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Nov. 5, 1946.
Filed June 5, 1942
John ELEvans, Jr.
Patented Nov. 5, v1946
., _
"Washington, D. 0.
Application June 5, 1942, SeriallNo. 445,957
"(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
' amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757)
a ?rst propulsion surface initially exposed'yto
pressure generated'by said charge and a second
The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for tlie‘Government for
propulsion surface subsequently exposed ,to-said
governmental purposes, without the payment to
within the chamberjof alriflei 4', 1‘ indicates a
In another of its
projectile having a head2 and a shank‘ 3, ‘The
aspects it relates. to a projectile for usev in a
A special gun’.
" An object of the invention is to provide ord
nance ammunition of whatever size or type hav
tridge in accordancewith the inventionv resting
its’ aspects‘ it relates to" aj'cartridge, particularly
to a; small-arms ‘cartridge;
Referring now to, Fig. 1, whichrshows' a car‘
invention relates ‘to ordnance. , In‘one' of
ing a projectile which initially is accelerated at
a lesser rate than projectiles of conventional
ammunition, and subsequently is accelerated
more rapidly to the muzzle Velocity required for
desired external ballistics. This action mini
‘ mizes recoil because of a smoother acceleration
cartridge case 5, and also ‘the exposedv head _2
of the projectile, have conventional outside di
mensions so that the cartridge is of proper size
for conventional use. However, the neck 6 of
the case is much thicker than the neck of the
conventional cartridge, thus providing a rela
tively small cylindrical ori?ce 1 in which the cy
lindrical shank of the projectile ‘is seated with
a sliding gas-tight ?t.
The shank may have a
slight forward taper, i. e., it diminishes in size
of the projectile and, at the same time, permits
‘from rear to front, so as to maintain the joint
extremely accurate engraving of the .projectile
or its rotating band with concomitant high effi 20 at the ori?ce gas-tight as the projectile moves
forward after ?ring and, also, to retain the bul
let in the case during shipment and handling.
Another object of the invention is to provide
The case may also be thickened at the shoulder
a- simple cartridge embodying the principles of
8 for reinforcement against rupture at this point.
the invention which is adapted for use in conven
The projectile is provided with two separate
tional ?rearms.
and distinct propulsion surfaces against which
Another object of the invention is to provide
the propelling gases generated by the propelling
a projectile and gun combination employing sep
charge act to accelerate the projectile. The pri
arate loading ammunition and embodying the
mary, or ?rst propulsion surface, is the base 9
Another object of the invention is to provide 30 of the shank and the secondary propulsion sur
face is the rearwardly facing area I!) at the base
a separate loading projectile in accordance with‘
of the projectile’s head.
the invention.
When the piece is ?red, gases are rapidly gen
Still further objects and advantages of the
erated by the propellant ll. These gases ini
invention will be apparent from the following de
aforesaid principles.
scription taken in connection with the accom
panying drawing in which:
Fig. 1 is a'fragmentary View, partly in section,
of a cartridge‘ in accordance with the invention
tially drive the projectile forward by action only
upon the relatively small propulsion surface 9.
The acceleration takes place relatively slowly due‘
to the small area upon which the gases are eifec
tive.. When the projectile has advanced in the
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary View, partly in section‘, 40 bore of the ri?e a distance equal to the length
of the shank, the base 9 of the shank clears the
of a gun and projectile embodying the inven
forward end of the ori?ce 1 thereby giving the
gases within the cartridge case egress to the bore
The invention involves in combination with an
of the ri?e where they are free to act, not only
ordnance piece including a gun tube and a pow
upon the primary propulsion surface 9, but also,
der chamber receiving a propelling charge, a pro
in addition, upon the secondary propulsion sur
jectile seated in said ordnance piece, said pro
face lB. The accelerating force is thus consider
jectile having a small ?rst propulsion surface
ably multiplied and the projectile is rapidly ac
initially exposed to pressure generated by said
celerated to the desired velocity.
charge and a second propulsion surface subse
The principles of the invention as applied to
quently exposed to said pressure.
a large gun using separate loading ammunition
The cartridge embodiment of the invention in
. positioned in the chamber of a ri?e, and
cludes a case providing a powder chamber re
ceiving a propelling charge and having a neck
portion providing a relatively small ori?ce and a
projectile seated therein, said projectile having
. will be explained with referenceto Fig. 2 of the
drawing. The projectile la is provided with a.
head 2a, and a shank 3a. The guntube 4a pro
vides the powder chamber to. A collar 6a is pro
vided for the projectile and is analogous to the
thickened neck portion 6 of the cartridge case
eration. In general, however, the area of the
primary propulsion surface will be distinctly
of Fig. 1. A gas-tight sliding joint is provided
smaller than the area of the total propulsion
between the ori?ce 1a of the collar and the shank
surface, being preferably less than three quarters
of the projectile. The collar and projectile pref
Cl thereof.
erably are loaded into the gun as a unit. :A gas
The term propulsion surface is intended to
tight jointitla isfp'rovided between the collar and
means a surface of the projectile upon which
the walls‘of the powder chamber. The primary
propelling gases are eifective for acceleration of
propulsion surface is the base 9a of the shank
the projectile. The area of such a surface will be
and the secondary propulsion surface is the rear 10 considered to be the rectilinear projection of said
wardly exposed area Ilia at the base of the head.
area upon a plane perpendicular to the major
The powder charge Ila is separately loaded into
axis of the projectile.
the chamber.
I claim:
The action of the propelling gases on the pro
A cartridge comprising an elongated case pro
jectile in the modi?cation of Fig. 2 is similar to 15 viding a powder chamber receiving a propelling
the accelerating action as described in connection
charge and having a neck portion at one end, said
with Fig. 1, the propelling gases acting ?rst on
the base of the shank and subsequently addi
tionally on the rearwardly facing base of the
_ After ?ring the gun, it will be necessary to re~
move the collar 61: before reloading,
neck portion having thick walls providing a sub
stantially cylindrical ori?ce, a projectile having
a forwardly tapered shank portion extending in
20 wardly through the said ori?ce of said case, mak
ing a sliding gas-tight joint with the inner sur
face of said ori?ce and providing a primary pro
pulsion surface at the end of said shank, said
projectile having a head portion providing a sec,
‘The relative size of shank and head of the
projectile are not’ critical and may be varied
within desired limits. The length of the shank
ondary propulsion surface, the outside diameter
may bevaried to give a longer or shorter delay 25 of the head of said projectile being not greater
to the‘ full accelerating action of the propelling
than the outside diameter of the neck portion of
gases’, and the relative areas of the primary and
said case.
secondary propulsion surfaces may be varied, as
the case requires, to regulate the initial accel
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