Nov. 5, 1946. B. H. s. CHAPPELL TREATING OILS AND-FATS Filed April 25, 1945 I 2,410,427 . Patented Nov. 15, 1946 2,410,427 TREATING OILS AND FATS ' Bartlett H. Stafford Chappell, Hurley, N. Y. Application April 23, ‘1943, Serial No. 484,272 2 Claims. (01. safes) 1 . 2 thereby, even after the roasted coffee has become processes for the treatment of fats and oils of . , aged when it would otherwise be undesirable This invention relates to an improvement in foods, vegetable, animal, and mineral products. for use. this process, in which: tained therein, to‘ produce a transformation in these products and to develop desirable charac teristics therein, particularly for rendering the _ - I have shown in the accompanying drawing, a form of apparatus suitable for use in practicing The invention relates to the changing of the internal conditions in the substances mentioned, and more particularly to the treatment of the fats and oils composing these substances or con .0 oils more soluble in digestive juices, and improv ing the ?avor thereof,-as well as the elimination > of undesirable properties and characteristics, and the stabilization ' of desirable factors in these ' _ Fig. 1 is a perspective view of conveyor struc ture and associated mechanisms for subjecting the products to infra-red‘ rays under controlled conditions; and ' _' ' Fig. 2 is a side elevation of an infra-red ray lamp as used therein. In practicing this process in the treatment of coffee, I prefer to utilize a combination of devices 15 which will not only subject the products to infra red rays, but will also so condition the air in the The object of the invention is to improve the room where the treatment is being conducted digestibility, taste and bene?cial results of food that the most desirable results may .be obtained. and other products of the character mentioned. An example of‘s‘uch apparatus is shown in Fig. 1, This process is carried out by exposing such prod ucts to the radiation of infra-red rays, the major 20 in .which a conveyor is designated generally by the numeral I, being mounted on a table 2, and portion of which are of wave lengths above 7700 ‘ extending from a hopper 3 into which the prodi Angstrom units, but with low heat radiation. uctsare to be placed. The conveyor discharges When the process is used in the treatment of the products into an outlet device 43 which may coffee, forinstance, it is not applied to the green co?ee, but only to the co?ee after it has been 25 direct them to receptacles or other point for fur ther treatment or use. roasted. Likewise, in treating other substances Mounted over the conveyor l, are a plurality and food products, it is usually applied thereto of lamps 5, which are shown as provided with after any preliminary treatment required to ren re?ectors 6 thereover and having a source of elec der these products edible, or generally available 30 tric current ‘I connected with the respective for use. ’ lamps. Each of these lamps'5 is preferably of The process is described in the treatment of the character shown in Fig. 2, in which the lamp ' co?ee as an example, because it utilizes many is shown as comprising an evacuated envelope desirable functions of the process, producing im containing a gaseous atmosphere in which is proved properties in the treated co?ee that are highly desirable, as will be pointed out herein 35 mounted a carbon ?lament 8, capable of emitting products. . - . for use, but it has been known that delay in . infra-red rays, the major portionof which are above 7700 Angstrom units, but without material heat radiation. For this purpose, an incandescent lamp using a carbon ?lament will produce the mined roast color. other products along through the infra-red rays after. - When coffee is roasted, the oils are developed in the bean structure, making them available brewing the co?ee after roasting allows these 0115 40 desired radiation of infra-red rays that will pene trate deeply into the food products, and I have to become rancid, reducing their potency, and found in practice that effective treatment may . causing them to become less digestive. These be had to adepth of 21/2 inches on the conveyor. oils are extremely delicate and volatile, and in While an endless power driven belt conveyor treating them, it is essential to avoid, ((1) raising ‘is shown, it will be evident that'other types of the temperature thereof to the point of “frying”; conveying means may be utilized, such for in (b) altering the character of the flavor through stance, as the conventional scalping and grading evaporation; (c) changing the identity of ?avor shoe", for the purpose of moving the coffee or by reroasting; and (d) changing the predeter - This process subjects the oils to infra-red rays 50 from the lamps 5. The lamps 5 may be mounted in one or more of a character nevertheless which does not ap proach roasting temperature, being below 200‘? F. banks beneath the re?ectors 6. It is preferred to use banks of clear, frosted, and colored lamps Such treatment is given to the co?ee not only of two hundred watt, fifty candle-power at the‘ after roasting has taken place and the co?ee cooled, but bene?cial results may be obtained 65 intake end of the conveyor, and also a number 2,410,427 3 4 of one hundred and twenty and one hundred to develop theoils. It, may even be what ‘is known as -"stale" coilee. the oils of which can 'watt. thirty-twocandie-power, colored lamps at the discharge and of the conveyor. These lamps include lblue, ruby, orange-amber, smoke, yellow, ‘ green, frosted and clear. Lamps of lower candle power are included to avoid increased heat radia. tions due to color. When colored bulbs are not‘ - available, strips of colored glass may be arranged ‘ under clear bulbs of this type. r The treating apparatus will be located in a be rendered digestible by this process. ‘ - Before treating the coffee, the operator should first‘ make‘ certain that the atmospheric condi4 tion in the treating room is maintained at 70° F., with 60° of’ relative humidity,~ and that the conditioning units are functioning, if required. ‘ Then the roasted co?'ee beans are deposited in the hopper 3 to move along the conveyor I room where atmospheric conditions can be con~ through the infra-red rays emitting from ‘the trolled automatically, both as to temperature and . electrically energized (and cooled, if required) relative humidity, and also for the control of the lamps 5. The speed at which the conveyor moves oxygen content of the room.‘ Such control units the coffee through the infra-red rays varies ac are well-known as to construction and operation 15 cording to the type of coffee being processed. and need be only generallyv referred to here. I have found in practice that the depth of the Included in such controls is a humidi?er, de coffee beans may be asmuch as 21/2 inches on signated generally by the numeral III, which is the conveyor and yet be effectively treated. of conventional construction adapted to take air Roasting temperature of coffee is above 100° in through an intake H, ?lter and condition its 20 C., and it is essential that coffee here treated moisture content, and to discharge the same at shall be maintained below such roasting tem 12 in the region of the coffee-hopper 3, so that peratures. I have found that best results are the coffee will be subjected to ?ltered air’ at the obtained between 190°-2Q0° F. Any temperature point where it» is subjected to infra-red rays, in approaching that used in roasting would alter asmuch as such air aids the treatment materially. 25 the identity of that particular roast. This proc_ It is preferred to discharge the air in the region ess does notaffect .the appearance of roasted coffee. of the coffee intake, so as to maintain a tem perature of ‘70° F. with 60” of humidity, which It is known that the chemical action of light makes an ideal atmosphere for the-processing depends upon theisubstance upon which the rays of the oils in the roasted co?ee beans accord 80 strike and not upon the chemical quality in ing to this process. ‘ herent in the rays themselves. The light from I have shown also an ozonator I5 01’ conven - the incandescent lamps 5 strikes on and through tional construction which is intended to. assist the oils contained in the structure of the roasted in supplying oxygen to the‘moisture conditioned coffee ‘bean. The action of the infra-red rays air that is delivered to the coffee at the intake 85 from the lamps, attended by low heat radiation, side 01' the treating equipment, to facilitate, when so a?’ects the oils that ordinary decomposition needed, the reaction of the coffee oils to the does not take place, and the coffee is thus ren infra-red rays. The ozonator M discharges the dered more» digestible and of increased potency, treated air-therefrom through a window It in while also delaying the development of rancidity. an upwardly extending deflector 16 that extends This process may be applied to the treatment beside the hopper 3, in 'the path of the air dis of.’ fats and oils of any origin and of any form, charged at I2 from the air conditioner. including substances containing them at any Provision should be made for maintainingthe time, either native ‘to the substances or added desired temperature ‘conditions in the room, for thereto at any time, by the use of infra-red rays which purpose I have shown an electrical steam of the character described. Since coffee is one radiator at I‘! located adjacent the conveyor to of the substancesfalling within this category, supply heat thereto when needed or desired. it is used as an example. However other sub A refrigerating unit is shown at l?'intended stances of equal or greater importance and fall- , to'be used in localities where the outside tem-, 'ing within this category are cocoa beans, spices, perature and humidity are high, not for the pur 60 petroleum jelly, nut meats and the like. pose of cooling the coffee but to supply a cooling medium to the lamps 5, so as to reduce the tem- , perature thereof when required so as not to affect the co?ee. For this purpose, blasts of air are directed from the refrigerating unit l8 through pipes 19 to the individuallamps and sockets to cool these, so as to maintain the desirable low temperature referred to above. ‘ y Iclaim: 1. A process of treating coffee comprising ' the1 step of exposing said coffee after roasting to infra-red rays at a temperature below 200° F. 2. A process of developing the oils of-roastedv I coffee to improve the digestibility and taste thereof, comprising roasting and then cooling the coffee, and thereafter exposing the roasted co?ee The co?ee containing the oils to be treated to infra-red rays at a temperature below 200° F. should have been previously roasted and cooled 60 - BARTLETT H. STAFFORD CHAPPELL.