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Patented Oct. 29, 1946
2,419,392
UNITEDSTATES PATENT OFFICE
2,410,392
p
WRENCH
clayton L. nien, Los Angeles, Calif.
Application February 26, 1945, Serial No. 579,698
4 Claims.
i
(Cl. 192-44)
My invention relates to a device for imparting
components, thereby permitting reduction of the
a rotary motion to an article, such as a nut,
required strength of any one component.
An important object of my invention is to pro
vide a wrench of extreme simplicity which can
bolt, etc., and, more specifically, to a wrench
which incorporates a novel means for elîecting
intermittent, uni-directional rotary motion of the
article when a reciprocating rotary motion is
imparted to the wrench.
, be manufactured and assembled easily and inex
pensively, close control of manufacturing toler
’
ances being unnecessary.
An additional object of my invention is to pro
videa wrench incorporating a reversible trans
gagement by eiïecting relative rotation thereof 10 mitting means whereby the direction of the for
with a wrench adapted to engage one of the arti
ward stroke may be reversed readily by the sim
cles, are frequently so inaccessibly located that
ple expedient of slidably transposing the drive
interfering members restrict the amplitude of
member and inverting the wrench.
motion of the wrench to a small angle. Under
Still another object of my invention is to pro
such conditions, when a forward stroke, impart
vide a wrench of the reversible type which is
ing relative motion to the articles in the desired
adapted for use with the conventional sockets,
direction, has been completed, it is necessary
extension bars, etc.
that the wrench be disengaged from the article
I prefer to attain these and other objects of
being rotated whereby a rearward stroke may be
my invention by providing a wrench which in
effected to return the wrench to its initial posi 20 cludes a square drive member slidably disposed
tion while the article being rotated remains sta
within and partially enclosed by a housing ele
Complementarily-threaded articles, such as a
nut and a bolt, which are to be urged into en
tionary. Obviously, it is often extremely incon
ment, rotary motion being selectively transmit
venient to eiîect an actual physical disengage
ted therebetween by rollers disposed within the
ment of the wrench from the article being ro
housing element, one adjacent each face of the
tated uponcompletion of each forward stroke. 25 'drive member. The rollers are urged into en
and prior to b-eginning each rearward stroke.
gagement with the housing element and the
It is a general object of my invention, therefore,
drive member during a forward stroke by fric
to provide a wrench incorporating a novel means
tional Contact with the housing element, and
for transmitting a rotary motion to an article
in a desired direction when a reciprocating mo
tion is imparted to the wrench, whereby the arti
cle is rotated in the desired direction during a
forward stroke of the wrench and automatically
remains stationary during a rearward stroke
engagement is prevented during a rearward
30
stroke by stationary restraining members which
are ñxed with respect to the drive member by
end plates. The preferred embodiment of my
invention will be discussed in speciñc detail in
without disengaging thewrench from the article.
the following disclosure and the various advan
upon beginning the forward stroke and which
has a negligible drag during the rearward stroke.
Another object is to' provide a wrench which
wrench illustrating the disposition of the vari
ous components-of the transmitting means dur
tages of my invention will be made apparent
Another object is to provide a wrench of the
therein.
character referred to which has a transmitting
Referring to the drawing:
means devoid of spring elements.
Fig. 1 is a perspective View of my invention and
Another object is to provide a wrench incorpo
illustrates its application to a conventional hex
rating a means for transmitting a rotary motion 40 agonal socket (shown in phantom) ;
`
which engages substantially instantaneously
Fig, 2 is a transverse sectional View of the I
Y
includes a minimum number of moving elements 45 ing a return stroke;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but illustrat
and one in which the transmitting means is sub
ing the >arrangement of the several parts of the
transmitting means during a forward stroke;
A further object of my invention is to provide
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view taken
a wrench which is smaller, more compact, lighter,
and yet stronger than the wrenches of the con 50 along the line 4_4 of Fig. 2;
ventional type.
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view taken
.Another object of my invention is to provide
along the line 5_5 of Fig. 2;
,
a wrench which, unlike the yconventional single
Fig. 6 is a longitudinal sectional view taken
stantially self-lubricating.
pawl ratchet wrench, has a transmitting means
along the line 6_6 of Fig. 2; and
v
that distributes the transmitted forces to several 55 Fig. '7 is a perspective view of a restraining
2,4103@
3
member and an end plate forming components
of the wrench.
Referring particularly to Fig. 1, I show a wrench
le, which, in this illustration, is adapted to co
operate with a conventional hexagonal socket H
(shown in phantom), and is rotatable forwardly
¿i
faces 4I and the peripheral wall 22 simultane
ously. The drive member ¿lll remains stationary,
therefore, vwhen a restraining moment, suñicient
to overcome thesmall frictional moment devel
oped within the wrench by contact of the hous
ing element 20 with the rollers 3l and end plates
in the direction of the arrow F about an axis A--A
5e, is applied thereto, the restraining moment
housing element 26, Serves to enclose and position
the transmitting assembly 33.
'The housing element 29 preferably comprises
the peripheral wall 22 will be displaced circum
a rearward force R to a handle 2li attached there
rollers 3i, the only'moving parts in the entire
transmitting means, are urged into engagement
with the drive member ¿til and the housing ele'-,
offered by even very loosely engaged complemen
to drive the socket il in that direction and is
tarily-threaded articles being ample for this pur
rotatable in an opposite or rearward direction,
indicated by the arrow R, about the axis A-A 10 pose.
As iilustrated in Fig. 3, when the housing ele
while the socket remains stationary, as will here
ment 2G is rotated forwardly with respect to the
inafter be described in detail. The forward direc
drive member All, as indicated by the arrow F,
tion is taken as the direction of motion to be irn
the rollers 3! are displaced circumferentially in
parted to the socket l l and may be either clock
wise or counterclockwise, as will be shown here 15 the direction of rotation F by frictional contact
with the peripheral wall 22 until they reach the
inafter.
points 311 of equal cho-rd and clearance to engage
The wrench le inciudes a housing element 29
and become wedged between the faces 4l and the
which contains a transmitting assembly 3B adapt
peripheral wall 22, thereby locking the housing
ed to engage and prevent relative rotation of the
housing element 2b and a centrally located drive 20 element 20 and the drive member ¿iii together.
it will be understood that since the housing
member ¿d during forward rotation of the hous
element 26 floats on the rollers 3l, one or more
ing element 2G, and which is further adapted to
of the rollers 3! will always contact the periph
permit relative rotation thereof during rearward
eral wall 22. As the housing element 20 is rotated
rotation of the housing element 2S. A pair of
end plates E39, one adjacent either end of the 25 forwardly, the roller or rollers 3l in contact with
ferentially by frictional contact until they engage
the drive member 4Q whereupon lateral displace
ment of the drive member ¿13, restraining mem,
a right circular cylinder provided with a concen
tric bore 2l therethrough defining a peripheral 30 bers 35, and end plates 5G will occur until one
or more of the remaining rollers 3| engage the
wall 22, which can be rotated about its longitudi
faces si and the peripheral wallV 22. Thus the’
nal axis A-A by applying a forward force F or
to and extending transversely therefrom. A por
tion of the handle 2&5 is preferably knurled or
roughened, as indicated at 25, to provide a con
venient gripping surface for the hand of a user.
As best shown in Figs. 2 and 8, the transmitting
ment 2i? lby friction alone without the use of any
Spring devices.
`
v
The engaging action delay occurring at the
beginning of each forward stroke is equal to the
assembly Sil comprises four bearings 3l, each
preferably in the form of a cylindrical roller, and 40 circumferential travel of the rollers 3l between
the engaging edges 35 of the restraining mem.-V
four restraining members 35, each bearing being
bers 35 and the points 34 of equal intercepted
disposed between a face M of the drive member
chord and clearance and can be minimized by
itil and the peripheral wall 22 and the restraining
reducing the travel to a very small distance.
members 35 being fixed with respect to the drive
This may be accomplished either by increasing
member ¿iii by the end plates 55, as will herein
the diameter of the rollers 3l, or by locating the
after beY described in detail. The diameters of
restraining members 35 nearer the maximum
theybearings 3iV are greater than the minimum
clearance points 33, or by decreasing _the diams
clearances between each face ¿il of the drive
eter of the bore 2|, or otherwise as will.' be un-member ¿lll and the peripheral wall 22, as indi
derstood by those skilled in the art.
.
cated by the dimensions 32, and are less than
The drive member 40, preferably of square
the maximum clearances therebetween, as indi
cross section as illustrated to permit application`
cated by the dimensions 33. Intermediate the
thereof to the conventional socket, is longitudi
minimum clearance points 32 and the maximum
nally slidable within the bore 2l through'a cen
clearance points 33 Vare points where the chords
trally located complementaryV hole 5I in4 each
of the bearings 3| intercepted between the faces
end plate 56, the end plates being maintained in
4l and the peripheral wall 22 are equal to the
spaced relationship by, and serving to maintain
clearances therebetween measured along the
the desired position of, the restraining members
chords, as indicated by the dimensions 3d. The
35. The interconnection of the end plates 50
rollers 3l are therefore free to travel circum
ferentially with respect to the drive member All 60 and the restraining members35 is preferably ef
fected by inserting the ends 37 of the latter
between the points 3d of equal chord and clear
through complementary holes E2. inY the ' end
ance, the travel therebetween in one direction
plates 5S, as best shown in Fig. 7, and peening
being arrested by the edges 36 of the restraining
the ends 3? as indicated at 39, the endsY Sïpreí
members 35.
' .
Referring to Fig. 2, when the housing element 65 erably being substantially square, as shown, to
prevent rotation of the restraining members 35,
2Q is rotated rearwardly with respect to the drive
and being of reduced section, as illustrated, to
member d0, as indicated by the arrow R, the roll
provide shoulders 38 abutting the end >plates 50.
ers 3l are displaced circumferentially in the direc
Referring to Fig. 6, the longitudinal' position
tion of rotation R by frictional contact with the
peripheral wall 22 of the housing element 23 until 70 of the drive member ¿l0 may be releasably fixed,
whereby either end 42 thereof may extend" lon
they engage the restraining members 35 which
gitudinally beyond the end plates 5D, by means
arrest the displacement at points where the roller
of a depressible ball-catch 43 disposed adjacent
diameters are less than the clearances between
each end of one of the faces y¿il and adaptedv to
the faces el and the peripheral wall 22, thereby
preventing wedging of .the rollers 3l between the 75 engage the inner surface 53 of one of the end
5
2,410,392
6
plates 50. The ball-catch comprises a spring
d1 and a ball M disposed within and partially
enclosed by a tapered bore 45, the tapered end
46 of the bore 45 being formed by peening as is
well known in the art. The roller 3| adjacent
the face 4I incorporating the balls 44 is prefer
ably shortened, as indicated at 3Ia, to accom
modate the balls 44. The ball-catch ¿i3 is fur
end plate adjacent each end of said housing ele
ment adapted to enclose said bore, each of said
end plates having a centrally-located, polygonal
hole therethrough; ‘a restraining member adja
cent each side ofsaid polygonal hole disposed
longitudinally within said bore, each end of each
ther adapted to engage and secure a socket ap
section complementary to said polygonal holes,
said drive member` being longitudinally slidable
through said polygonal holes and said bore and
extending longitudinally from said bore; and a
roller disposed longitudinally between each face
plied to the drive member 40. A pin 48 is dis
posed within and extends from a transverse bore
through the drive member 40 intermediate the
ends 42 thereof, the ends of the pin 48 being
adapted to engage the inner surface 53 of the
either end plate 50 to limit the longitudinal dis
placement of the drive member 40.
As previously mentioned, the intermittent ro
tary motion transmitted to a socket ll in a for
restraining member being attached to one of said
end plates; a drive member of a polygonal cross
of said polygonal drive member and said peri
pheral wall adjacent one of said restraining mem
bers, said rollers being adapted to engage said
faces and said peripheral wall to prevent relative
motion thereof during forward rotation of said
ward direction by a reciprocating force F, R
housing element, and'being adapted to engage
applied to the handle 24 of the wrench may be 20 said restraining members during rearward rota
in either a clockwise or counterclockwise sense.
tion of said housing element to prevent engage
The forward direction may be reversed by the
ment of said rollers with said faces and said
simple expedient of transposing the drive mem
peripheral wall simultaneously whereby relative
ber ¿lil to the position indicated in dotted lines
motion thereof is permitted.
49’ in Fig. 6 and inverting the wrench. A mir
2. A wrench comprising: a right-cylindrical
ror image of Figs. 2 and 3 will indicate the action
housing element provided with a concentric cir
of the transmitting assembly 3c to effect the re
cular bore therethrough defining a peripheral
versed forward rotary motion.
wall; a circular end plate adjacent each end of
’The transmitting assembly 30 provides a sim
said housing element adapted to enclose said bore,
ple, inexpensive means for selectively transmit 30 each of said end plates providing a concentric
ting a component of an alternating rotary mo
square hole therethrough; a restraining member
tion by alternately developing negligible and in
attached to said end plates adjacent each side
ñnite coeiiîcients of friction. 'I'he assembly 3û
of said holes whereby said end plates are main
requires little or no attention, and fouling there
tained in spaced relationship with said holes in
of by accumulations of rust, dirt, etc., is Virtu
alignment; a square drive member of greater
ally impossible due to the grinding or pulver
izing action applied thereto by the rollers 3|.
Extreme accuracy in manufacturing the various
length than said bore slidably inserted through
said holes and said bore; means for releasably
fixing the longitudinal position of said drive mem
parts of the wrench is not necessary, for any
ber; and a roller disposed longitudinally between
reasonable inaccuracies are absorbed by slight 40 each face of said drive member and said peri
transverse displacements of the drive member 40
pheral wall and having a lesser diameter than
and the rollers 3l with respect to the peripheral
the maximum clearance and a greater diameter
wall 22 which occur automatically to equalize
than the minimum clearance therebetween.
the inaccuracies, this feature of the invention
3. A wrench as deñned in claim 2 in which said
making for considerably reduced manufacturing 45 releasably-ñxing means includes a depressible
costs.
ball-catch adjacent each end of one face of said
The inventive concept disclosed herein will sug
drive member adapted to engage the end plate
gest numerous modiñcations and substitutions to
thereadjacent, and in which the roller disposed
those skilled in the art, and I speciñcaly reserve
between said one face of said drive member and
the right toall such modifications and substitu 50 said peripheral wall is shortened to accommodate
tions that come within the scope of the appended
said ball catches.
claims.
4. A wrench as defined in claim 2 including
I claim as my invention:
means for limiting the longitudinal travel of said
1. A wrench comprising: a housing element
drive member.
provided with a longitudinally-directed, circular 55
bore therethrough defining a peripheral Wall; an
CLAYTON L. RICH.
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