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Filed Aug. 20, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
DA ‘(/0 BL 0445a‘;
Nov. 5, 1946.
Filed Aug. 20, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
0/; W0 5/. (M15596
NOV. 5, 1946.
Filed Aug. 20, 1943
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Now. 5, 1946.
2,410,477 I
Filed Aug. 20,‘ 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
Nov. 5, 1946.
‘ Filed Aug. 20, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
Patented Nov. 5-, 1946
' 2,410,477
UNITED STATES f PAT-BN1!‘ vclerics
David Blumberg, Bridgeport, Conn.
Application August 20, 1943, ‘Serial No. 499,315
4 Claims. _(Cl. 123-51)
This invention relates to new and useful im
- provements in internal combustion engines and‘
has particular relation to a two-cycle engine.
Among the objects of the~invention are to pro
vide in an engine of the type indicated means for GI
thoroughly scavenging the engine cylinder of
burned gases, means for forming a large explosive
charge in the engine cylinder, an engine of sim
ple construction involving but a relatively few
parts, and an improved power take-off means for 10
the engine whereby with a number of the en
gines operating in a bank any one or more may
be stopped without imposing a. heavy drag onthe
‘ . others.
Other objects and advantages will become ap
parent from a consideration of the following de
tailed description taken in connection with the;
accompanying drawings wherein a satisfactory
ends and provided at spaced points with raised
.or radial ?ange-like portions ll, l2, l3, l4, l5
and Hi the purpose of which will appear. The
respective ends of the cylinder III are closed by
heads I] and I8 bolted or otherwise secured in
place. ,An intake port i9 is provided in head I1
and communicating with said port is a fuel sup;
ply pipe 20. .A valve 2| controls the port l9 and
at the proper times is maintained seated by a
coil spring 22 disposed about the stem of the
valve. Head 18 is provided with an intake port
23 with which communicates a fuel supply pipe
24. A valve 251controls the port 23 and is adapted
to be seated at the proper times by a' coil spring
26 disposed about the stem of the valve.
- Members 21 and 28 are disposed in spaced re
lation about the intermediate portion of the cyl
inder Ill and are securedvagainst the opposing
faces of the radial ?anges l3 and M respectively. '
it is to be understood that the invention is not 20 The members may be in two or more pieces and
limited to'the details disclosed but includes all
are bolted, welded or ‘otherwise formed into units‘
such variations and modi?cations as fall within ‘ and in any similar manner secured tight to-said
the spirit of the invention and the scope of the
A water jacket 29 is secured in spaced
appended claims.
relation to the main walls of the cylinder- In by
In the drawings:
25 being secured to the ?anges H--l2 and l5—l6
Fig. 1 is a top plan view showing the engine
as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Water supply and
of the invention;
return pipes 30 and 3! are shown as connected
Fig. '2 is a horizontal central sectional view
‘ with the water jacket at the respective sides of I '
through the engine;
the central or intermediate portion of the cylin
Fig. 3 is a view with the engine casing in ver
der ill (see Fig.3).
tical section but with the piston structure in ele
At the underside of the engine an oil pan 32
embodiment of the invention is shown. ' However, ‘
may be bolted at 33 to the lower portions of the
members-27 and 28 and at such side the mem
section and showing the piston construction (and
bers. are provided with v?anges 34 having holes
crank means alone;
35 35 for .the passage of anchoring bolts or the like
Fig. 4 is a view partly in plan and partly in
Fig.5 is a perspective view of one part of th
crank means alone;
Fig. 6 is a quarter section view of the switch
controlling energizing of the spark plug;
Figs. '7 through 11 are schematic views show
ing the various positions of the crank means;
‘Fig. 12 is a side elevational view of‘ the engine _
cylinder alone;
Fig. 13 is an elevational view of the block‘used
- in mounting the crank means;
Fig. 14 is a similar view but taken at right
anglestoFig. 13;
Fig.'15 is a detail elevational view looking at
the underside of the engine cylinder as suggested
‘ bythe line l5-l5ofFig. 12; and
to be used in securing the engine to any suitable ‘
base (not shown). A plate ‘36 is seemed to and
between the upper portions of the members 21
and 28 as by bolts 31 and such plate toward each
side of the engine has a pin 38 passing there
through. About each pin is a coil spring 39 bear
ing at its respective ends against a head 4010f .'
the pin and’ a socket provided in the plate and
45 receiving the inner end of the spring.
These pins enter ‘into the starting of the engine
as will later appear and the pins are normally
held in elevated positions by the springs 39. The
heads of the respective pins are engaged by roll
50 ers' M on the respective arms 42 and 43 of a.
rocker device generally designated 44 (see Fig. 1)
pivotally mounted on a bar 45 carried by bearing
members or lugs it on the upper side of the plate
Referring in detail to the drawings the engine
36. A manual means 41 is provided for pulling
,of the invention is shown as including a one
' piece casing or cylinder 10 open through both 56 to pivot the rocker 44 on bar 45 to depress the
Fig. 16 is a transverse sectional view taken as
_ along the line IG-l 6 of Fig. 12.
pins 38 against the tendency of the coil springs
arms 12 is a cylindrical bushing 85 received in
an annular block 86 having an opening 851 there
through for such bushing. Block 86 has ?anges
Spark plugs 48 and 48 are threaded through
thickened cylinder side wall portions 58 and 5|
88 which bear against the inner surfaces or the
respectively and enter the cylinder toward but (.1 skirt of piston 8| as best shown in Figs. 2 and 4
spaced from the heads I? and I8. Firing of the
and the block is movable as a unit with the pis
plugs is controlled by similar switches 52 and
tons. A pair of holes 89 and 98 communicate
53 located at the ends of the cylinder and mount
the opening 81 through the block 88 with the
ed‘ by the heads I‘! and I8. These switches
interior of the piston skirts at the respective sides
are normally in open circuit relation and are 10 of the block. These ‘openings pass not only
closed by a ?ring chamber head as the lat
through the block but also through the bush
ter reaches the end of its compression stroke.
ing 85.
Each switch (see Fig. 6) includes a threaded
Inner cylindrical liners 9| and 92 in the skirts
outer metal shell 54 adapted to be screwed into
82 and 83 respectively, bear against the ?anges
a, tapped hole in the cylinder. Within said metal
88 of‘the block 86 and such liners toward their
shell is a body 55 of insulating material mount
outer ends are provided with holes 93 and 84,
ing a pair of spaced contacts 55 and 51 con‘
respectively. When the engine is assembled the
nected by wires 58 and 58 with binding posts
free ends of the cranks ‘I2 are in, or substantial
68 and BI respectively. Such posts are" car
ly in, abutting aligned relation as in Figs. 2 and 4
ried by the body 55 and exposed at the outer
and through such cranks extends an opening 85.
. end of the metal shell 54. A lead 52 from a bat
Such opening through radial openings 96 com
tery or the like (not shown) is connected with
municates with arcuate channels or grooves 8‘!
binding post'68 while a similar lead 63 connects
in the surface portions of the cranks and which
the binding post 6| with the center electrode of
in certain positions are in communication with
a spark plug.
the respective openings 89 and 98 through the
Located Within the metal shell 54 beyond the
block 86 and bushing 85 entering the cylinder
inner end of the insulating body 55 is a contact
I8 at opposite sides of said block.
Outwardly of the respective pistons 88 and 8|
are ?ring chamber heads 98 and 88. Rigid} with
or circuit closing means in the form of a head
84 normally held away from contacts 58 and 51
by a coil spring 66. A rod 81 projecting from
said head 64 passes out through the shell wall 85
and may be provided with a small head 88 for
engagement by a ?ring chamber head for the
closing of the switch to energize a spark plug.
As shown best in Fig. 3 the rod 5‘! and its head '
88 project slightly into the engine cylinder to‘
be engaged by the mentioned ?ring chamber
head at the time above indicated. When so en
the respective heads 98 and 99 are skirts I88 and
I8I passing through the pistons 88 and 8|, re
spectively, and engaged by packing or piston rings
I82 as they so pass. At ‘their inner ends the
skirts I88 and I8I are provided with annular
outwardly enlarged portions I83 and I84, respec
tively, carrying piston rings bearing on the in
‘ ner surfaces of the skirt liners 9| and 92, re
gaged the rod and its head are pushed outwardly
Within the skirts I88, and IM are annular
of the cylinder I8 and inwardly of the metal shell 40 members I85 and I85, respectively, held against
54 and the head 84 is moved against the tend
shoulders I8‘I of the skirts by bolts I88 where
ency of the coil spring 68 and into engagement
by such members have a ?xed relation to the
with the contacts'58 and 51 closing the circuit
heads 98 and 98, respectively, and are movable
through them and thus to a spark plug.
with such heads and their skirts. Members I85
In its opposite sides the cylinder- I8 is provided
and I86 are provided each with a valve seat
with longitudinally extending slots 59 in which
for the valves I89 and‘ I I8 of the respective mem
operate portions of a crank mechanism. The
bers and which valves are normally urged to
crank mechanism orpower take-oil means com
ward their seats by. coil springs III disposed
. prises a pair of similar means generally desig
about the stems of the valves; Openings H2
nated ‘I8 and ‘II and of which the means 18
communicate the space between the members
is shown alone in perspective in Fig. 5.
|85 and I88 and the respective ?ring chamber
Such means includes a crank shaft ‘I2 con
heads and within the skirts I88 and IM with the
nected by a web 18 with a. head, shown as a
spaces H3 and II3a between the respective pairs
disc 15. Web 74 and crank 12 are at one side
of heads but at the outer sides of said skirts.
of the disc 75 and extending from the other
Through the firing head 98 are one or more
side thereof in‘ rigid concentric ‘relation there
passages I I4 communicating the outer side of said
with is a drive shaft ‘I8. Web ‘I4 is pivotally
head with the space II 5 located centrally of the
connected with the disc 15 in eccentric relation
innenside of such head while a similar passage
thereto as at ‘IT and such'pivotal connection is
IIS provides communication between the outer
located intermediate the ends of the web. At its 60 side of the ?ring chamber head 99 and the space
end remote from. the crank ‘I2 the web mounts
II‘! at the inner side of- such head. A valve in
a roller ‘I8 the purpose of which will be set forth.
cluding an inverted cup-like part I I9 controls the
As suggested the crank mechanism is dupli
passages H4 and a similar valve I28 controls the
cated at each side of the cylinder I8 and it ‘is
passages II6. These valves are normally held in
operated or driven by a double piston construc 65 positions closing the respective passages by coil
tion located within the cylinder and generally
springs I2I but are adapted to be forced off their
designated 19. Such construction comprises a
seats by pressure to permit of the movement of
pair of piston heads 88 and 8| each in the form.
fuel from the outer to the inner sides of the re
of an annulus and provided with a skirt portion
spective ?ring chamber heads.
designated 82 and 83, respectively, telescoping 70 Exhaust ports I22 and I28 in the respective
at their inner ends as at 84 and provided with
end portions of cylinder I8 communicate with
side holes receiving the cranks ‘I2. The tele
annular passages I24 and I25, respectively, formed
' scoped portions of skirts 82 and 83 are rigidly
~ by the cylinder ?anges I2—-I3 and I4-I5 and
Within said skirt portions and about the crank
cover members I26. Suitable exhaust pipes I2'I
may be connected with the mentioned'armular
~ .
passages and the number of exhaust ports- en
tering such passages may be varied. When the
engine is assembled the webs ‘I4 of the crank
mechanism are received in the members 21 and
29 at the sides of the cylinder I9 and the discs'I5
are also located between such members. The
shafts ‘I6 are disposed in bearings‘ I2‘I each
- mounted by an annulus I29 held in such members
by .bolts I29. Each, annulus has a cover plate
I39 bolted or otherwise secured thereto‘ and main
taining the mentioned bearing means in place.
In its intermediate portion the bottom wall of
the cylinder I9 is provided with a pair of spaced
This movement of firing chamber head 99 re
sults in the Intake valve 25 being drawn open or
unseated againstthe tendency of its coil spring
‘ and fuel from the supply pipe 29 is drawn into
the cylinder between the head 99 and the head
I8. ‘Valve I29 remains seated at this time as
there is no pressure to force it inwardly from
its‘ seat and it is preferred that the same be held
on its seat under a pressure of approximately
two pounds.
As the ?ring chamber head 99 and its skirt
and member I96 are drawn inwardly by the ex
pansion of the compressed air in the chamber I37
longitudinally extending slots I3I and I32. The
the air in chamber I 39 is slightly compressed and
spacing of these slots is the same as that of the 15 forces valve H9 from its seat. The air then es
entrance openings I33 and I39 in the bottom of
caping under the valve II 9 serves to. scavenge
the block 89. Such entrance openings communi- '
the burned gases from the engine and it is also
cate with the respective sides of the block through
noted that the downward or inwardly movement 'of
passages I35 and I39 respectively. Clearly when
the ?ring chamber head 99 in the manner de
the entrances I33'and I34 are in registry with
scribed‘serves to move the burned'gases toward
their slots air passages are established from the
the exhaust port I23. Thus a thorough scaveng
exterior of cylinder I9 to the interiors of the
ing of the engine is accomplished. Valve H9 is
skirts I 99 and IM of the ?ring chamber heads
held on its seat with but a slight pressure, as, for
99 and 99.
example, two ounces so that the valve readily
In the operation of the engine assuming the ~
parts to be in the positions of Fig. 2 a'?ring stroke
driving the piston construction ‘I9 toward the
right has just been completed. _ The burned gases
have been exhausted and scavenged through the
port I22, a new charge has been drawn in through
the intake port in cylinder head I1, and a charge
has been compressed in the space II3a between
the piston 8! and the ?ring chamber head 99
and is ready to be ignited. Fig. 3 shows the pis
ton construction at the end of its stroke follow
ing or resulting from the ?ring of the charge in I
the space H311.
ogaens to permit of passage of air from chamber
When the heads 8i and 99 were moving in the
direction just described the head 99 with its skirt
and the ?ring chamber head 98 and its skirt were
being moved toward the left as viewed in Fig. 2. 4
This is a compression stroke for the parts to the
left of the cranks in Fig. 2 and the piston 89 and
firing chamber head 98 move substantially as a
unit since the inner ends of the skirt of each is
positively moved by the block 99.
In Fig. 2 it will be understood that the space
H3 has been scavenged of burned gases and that
a charge has been drawn into the space between
(which space is in the form of an annulus) the
the cylinder head I1 and the outer side of the ?r
piston 8| is forced toward the left while the ?r 40 ing chamber head 99. Thus the air pressure has
ing chamber head 99 together with its skirt I9I
been exhausted from the chamber I49 within the
_ and member I99 remains stationary. This re
skirt I99 and the valve I99 closes. The air men
sults in the compression of air in the annular ~ tioned ‘has been drawn into said chamber I99
space I31 between the liner 92 and the skirt I9I
through passages 95 and 96 and groove 91 and
and, due to the presence of the hole 99, between ‘» through slot I32, entrance I34 and passage I 36
the liner 92 and the skirt of piston 8|. Further
in the block 89 during the power stroke of piston
at this time air is admitted to the chamber I39
99. As the parts start to move the valve H9 re
within the skirt I9I_ through the opening 95 in
mainsclosed during initial movement» and until
the crank ‘I2, passage 99 and groove 91, passage
the piston 89 has moved suflicient to close the ex
99 and also through slot I3I, entrance I 33 and . haust port I22.
passage I35.
Pressure builds up on the fuel charge in the
There being two independent passages for the
space mentioned and forces open the valve I I9
supply of air to they chamber I39 neither passage
to expose the outer ends of .the passages H9 so
need be large and the rapid supply of the required
that the fuel charge moves through head 98
supply of air is assured. As the block 89 nears
(valve 2i having now closed) and into the space 9
the end of the piston stroke its entrance I33 moves
‘between the piston 89 and the ?ring chamber
o? the end of vslot I3I and no further supply of
head 93 and within the skirt I99 and above the
air is obtained from that source. In addition
member I95 from which space through openings
as the crank ‘12 turns its arcuate groovefill' is
II2 the fuel moves into the space H3. At the
moved out of register with the passage 99 closing
of the stroke the piston construction-has
off the second source of supply of air to the
shifted to the extreme left of the cylinder I9 and '
chamber I38 and sealing the latter.
a charge is ready to be ?red at such end while
During movement of the piston in the direc
a charge has been drawn into the right hand end
tion indicated a plentiful supply of air is there
of the cylinder and is ready to be compressed and
fore trapped in the chamber I38. Now when the (5." forced into the space “3a between the piston 8i
piston head 8| moves past the exhaust port I23
and the firing chamber head 99.
the pressure between said pistonhead and the
At this time the crank ‘I2 is in the position
?ring head 99 drops. At such time the com
reverse to that of- Fig. 2 and is in the position of
When the charge is ignited in the space “3a
pressed air in the space I31 and in the space
Fig. 3, 7 That is, the cranks have moved from
between the liner 92 and the skirt of the piston TI the right hand end to the left hand end of the
head 8i acts on the portion I99 of the skirt of
slots I59. Small valves I92 in thewalls of skirts
the ?ring chamber head 99 and such skirt and
I99 and IIII serve to prevent the creation of any
head together with the memberi99 are moved inv
in the chambers I37 and I 93 between the
the direction of the piston or away from the cyl
skirt HM and the skirt of piston 8| and the skirt
inder head III.
I99 and the skirt of piston 89.
16 does not impart movement to the piston con
structlon, but results merely in rotation of such
shafts, the discs 15, webs ‘l4 and cranks 12 it ‘will
be clear that in any arrangement involving a plu
rality of the engines in a line with their shafts
16 coupled any one or more of the engines may
be stopped or may get out of order and stop
without- imposing a large burden on the yet op
As the engine continues to operate the above
described cycle of operation is repeated. Movement
of the piston construction in one direction com
presses a charge and forces it into the ?ring
chamber at one end of the cylinder while a charge
is fired, the burned gases scavenged, and a new
charge drawn into the cylinder at the other end
thereof. The cranks 12 are moved back and ‘
crating- enginesof the bank.
forth in the cylinder slots 69.
Attention is called to the fact that when the 1o, Having ‘thus set forth the nature of my inven
tion, what I claim is:
piston heads are moved to close the exhaust ports
1. In a two cycle internal combustion engine,
air is trapped between the piston heads and the
a cylinder and piston construction, a crank means,
?ring chamber heads and this air is used asan
‘ addition to the charge drawn through the intake
said crank means including a crank connected
Thus, while in each instance a large charge is
drawn- into the cylinder such charge is further
increased in volume by the presence of the men
thereby, a web connected at one end with said
‘crank, a power take-off shaft, a head on said,
ports at the respective ends of the‘ cylinder.‘ 15 with said piston construction for reciprocation
shaft, a pivot connecting said web with ‘said head,
and said pivot eccentric to said crank and said
During reciprocation of the piston construc-_ 20 shaft and equally spaced from each of them
whereby said crank'is in alignment with said
tion as described the cranks 12 are carried back
power take-off shaft when said piston construc
and forth in the slots 69 of the cylinder l0. These
- tioned trapped air;
tion is in a dead center position.
cranks are located in eccentric relation to the
2. In a two cycle internal combustion engine,
heads or discs 15 and the shafts l6 and further
the-‘pivots l‘! of the webs of the cranks are in 25 a cylinder, a double ended piston construction in
said cylinder, a crank means including a crank
eccentric relation to the discs and shafts. Thus
connected with said piston construction for recip
looking'at Fig. 7 the crank position is that of
rocation thereby, a web connected at one end with
said crank, a power take-off shaft, a head on
and the piston construction moves toward the left 30 said shaft, a pivot connecting said web with said
Fig. 2.
As the cylinder construction remains stationary
head, and said pivot eccentric with said crank
and power take-off shaft and equally spaced from
each of them whereby said crank is in alignment
with said power take-off shaft when said piston
the discs (Fig. 8) to the positions of Fig. 9. ' Then
is in a dead-center position.
on the reverse stroke of ‘the piston the webs and 35 construction
3. In a two'oycle internal combustion engine,
pivots move downwardly while the cranks move
a cylinder, a double ended piston construction in
back through dead center as shown in Fig. 10
said cylinder, .a crank.means including a crank
to the position of Fig. 11 which is the same as
connected with said. piston construction for re
that of Fig. 7 the chosen starting position.
40 ciprocation thereby, a web connected at one end
When the engine is stopped as byv the closing of
with said crank, a power take-off shaft, a head
its fuel'supply and the opening of its ignition cir- ' on said shaft, a pivot connecting said web with
cuit the piston construction comes toa dead cen
said head, said pivot eccentric with said crank
‘ter position bringing the cranks 12 into alignment
and power take-oil shaft and equally spaced from
with the shafts 16 and concentric with them and
them whereby said crank is in alignment with
the discs ‘I5. This is due to the fact that the pins
said power take-off shaft when said piston con
from the position of Fig. 2 the pivot pins ‘ll’ of
the crank webs move upwardly turning the discs
‘I5 and the cranks ‘move through the centers of
‘H are located the same distance from the centers
of cranks ‘I2 as from the center of the shafts 16.
Now if the pins 38 (Fig. 3) are in their upper.
positions, on any attempt to start the engine by
a cranking action applied to either or both shafts 50
18 the latter with the, discs 15 will merely spin
around carrying the pins 11 but not moving the
piston construction.
To start the engine the pins 38 are depressed
by actuation of the rocker 44 so that such pins
are against the rollers 18 of the respective crank
webs 14. _ Now as the engine is cranked .or a
struction is in a dead-center position, and man
ually controlled means for moving said piston
construction out of dead-center position to dis
align said crank and said power take-off shaft
to enable cranking of the engine to be accom
plished by turning of said shaft.
4. In an engine, a cylinder and piston con
struction, a. crank connected with said piston con
, struction for reciprocation thereby, a web con
nected with said crank, a power take-off shaft, a
head on said shaft, a pivot connecting said web
with said head, and said pivot eccentric with said
turning movement is applied to the shafts 16 the
shaft and crank and equally spaced from each
rollers 18 engaging the pins act through the crank
of them whereby said crank is aligned with said
webs and shift the cranks laterally moving them 60 shaft when said piston construction is in a dead
out of dead center position and shifting the pis
center position and said shaft may be rotated
ton construction. From there on the cranking of
without movement of the piston construction.
the engine proceeds in the usual manner. Since
when the engine is stopped turning of the‘ shafts ‘'
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