘"
pistons.
ì
16. 'In `a freer-piston engine and compressor, _an
engine cylinder, opposed pistons reciprocating
covered .by the other lpiston `during `its -outwar-d
therein, at leastonecompressor cylinder, a com
movement, the’ scavenge'port >adjacent the `ex
pressor piston in said compressor cylinder and
movable with one lof the `pistons in the engine
cylinder, Yscavenge `ports adjacent opposite ends
of the engine cylindertobe uncovered by `thepis
tons as they reach the outer ends Vof their strokes,
a manifoldconnecting the compressor cylinderto
said scavenge ports for delivering compressed
haust port being smaller thanrthe’;other-,scavenge
port.
"
'
'
`9. In an engine, a fcylinder, opposed pistonsmovable alternately toward and away -from veach
other in said cylinder, said cylinder having¢scavenge -andexhaust »ports-adjacent one end of the
cylinder to be uncovered by one of the'pistons
in its outward movement, the »other end Aof the
gases to said engine cylinder adjacent .opposite
ends --thereof and in front of the pistons therein,
and exhaust-ports in_said engine cylinder.
cylinder having a scavenge port adapted `tao-be
uncovered by 'said` other .piston 'during :its out
ANDREW KALrTrNsKY.
ward movement, ithje .scavenge îport at «one -endf 75
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