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Nov. 5, 1946.
B. H. s. CHAPPELL
TREATING OILS AND-FATS
Filed April 25, 1945
I
2,410,427 .
Patented Nov. 15, 1946
2,410,427
TREATING OILS AND FATS '
Bartlett H. Stafford Chappell, Hurley, N. Y.
Application April 23, ‘1943, Serial No. 484,272
2 Claims. (01. safes)
1
.
2
thereby, even after the roasted coffee has become
processes for the treatment of fats and oils of . , aged when it would otherwise be undesirable
This invention relates to an improvement in
foods, vegetable, animal, and mineral products.
for use.
this process, in which:
tained therein, to‘ produce a transformation in
these products and to develop desirable charac
teristics therein, particularly for rendering the
_
-
I have shown in the accompanying drawing,
a form of apparatus suitable for use in practicing
The invention relates to the changing of the
internal conditions in the substances mentioned,
and more particularly to the treatment of the
fats and oils composing these substances or con
.0
oils more soluble in digestive juices, and improv
ing the ?avor thereof,-as well as the elimination >
of undesirable properties and characteristics, and
the stabilization ' of desirable factors in these
'
_
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of conveyor struc
ture and associated mechanisms for subjecting
the products to infra-red‘ rays under controlled
conditions; and
'
_'
'
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of an infra-red ray
lamp as used therein.
In practicing this process in the treatment of
coffee, I prefer to utilize a combination of devices
15 which will not only subject the products to infra
red rays, but will also so condition the air in the
The object of the invention is to improve the
room where the treatment is being conducted
digestibility, taste and bene?cial results of food
that the most desirable results may .be obtained.
and other products of the character mentioned.
An example of‘s‘uch apparatus is shown in Fig. 1,
This process is carried out by exposing such prod
ucts to the radiation of infra-red rays, the major 20 in .which a conveyor is designated generally by
the numeral I, being mounted on a table 2, and
portion of which are of wave lengths above 7700
‘ extending from a hopper 3 into which the prodi
Angstrom units, but with low heat radiation.
uctsare to be placed. The conveyor discharges
When the process is used in the treatment of
the products into an outlet device 43 which may
coffee, forinstance, it is not applied to the green
co?ee, but only to the co?ee after it has been 25 direct them to receptacles or other point for fur
ther treatment or use.
roasted. Likewise, in treating other substances
Mounted over the conveyor l, are a plurality
and food products, it is usually applied thereto
of lamps 5, which are shown as provided with
after any preliminary treatment required to ren
re?ectors 6 thereover and having a source of elec
der these products edible, or generally available
30 tric current ‘I connected with the respective
for use.
’
lamps. Each of these lamps'5 is preferably of
The process is described in the treatment of
the character shown in Fig. 2, in which the lamp '
co?ee as an example, because it utilizes many
is shown as comprising an evacuated envelope
desirable functions of the process, producing im
containing a gaseous atmosphere in which is
proved properties in the treated co?ee that are
highly desirable, as will be pointed out herein 35 mounted a carbon ?lament 8, capable of emitting
products.
.
-
.
for use, but it has been known that delay in .
infra-red rays, the major portionof which are
above 7700 Angstrom units, but without material
heat radiation. For this purpose, an incandescent
lamp using a carbon ?lament will produce the
mined roast color.
other products along through the infra-red rays
after.
-
When coffee is roasted, the oils are developed
in the bean structure, making them available
brewing the co?ee after roasting allows these 0115 40 desired radiation of infra-red rays that will pene
trate deeply into the food products, and I have
to become rancid, reducing their potency, and
found in practice that effective treatment may .
causing them to become less digestive. These
be had to adepth of 21/2 inches on the conveyor.
oils are extremely delicate and volatile, and in
While an endless power driven belt conveyor
treating them, it is essential to avoid, ((1) raising
‘is shown, it will be evident that'other types of
the temperature thereof to the point of “frying”;
conveying means may be utilized, such for in
(b) altering the character of the flavor through
stance, as the conventional scalping and grading
evaporation; (c) changing the identity of ?avor
shoe", for the purpose of moving the coffee or
by reroasting; and (d) changing the predeter
-
This process subjects the oils to infra-red rays 50 from the lamps 5.
The lamps 5 may be mounted in one or more
of a character nevertheless which does not ap
proach roasting temperature, being below 200‘? F.
banks beneath the re?ectors 6. It is preferred
to use banks of clear, frosted, and colored lamps
Such treatment is given to the co?ee not only
of two hundred watt, fifty candle-power at the‘
after roasting has taken place and the co?ee
cooled, but bene?cial results may be obtained 65 intake end of the conveyor, and also a number
2,410,427
3
4
of one hundred and twenty and one hundred
to develop theoils. It, may even be what ‘is
known as -"stale" coilee. the oils of which can
'watt. thirty-twocandie-power, colored lamps at
the discharge and of the conveyor. These lamps
include lblue, ruby, orange-amber, smoke, yellow,
‘ green, frosted and clear.
Lamps of lower candle
power are included to avoid increased heat radia.
tions due to color. When colored bulbs are not‘
- available, strips of colored glass may be arranged ‘
under clear bulbs of this type.
r
The treating apparatus will be located in a
be rendered digestible by this process. ‘
-
Before treating the coffee, the operator should
first‘ make‘ certain that the atmospheric condi4
tion in the treating room is maintained at 70°
F., with 60° of’ relative humidity,~ and that the
conditioning units are functioning, if required.
‘ Then the roasted co?'ee beans are deposited
in the hopper 3 to move along the conveyor I
room where atmospheric conditions can be con~
through the infra-red rays emitting from ‘the
trolled automatically, both as to temperature and . electrically energized (and cooled, if required)
relative humidity, and also for the control of the
lamps 5. The speed at which the conveyor moves
oxygen content of the room.‘ Such control units
the coffee through the infra-red rays varies ac
are well-known as to construction and operation 15 cording to the type of coffee being processed.
and need be only generallyv referred to here.
I have found in practice that the depth of the
Included in such controls is a humidi?er, de
coffee beans may be asmuch as 21/2 inches on
signated generally by the numeral III, which is
the conveyor and yet be effectively treated.
of conventional construction adapted to take air
Roasting temperature of coffee is above 100°
in through an intake H, ?lter and condition its 20 C., and it is essential that coffee here treated
moisture content, and to discharge the same at
shall be maintained below such roasting tem
12 in the region of the coffee-hopper 3, so that
peratures. I have found that best results are
the coffee will be subjected to ?ltered air’ at the
obtained between 190°-2Q0° F. Any temperature
point where it» is subjected to infra-red rays, in
approaching that used in roasting would alter
asmuch as such air aids the treatment materially. 25 the identity of that particular roast. This proc_
It is preferred to discharge the air in the region
ess does notaffect .the appearance of roasted
coffee.
of the coffee intake, so as to maintain a tem
perature of ‘70° F. with 60” of humidity, which
It is known that the chemical action of light
makes an ideal atmosphere for the-processing
depends upon theisubstance upon which the rays
of the oils in the roasted co?ee beans accord 80 strike and not upon the chemical quality in
ing to this process.
‘
herent in the rays themselves. The light from
I have shown also an ozonator I5 01’ conven
- the incandescent lamps 5 strikes on and through
tional construction which is intended to. assist
the oils contained in the structure of the roasted
in supplying oxygen to the‘moisture conditioned
coffee ‘bean. The action of the infra-red rays
air that is delivered to the coffee at the intake 85 from the lamps, attended by low heat radiation,
side 01' the treating equipment, to facilitate, when
so a?’ects the oils that ordinary decomposition
needed, the reaction of the coffee oils to the
does not take place, and the coffee is thus ren
infra-red rays. The ozonator M discharges the
dered more» digestible and of increased potency,
treated air-therefrom through a window It in
while also delaying the development of rancidity.
an upwardly extending deflector 16 that extends
This process may be applied to the treatment
beside the hopper 3, in 'the path of the air dis
of.’ fats and oils of any origin and of any form,
charged at I2 from the air conditioner.
including substances containing them at any
Provision should be made for maintainingthe
time, either native ‘to the substances or added
desired temperature ‘conditions in the room, for
thereto at any time, by the use of infra-red rays
which purpose I have shown an electrical steam
of the character described. Since coffee is one
radiator at I‘! located adjacent the conveyor to
of the substancesfalling within this category,
supply heat thereto when needed or desired.
it is used as an example. However other sub
A refrigerating unit is shown at l?'intended
stances of equal or greater importance and fall- ,
to'be used in localities where the outside tem-,
'ing within this category are cocoa beans, spices,
perature and humidity are high, not for the pur 60 petroleum jelly, nut meats and the like.
pose of cooling the coffee but to supply a cooling
medium to the lamps 5, so as to reduce the tem- ,
perature thereof when required so as not to affect
the co?ee. For this purpose, blasts of air are
directed from the refrigerating unit l8 through
pipes 19 to the individuallamps and sockets to
cool these, so as to maintain the desirable low
temperature referred to above.
‘
y Iclaim:
1. A process of treating coffee comprising
' the1
step of exposing said coffee after roasting to
infra-red rays at a temperature below 200° F.
2. A process of developing the oils of-roastedv I
coffee to improve the digestibility and taste
thereof, comprising roasting and then cooling the
coffee, and thereafter exposing the roasted co?ee
The co?ee containing the oils to be treated
to infra-red rays at a temperature below 200° F.
should have been previously roasted and cooled 60
- BARTLETT H. STAFFORD CHAPPELL.
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