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Nov. 5, 1946.
G. W. WALTON
2,410,538
PRIME MOVER
Filed Aug. 8, 1941
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INVENTOR
Gewye n/illz'am Walion/
BY
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ATTORNEYS
Nov. 5, 1946.
s. w. WALTON '
2,410,538
PRIME MOVER
Filed Aug. 8, 1941
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Filed Aug. 8, 1941
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INVENTOR
HG 12. Gag/ye William Walz‘on,
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ATTORN EYS
Nov. 5, 1946.
G. w. WALTON
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PRIME MOVER
Filed Aug. 8, 1941
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INVE NTOR
George mum Valium
BY
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ATTO RNEYS
Nov. 5,1946.
6. w. WALTON
2,410,538
PRIME MOVER
Filed Aug. 8, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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69
INVENTOR
W 0/ W
BY
M.» 7m“ M
,ws ATTORNEY!
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
2,410,538
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,410,538
'
PRIME MOVEB
George William Walton, Farnliam Common,
England
- Application August 8, 1941, Serial No. 405,967
' In Great Britain November 22, 1939
l
20 Claims. (Cl. 60-35-6)
This invention relates‘ to prime movers of the
of the said members is usefully applied in one of
gaseous ?uid type. More particularly it relates
three methods depending on the particular work
to internal-combustion jet-reaction prime movers
to be performed, the ?rst method beingl when
of the kind which provide power output in recti
the prime mover is completely unrestrained and
linear form combined with turbine action which 5 the
power developed propels the prime mover
provides rotary power which is wholly or prin
itself
in a gaseous ?uid; the second method has
cipally consumed internally by the prime mover
the prime mover partially restrained by attach
in maintaining proper functioning thereof. The
ing a load to it which is to be propelled in a
improved prime movers are applicable for direct
gaseous ?uid and in certain cases additional
aerial propulsion and may at very high vtrans 10
means associated with the prime mover are re
lational velocities effect such propulsion by em
quired whereby the maximum power can be use
ploying a rocket action wholly or to a large
fully developed in propelling, supporting and con
extent.
trolling
the course of that load; and the third
Hitherto prime movers have been arranged to
method has the prime mover completely re
produce rotary mechanical power which for the
strained from motion in an axial direction or in
purposes. of aircraft propulsion is used to drive
a resultant direction of the several axial direc
an airscrew to obtain an axial thrust so that
tions where the prime mover comprises two or
power production and propulsion are kept dis
more of the aforesaid members and additional
tinct. An exception to this is the rocket but this
means
are required for the purpose of developing
has relatively poor performance at low velocities. 20
maximum power in an appropriate medium to
An object of the invention is to provide means
perform useful work in every such application
for jet propulsion and like purposes which re
examples of which are, maintaining a vacuum in
quire rectilinear power, the said means dispens
a
vacuum system, compressing a gaseous ?uid in
ing with independent prime movers for supply
a compressed gas system, driving a turbine rotor
of ancillary power necessary in the proper func
to develop rotary power, ?uid pumps in which
tioning of those means, the jet ducts of the means
the
aforesaid axial kinetic energy of the gaseous
themselves providing ancillary power as one com
?uid from the said member or members is trans
ponent of the total power developed by jet reac
ferred to some other ?uid in the manner of
tion in those ducts.
known
jet pumps and marine propulsion in the
The- present invention largely, if not wholly, 30
same
manner
by transfer of the kinetic energy
operates with the expansible ?uid at velocities
of gaseous ?uid to water.
above that of sound in the ?uid within the device.
Other objects of the invention are the incor
Another object of the present invention is to
poration
in such primer movers of electric motors
provide a prime mover comprising one or more
members each of which is. of itself a prime mover
and consists of a rigid structure shaped to form
a system of helical passages around a common
axis, through which ?ows continuously a gaseous
?uid which is compressed, heated at pressure by
the combustion of a fuel and expanded thereby
converting heat into kinetic energy of that ?uid,
the peripheral component of that energy being
transferred to the said structure by the walls
of the helical passages causing it to rotate on
its axis, and the axial component of the said
and/or generators, fuel metering and control
devices and ignition devices which are necessary
for the satisfactory functioning of such prime
movers.
-
Embodiments of the invention will now be de
scribed by way of example with reference to the
accompanying drawings in which corresponding
parts in several ?gures are denoted by the same
reference numerals. In the drawings:
Fig. 1 shows a simple embodiment of the in
vention in section.
Fig. 2 shows general characteristics of the de
kinetic energy provides a rectilinear power out 45 vice
of Fig. 1 in approximate graphs.
put.
Fig.
3 shows in section a modi?cation of Fig. 1
Another object is to provide in a prime mover
having two rotors.
»
>
comprising two or more such members means
Fig. 4 shows in section an embodiment of the
which retain the said members and prevent any 50 invention
having a single rotor running in bear
one of them moving in the direction of its axis '
ings and incorporating an electric motor for
relative to the other said members.
I
The said rectilinear power output or the re
starting.
Fig. 5 shows in section a modi?cation of Fig. 4
sultant power output of the several such outputs
with two rotors.
where the prime mover comprises two or more 55 Fig. 6 shows in plan view an arrangement of
2,410,588
3
dynamics and aerodynamics. Unfortunately
thermodynamics largely ignores motion and the
kinetic energy of expanslble ?uids, and aerody
axes and attached to a fuselage.
Figs. '1 and 8 show devices ifor the control of ~namics largely ignores heat e?fects and expan
fuel in prime movers according to the invention. 5 sion, consequently their conventional formulae
four prime movers according to the invention
mounted in forks adjustable about transverse
and ways of understanding processes are clumsy.
when applied to the air ?ow in Fig. 1. Aprin
cipai feature of that ?ow is that its kinetic energy
Fig. 10. is a diagrammaticsection of a valve,
is the link between heat and mechanical energy
asseen on-theline Ill-l0 inFig.9'.
_
' Fig. 11 is a similar section of another .valve, 10 and another feature is that velocity of the ?ow
is employed instead of pressure so- that in e?ect
asseen ontheline il-li inFig.8.
large di?erences of pressure at different points
Fig. 12 is a similar section of a third valve ap
in the direction of ?ow are possible without
pearing in dotted lines in Fig. 9.
~
valves, pressure chambers, and the like.
Figs. 13 and 14 show arrangements for aerial
The kind of changes of energies of the gaseous
15
?uid along the passages of devices according to
Fig. 15 shows a form ofv device ‘for obtaining
the invention, heat given to that ?uid, and trans
compression ignition in prime moversv according
tors of mechanical energies between the ?uid and
to the invention.
Fig. 16 shows an arrangement for ship pro
the structure of adevice, will be better compre
pulsion. .
_
20 bonded with the assistance of the approximate
developed graphs shown in Fig. 2, which are
Fig. 17 illustrates a detail of the device shown
drawn with particular reference 'to the device 01’
inFig. 3, and
‘
Fig. 1. In Fig. 2aabscissae correspond to'axial
Fig. 18 illustrates a detail of the device shown in
Fig. 9 is a section of a detail, taken on the line
HinFis. 8.
propulsion.
Fig. 13.
.
a
>
'
'
,
distances in Fig. 1, the points H, 4, i2, 5, l3 and 6
In Fig. 1 an open ended cylinder. I is rigidly 25 corresponding to similarly numbered points along
the axis of Fig. 1, the ordinates of the curves in
attached by a number or helical vanes 2 at sub
Fig. 2 corresponding to the values of the pres
stantially equal angular separations to a, hollow
sure P, absolute temperature T, the density m
streamlined core 3 which is within and coaxial
with 1., Imoperation the device spins rapidly
and the velocity S of the gaseous ?uid, while the
on its axis 4—-6, drawing in expansible ?uid at 30 ordinates of the curve a show the corresponding
cross-sectional total areas of passages for unit
4, compressing the ?uid to a maximum at 5
flow from which the shape of the passages can
and allowing the ?uid thereafter to expand to
wards and discharge at 6. A partition ‘I divides
be obtained.
‘
Suppose the device of Fig. 1 to be spinning but
the hollow core 3 into two compartments 8 and
9 and the latter communicateswith the passages 35 restrained from axial motion through the at
mosphere, air will be drawn in at 4 and will be
formed between I and 3 and adjacent vanes 2
through ori?ces l0 one or more to each passage.
accelerated by the vanes 2 towards 6 and as
there is no control of the rate of spin and the
Thevdevice of Fig. l is in itself a, complete
amount of fuel burnt increases with spin the
prime mover which operates immersed and us
ing the developedpower for propelling itself in 40 latter would increase inde?nitely but‘ for the
fact that the air entering at 4 is limited to a very
the expansible ?uid. As such it may be used as
de?nite maximum. At that limit the air pressure
an aerial torpedo in which case the expansible
at 4 has the velocity of sound in the air. This
?uid is air, the compartment 9 contains'liquid,
is only true with no velocity at H; if there is,
compressed gas or pulverised solid fuel and com
partment 8 may contain a disposable load, for 45 pressure at 4 is greater so that when at H air
has the velocity of sound in the direction 4 to 6
instance .an explosive charge and a detonator.
conditions at 4 are the same. The air can rise
The starting of the torpedo requires rotation of
to a greater velocity than that of sound if the
the device and an axial .?ow of air through it.
passages after 4 diverge, for instance by round
Once started the air enters the passagesbetween
» i and 3 at 4, is accelerated by the vanes 2‘ and ,50 me thenose of .i in Fig. 1.‘
The expansion of air, into_4 and thereafter
compressed by the constriction ‘of the passages
.to a maximum pressure at 5; fuel from Sisforced _
.f'takes-place with substantiallyiino"ioss?for it is
’ -;a.diabatic,- i: e. the polytropic'exponent ,=p'.=z,
"but work must" be performed by the vanes 2 to
.- ture ofv the air or other means of ignition and ‘65 maintainthelow pres'surev If the air expands
; by centrifugal .iorce. through‘ the orifices i'lL-into
the passagesiand there ‘ignited by , the tempera
.v ., . ; burns
thereby
throughout
heating theaair
zone
which
extending
expands‘towards
in .the di-r.
6,}
vergent'épassagesso- tending to‘ acquire’ addi
vbetween 4 and i2, the plane of theleadingedges
10f vanes 2,-there is a corresponding'thrust de
veloped in the direction 6 to 4 and is exerted
~ against the inside surface of the curved nose of'i.
ierred by the vanes 2 to maintain the spin, of '60 ' The spin of the device of Fig. l is unconstrained
so'that for a given applied torque it will increase
the device; the products of combustion are‘ dis- '
.tional. kinetic energy-some of which is trans
charged into the atmosphere at 6. An ‘axial
thrust is developed in the direction 6 to 4 due to
accelerating air and fuel in the direction 4 to 6
and so propels the device. .
until torque is balanced-by the resistance there
to. The result of this is that the vanes 2 at i2
have a positive or zero angle of attack to the
05 air stream at l2, if the former air velocity after
I2 is increased. To ensure equal angle of at
The characteristic features in the operation of
tack along the whole leading edge of a vane
the'device of Fig. 1 are generally the same as for
it must be scroll formed, i. e. combined helical
all types according to the invention so that a
and spiral, between 12 and 5 so that in any plane
discussion of them will serve for all. From 4 to
6 in Fig. 1 air has a, relatively high velocity at 70 normal to the axis a~~point in a vane at a greater
radius than some other point will be in angular
'all ‘points and because of this speci?c compres
advance thereto.
sion and combustion chambers are not required.
The device of Fig. 1 is of a form intended for
The study of changes of energy, heat, pressure,
high axial velocities at which at least sound
density, temperature, velocity and the like in
such an air ?ow requires knowledge of thermo- 75 velocity of air would be present throughout the
2,410,588
device. In such a case the resultant velocity
of air through the passages would have a com
ponent normal to the vanes and one along the
passages. The former of these is constant for a
constant pitch of vanes. The component along
the passage can vary and friction, increase of
pressure and reduction of the area of passage
will reduce it. The contraction of the passages
between l2 and 5 results in a decrease of super
sonic air velocity along them which means a re
duction of kinetic energy. This energy cannot be
destroyed or transferred to the spin of the device
so it is converted into additional heat energy
of the air increasing the temperature and pres
sure. At the ?nal axial velocities of Fig. 1 and
with a usual degree of compression at 5 there
would still be supersonic air velocity at that
Point. The form of the core 3 between i2 and 5
is decided by the way in which the air is com
pressed, i. e. it is largely dependent on the value
of the polytropic exponent p in the general rela
tion given above, it 21:21 then compression is
adiabatic. The air heated by combustion of the
fuel injected into the passages expands even be
fore combustion is completed at an axial dis
tance shown by the point l3. The mass of the
air plus that of fuel consumed is accelerated by
able energy is used to accelerate the fuel whilstv
at zero velocity of the device this thrust is at a
minimum. The device because of this is capa
ble of a very high velocity. At the terminal ve-,
locity air enters and leaves the device at substan
tially equal velocities. Terminal velocity is at
tained when at lower velocities thrust is greater
than drag.
In some cases auxiliary power may be required
l0 in a device as shown in Fig. 1 and as it consists
of a single member only air pressure can be used
either from the passages near 5 or from a for
ward facing ori?ce when there is axial motion. '
Where such air pressure cannot be used directly
15 but requires additional mechanism it is more sim
ple to provide a member rotating relative to the
body of the device and driven by the flow of air
through it. Such an arrangement is shown in
section in Fig. 3 and consists of the additional
20 bladed rotor ll, mounted on a spindle I! run
ning in bearings l8 and I1. and a tail portion of
the core “I the ends of which house the bearings.
The pitch of the blades of i4 may be such as give
it the desired speed and direction of rotation rel
25 ative to cylinder I, for instance, as I 4 is of small
radius for the same centrifugal stress as in the
cylinder i it can run faster than I, say double
the
speed. so that It rotating in an opposite di
latter are inclined to the axis of the device there
is a tangential and an axial component of kinetic 30 rection relative to i has three times the speed of
revolution, and Fig. 17 shows the rear portion of
energy the former being against the spin of the
the device of Fig. 3 with part of cylinder _I re
device. Similarly the kinetic energy of air and
moved.
exposing the vanes 2 and the blades of
fuel at 5 has axial and tangential components
rotor l4 and also showing the relative pitches
the latter being with the spin. The two tan
of said blades. As shown It drives an electric
gential components of kinetic energy are always
generator consisting of a permanent magnet ro
equal and opposite so that the discharge of air
tor on the spindle l5 and a wound stator ?xed
and products of combustion at 6 is in an axial
in i8, providing electric current through leads
direction at a. velocity equal to or greater than
83 for the heater 84 of the ignition element 15;
the axial velocity of the device. Any transfer
of kinetic energy to or from the air and fuel be 40 and because of the high speed of It a consider
able output is obtained with quite a small simple
fore 5 from or to the vanes is accompanied by
generator stator.
expansion along the passages and because the
an opposite transfer after 5 so that a balance is
maintained.
In Figs. 1 and 2, air at atmospheric pressure
and temperature at H expands adiabatically to ~
The propulsive e?ort'of a device as in Fig. 1
or 3 can be used for propelling aircraft, vehicles
or boats, or the device can be used to maintain
a vacuum or to give a jet of high veloctiy air for
l2 if there is reduced pressure at I2, otherwise they
such purposes as air compression by directing
value of P at the two points are equal. From
the jet into a compression chamber. so convert
l2 to 5 air at supersonic velocity is adiabatically
ing kinetic energy into pressure, or driving im
compressed, heated by combustion while ex
pulse
and/or reaction turbine rotors so forming
panding from 5 to l3 and then expands adiabati 50
an internal combustion turbine with self com
cally between i 3 and 6 to be discharged at B at
pressing bumer expanding nozzles. For any such
atmospheric pressure. By choosing a suitable
purpose it is necessary to restrain axial motion
rate of divergence for the passages from 5 to
of
the device so that a spindle and bearings are
i 3 in Fig. 1 togetherwith a form or number of
suitably distributed fuel jets iii in that part of - required. Where the rotary power of the device
is to be employed the spindle is rigidly ?xed to
each passage and delivering fuel if liquid or solid
it, in other cases the device may run on a ?xed
in appropriate sizes of particles pressure can be
spindle, an example of which is shown in Fig.
substantially constant from 5 to l3‘ though to
4. In Fig. 4 bearings l8 and I1 are housed in
wards the end of the combustion zone the heat
the nose and tail respectively of the core 3 and
supplied falls off.
130 permit rotation on the ?xed spindle i5 passing
The upper part of Fig. 2 shows graphs of the
through the core 3. The device is provided with
corresponding energies of the gases in the flow
an electric motor of which the rotor i9 is ?xed
along the axis of the device of Fig. l ordinates be
inside
the core 3 and the wound stator 20 is ?xed
ing energy values, namely, total e, kinetic k, heat
on l5. This motor may be of alternating cur
hT of the gases, q heat energy added and —w and (15 rent induction type so that brushes are not re
+20 mechanical energy output and input respec
quired and it can also serve as a generator if
tively. The frictional loss of energy and the heat
excited by a leading current at frequencies lower
loss are not shown but together with w and q
than those corresponding to rotational speeds.
result in variation of p the polytropic exponent.
The spindle i5 has a bore 2! for connection to
The thrust developed by the device of Fig. 1 U jets I 0, 2| being open through one or more holes
consists of two' parts, that due to accelerating
23 to an annular chamber 24 with labyrinth pack
the fuel consumed and that due to accelerating
ings 25 and 26 to prevent fuel leakage along the
the air ?owing through the device. At the great
spindle. The chamber 24 and the rotor parts of
est axial velocity of the device the former sup
25 and 26 which are integral therewith are di
plies all the thrust, for all the externally avail 75 ametrically
split for assembly and are ?xed in
2,410,638
7
8
the core 3 with holes 21 communicating with the
annular groove 28 which has ducts 28 to the fuel
the axes of the prime movers Such an aero
plane presents a number of advantages including
One or more holesjli in I5 allow motor
silence, speeds above that of sound, stratosphere
leads from the windings to be passed through 22
for external connection. ‘The device of Fig. 4 in
use has the ends of the spindle l5 clamped in
vbrackets, bridge membersor forks which for air
craft propulsion are ?xed to the airframe with
?ight, safety, cheapness, low or zero takeoff vand
‘ jets i0.
landing speeds, ability to-takeoif and land in
, _ restricted area, land or water, and long life with
little attention.
’
The safety is due to the fact that up to three
power units can be out of action provided‘ that
suitable fuel and electrical conections. \
_
The additional rotor in Fig, 3 may be used to 10 those in action are capable of supporting the
weight of the aeroplane with or without jettison
‘ drive a vaned member at the nose of the device
of load or failing that give sumcient lift to slow
by extending the, spindle i5 so that the air may
down the rate of descent so that there cannot be
be more ‘compressed and/or for a given pressure
a bad crash. One unit out of action means that
the velocity of air at 5 in the passages increased.
A similar arrangement is shown in Fig. 5 in sec-v 15 the adjacent units have morev tilt and speed is
reduced; one forward and a rear opposite out of
tion the device in effect being divided into a nose
action means more tilt and lower speed; one pair
portion 3| with vanes 32 and core 33 rigidly fixed
forward in action only means travelling tail down
to a tail portion having vanes 34 and core 35 by
with loss of speed and pitch control only; rear
the hollow cylinder I and a central main portion
with vanes 2 and core 3 on a spindle l5 running 20 pair in action onlyis the same butwith nose
down; port or starboard pair in action means
in bearings I6 and I1 housed in the nose and
turning over onto starboard or port beam respec
tail portions respectively and also running in
tively and so travelling nose up without bank
bearings 38 and 31 in a fork 38 which has‘a
control at lower speed; only one unit in action
trunnion 39 turning in suitable bearings housed
in some other structure, for instance an air 25 means turning onto opposite beam travelling,
nose up for a forward unit and nose down for a
frame, so permitting the whole device to be swung
rear unit, with bank and pitch control out of
' about a transverse axis. The nose and tail por
action but retaining. yaw control because of air
tions together form one rotor and the central
pressure on the fuselage and controlling altitude
portion a second'rotor each capable of independ
ent rotation and when the pitch of vanes is 0p 30 by power variation. Even where the weight can
not be supported at high, altitude, descent to
posite in the two rotors they rotate in .opposite
lower altitude where the air is more dense means
directions. As in Fig. 4 an electric motor is pro
an increase of power developed and therefore
vided with the wound rotor 20 ?xed to I5 and an
greater lift so that rate of descent progressively
unwound rotor l9, e. g. squirrel cage, ?xed in the
core 33; slip rings 85 ?xed on [5 serve to carry 35 decreases. Units out of action may be repaired
in flight and this can be facilitated by having
current from brushes 8B in the insulating block 81
the trunnion 39 Fig. 6 in a bearing which permits
?xed to_38 to the windings of 20. The spindle is
the unit to be swung inboard through a door in
bored as in Fig. 4for electric leads and fuel supply,
the fuselage where it can be inspected, repaired
40
or replaced by a. spare unit or one of the others
tion gases heated by combustion commencing near
reference numbers being the same.
In opera
as required.
the ori?ces l0 partly expand and drive vanes 2,
be obvious that any. number may be used with
may extend therein where final expansion takes
~ or without swinging axes.
place driving vanes 34 and therefore vanes 32
which accelerate intake air, partly compress it. 45
a
and discharge intortvanes‘fl at highvelocityEbe-
'
Instead of four prime movers as in Fig. 6 it will »
are discharged into vanes 34 and combustion
In military aircraft prime movers according to
" ' the invention are not so vulnerable as‘ those now
.. cause of the opposite .rotationofd?-aaidii, full j ~ used forv the peripheralvelocity of'the cylinder 7 4,
Figs. 1', 3, 4 or ‘5, may be'greater than 1000 feet per
' compression "being ‘obtained at the zone into‘
’ ‘second which iscomparable to the velocity of gun.
which-fuel is injected by jets i0.
- - The~device of. Fig. 5 operates substantially as ‘ oil-missiles and nearly. a half thatfof-ri?elbullets so
:that' of'Ffigz-‘l with‘the advantage that at low
axial, 'velocitieshigh compression and/or high
velocity at highest pressure‘- -_can he ‘obtained ' so
' thatit is more suitable; for'aircraft propulsion . '
that there is a great probabilitythat such'mis
siles-will be de?ected without penetrating except
those‘ directed'in a substantially axial direction
strikingnear'the: axis of thedevice wlr'ric'h may
and the like. The'idea of-‘Fig._5 may be extended 55 passithrough the core without in any way affect
and more than threesections used. In all such‘ . 7 .ing the device. As there are a number-‘of. pas
types in the centralportion, where fuel ‘is in; - sages. each-pf ‘which develops - power independent
jected and ignition commenced, leakage of air,‘ ,...of' the-others‘- several may be put out of action
without stopping. the device, vanes may be per
. backwards may be largelypreV‘ented'by having
. pressure‘ at the forward end equal to that at the ' 60 forated by bullets and only cause a reduction of
power, and core and outer cylinder may be per
rear end, e. 'g. practically the whole central por
forated in many places without all of the pas
tion should be in the constant pressure zone.
sages going out of action.
Fig. 8 shows a plan arrangement of four prime
Prime‘ movers. according to the invention have
movers according to the invention, for example
of the kind shown in Fig. 4 or 5, mounted in 65 at constant density of air and of fuel inherent
fuel control. This is due to the relation of the
forks as in Fig. 5 attached to a fuselage so con
stituting a complete aeroplane, for, because the
spouting velocity of the fuel jets to the axial
of‘the devices are tilted upwards, part of the
thrust supporting the weight of the aeroplane
and the remainder propelling it. Hovering is
possible and yaw, pitch and bank control can .be
fuel and constant density of air, the fuel supply
velocity of air through the device; when the fuel
axes of the prime movers can be swung about
has behind it the same air pressure as it dis
transverse axes, they serve as means for support,
propulsion and control. In level flight the noses 70 charges into, and with constant temperature of
varies directly as the axial velocity of the air so
maintaining correct ratio of fuel to air.
In aerial propulsion the density of the air
obtained by di?erential adjustment of the tilts of 75 changes considerably with altitude so that addi
9
2,410,688
tlonal control is required for changes in the ratio
of air to fuel mass densities. The total mass of
air per second M in the air ?ow is given by the
relation. M=Asm, where A is the cross-sectional
area of passage at any point, S the velocity and m
the mass density at that point. The same rela 5
tion applies to fuel ?ow. The area A is constant
for air, and fuel and air velocities have a con
stant relation so that area of the fuel jet or the
equivalent can be made vto vary with the ratio
of mass densities to obtain full automatic control
of air-fuel ratio under all atmospheric conditions.
Mass density of air is given by m=P/ (GT) , where
G is the gas constant in terms mechanical energy
units per unit mass, i. e. G=9R where R is the 15
conventional gas constant and g is the gravi
tational constant. If the fuel is a gas the same
when 3 is full leaves a cylindrical core about the
axis of air and/or vapour; it is the pressure of that
core which is equalised with pressure on 4|
through vents 5|. The fuel in 9 has greatest
pressure at the largest diameter of the chamber
which is at the ori?ces l0 and there is always
fuel there so long as some remains in 9. Recesses
53‘are provided in 1 around each rod 43 which
open into the chamber 9 so ensuring adequate
fuel supply to each ori?ce l0.
'
The fuel control arrangement of Fig. 7 secures
equal air pressure outside It and inside 9
through 45 and 5|; fuel supply through l0 vary
ing with pressure outside 3 through 45, movement
of 4| and 42, rotation of _43 and axial motion
thereof. Fuel temperature at III is substantially
that of air outside 3 at l0 so that all that remains
is that the ends of the rods 43 at IU shall be of
function so that if densities are taken at the same 20 such a contour that fuel flow through I0 shall
be in accordance with the ratio of air and fuel
temperature the ratio of densities varies as some
densities at any pressure of air likely to be en
function of air pressure.
countered.
Aerial torpedoes as in Figs. 1 and 3 present the
Fuel control in prime movers according to the
most simple problem of fuel control in that maxi
mum power is required at all times, therefore all 25 invention used in aircraft propulsion presents
something more than the. problem of e?icient
air passages are in action,. power is limited only >
combustion. At sea level a large percentage of
by the quantity of air passing through the device
the developed power is expended in supporting
and torque and thrust tend to balance the re
the machine and the percentage increases with
sistances thereto. Fuel control is reduced to that
described in the last paragraph and a form of 30 altitude so that something approaching constant
power is required even with changes of air density.
mechanism for the purpose is shown in section
in Fig. 7.
This cannot be obtained from combustion in a
?xed number of passages of ?xed size, therefore
Fig. 7 represents the partition ‘I in Fig. 1 and
passages inactive at high air density must be
consists of a disc like portion 1 into which is
screwed an evacuated capsule having a rigid cup 35 brought into action at low densities, i. e. passages
must be switched into or out of action. In addi
40 and a ?exible corrugated diaphragm 4|. At
tion e?icient combustion at all air densities is
tached to the centre of 4| is a threaded cylinder
necessary so‘ that a fuel control as in Fig. 7 is also
42, which serves as, a rack with axial motion
required.
‘
thereof, engaging with a toothed portion 44 of a
Heat engines ordinarily have a ?xed volumetric
needle valve rod 43 which has a threaded portion 40
capacity so that power must decrease with density
45 screwed into 1. Pressure on the outside of 4|
of expansible ?uid. This can be overcome as in
causes it to move inwards so giving 42 axial
present aircraft engines by supercharging, i. e.
motion which rotates 43 and gives it an axial
maintaining air density by an additional com
motion because of the thread at 45 which in~
pressor, a method equally applicable with the
creases the opening of the ori?ce Ill in the core 3
present invention but one which leads to un
of Fig. 1. Air pressure from outside the core 3
relation holds and if a liquid its density changes
inversely with temperature according to some
is applied to 4| through ducts 45. Though not
justified complication in view of simplicity, high
shown in Fig. 7 there are for each air passage
in Fig. 1 one duct 46 and one valve rod 43 in the
power-weight ratio and the fact that volumetric
capacity not used in power production is still of
settings of parts 42 and 43 owing to their disposi
titude. This fixes volumetric capacity and power
device of Fig. 7. All ducts 46 communicate with 50 importance in propulsion.
The design of a prime mover according to
the space outside 4| and all rods 43 engage with
the invention for aircraft propulsion commences
42 and are threaded into 'I'. It must be observed
with the maximum altitude at which it is to op
that centrifugal forces cannot disturb accurate
erate and the maximum speed required at that al
fuel control since such forces cannot effect the
required for a thrust to support the weight of
tion in the device, and in order that axial ac
the aeroplane and to overcome its resistance in
celeration shall have no disturbing effects the
translational motion. At sea level a minimum
mass of 4| and 42 is balanced by threaded cylin
of this capacity will be employed to produce the
drical plungers 41 each of which engages with
the toothed portion 44 of the rod 43 so that 41 60 same power. The volume of air flow V=AS=M/m
so that change of total passage area can com
moves with 42 but in the opposite direction;
pensate for changes of air density and may be
therefore axial acceleration has no effect on the
accomplished by supplying fuel to a requisite
reduce friction 42 slides on a pin
number of equal passages or to a proper com
48 ?xed in 1 and is prevented from turning by
Similarly plungers 41 slide on pins 49 and 65 bination of unequal passages. For instance there
may be three areas of passage in the ratio of
are prevented from turning by pins 50 and longi
1, 2 and 4 so that seven different active areas
tudinal grooves in 41 shown in dotted lines at 41A.
can be obtained by combination. In order that
Pressure on 4| and in the fuel chamber 9 must
balanced torque shall be obtained it is advisable
be equal for correct control, so communicating
vents 5| are provided covered by a ?exible disc 70 that ther'e'be two or more similar groups of Das
sages, equal areas of
valve 52 so that when pressure in 9 is the greater,
neously active and at equal angular separation
unlikely in normal operation, the vents 5| are
around the axis. Figs. 8 to 12 show a fuel con
closed. When the device of Fig. 1 is in operation
trol mechanism for such an arrangement of un
fuel in 9 because of centrifugal force collects
equal passages.
on the inner surface of the core 3 and except 75
In Fig. 8 fuel enters at 54 from an external
2,410,538
11
12
mass of air accelerated and the efiiciency of pro
pulsion by choosing a large intake area such that
dle l5 as in Fig. 5, i5 ?tting in a bore in the
the diameter of the device is about the same as
part 55 to be fueltight. On entering at 54 fuel
that of an airscrew for equal thrust and intake
collects by centrifugal force on the inside‘ coni
cal surface of the chamber 56 in 55, the only 5 and discharge velocities are little above that of
the outside air so that the device is a self driven
outlets being through valves to groups of fuel ori
airscrew, but some advantages would be lost.
?ces l0 so that fuel is cut off from groups when
Prime movers as in Figs. 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are most
the valves are closed. Fuel is controlled at each
efficient at high velocities and from many points
of the ori?ces ill by the same means as in Fig. 7.
The group fuel control valves 58 for three groups 10 of view it is better that the bulk of the device
should be limited to that minimum decided by
of combination passages are at 120 deg. separa
the required velocity at the maximum altitude
tion in the boss of the part ‘I (Fig. 9) and each
required and the required power under those
consists of a truncated cone valve head 58 re
conditions.
’
tated by a toothed portion 59 which engages
To improve propulsion e?iciency at low axial
with the threaded cylinder 42 which moves ax
velocities either the diameter of the device must
ially with changes of air pressure on H and 59
be increased or the velocity of the discharged
has one complete revolution for the full move
gases used to accelerate an additional mass of
ment of 42. Fuel enters a valve through holes
air. Figs. 13 and 14 show in section these al
51, and the head 58 has cut-away portions per
mitting communication between 51 and a space 20 ternative arrangements.
In Fig. 13, I, 2, 3 and ID are parts as in Fig. l
above 58 through longitudinal or slightly helical
forming a prime mover according to the inven
slots 81 (shown in Figs. 10, to 12) in the valve
tion. The core 3‘ is‘open at the ends and is rig
seating. A spring 60 keeps 58 ?rmly in its seat
idly connected to a second hollow core 68 by a
ing against centrifugal force and fuel pressure.
The part 55 ?ts around the boss of 'l and the 25 number of vanes or blades 59 having a helical
pitch as shown more clearly in the view of the
valve springs 60 are retained by it. Annular
Fig. 13 device shown in Fig. 18 in which a por
grooves BI, 52 and 63 one for each group of pas—
tion of the rim comprising parts I, 2 and 3 is
sages, in 55 are supplied with fuel from the space
removed to expose one of the blades which de
above corresponding valves 58 through ducts 84
and each supplies fuel through ducts 65 to a 30 creases with increase of radius much the same
as the blades of an airscrew. The whole device
group of the recesses 53 about orifices it! where
rotates on the spindle [5 in the bearings I6 and
the needle valve rods 43 control the amount of
source, for example, through the bore 2| of spin
fuel delivered to the air passages. The part 66,
closing 6|, 62 and ‘53, contains ducts B5 and forms
isolated. cavities of the recesses 53. The axial
views of the three valve heads 58 of Figs. 8 and 9
are shown in Figs. 10, 11 and 12 in section at the
ii, the spindle being ?xed by an anchorage 38A
to some member not shown, for ‘instance an air~
frame, and having a bore 2i and radial holes 23
for the supply of fuel to annular chamber 24,
through holes 21 to annular chamber 28 and from
there through ducts 29 to the orifices ill. Laby
cutaway portions thereof, the valves controlling
rinth packings 25 and 26 prevent fuel leakage
fuel supply to groups of passages having the larg
along
i5 from 24, and 29 may be drilled in the
40
est, medium and smallest total area of passages
vanes 69. Air ?ows between 3 and 58 with lit
respectively and in each the way in which the
tle, if any, change of pressure so that vanes 69
head 58 is cut away and the number and dispo
form an airscrew, and because vanes 2 provide
the driving torque instead of the hub or core
priate for the duty of the valve. The relative
positions of the valves in Figs. 10 to 12 are those 45 68, vanes 69 do not require thickening near 68.
The vanes 2 have a pitch and variation thereof
when air density is low.
sition of the slots 61 are shown which are appro
Hereinbefore it was stated that at high air
density passages not supplied with fuel are never
theless useful in propulsion. An explanation of
this is required and can best be understood from 50
between points corresponding to 4 and 6 in Fig.
1, which is independent of the pitch of G9, and
the number of 2 may be different to that of 69
so that there may be vacuum at the intake of the
passages between I and 3 and other conditions
suitable for producing direct thrust and torque
for driving the device which are quite different
to conditions between 3 and 68 where thrust and
a description of the use of the invention in aerial
propulsion at low velocities. Of course inactive
passages may have fuel supplied to them so that
a considerable reserve of power is available at high
air densities for takeoff, landing and in emergency 65 good propulsion efficiency are the chief consid
eration. The whole device can be likened to an
when other power units fail.
airscrew self driven by a rim of rockets in which
The power exerted in propelling the device is
the high propulsion efficiency of the airscrew at
thrust times velocity, i, e. M(S6—S11)X|sll,‘ and
low axial speeds is combined with the high pro
the power absorbed is
60 pulsion e?iciency of the rocket at high periph
M(ks—-k1i) =M(S6—Sii) (Sc-i-Sii)
eral speeds. Also the two inefilcient zones of an
airscrew,
one due to blade root thickening, the
divided by 2 so that the efficiency is .
2S1i/(Ss-i-S11)
other to supersonic blade tip velocities, are put
to efficient use. For substantially the same swept
neglecting thrust developed and power absorbed 65 volume the power unit is included with airscrew
and the weight is comparable with that of an air
in accelerating the mass of the fuel consumed
per second. From this it is apparent that for a
given developed power instead of having So great
er than S11 it is better to increase M and at high
screw of equal thrust. There is no need for the
complexity, weight and expense of variable pitch
mechanism as the speed of revolution changes
air density this is in effect accomplished by the 70 automatically so that the developed power is ab
sorbed in propulsion. ‘For mounting in an air
passages not supplied with fuel as a greater mass
frame only a clamp for the spindle I5 is re
of air is accelerated with power therefor supplied
quired and fuel and control connections.
Y
by the passages which are supplied with fuel.
The form of device in Fig. 13 may be modi?ed
In the design of devices for low velocities it is
possible to arrange for still further increase the 75 to include other features herein described as well
2,410,588
13
as such features as are obvious to any skilled in
the art, e. g. coaxial groups of passages, coaxial
rotors, combinations of nested and axially sepa
rate members and the like.
__ and/or by the heat of compression and should be
Fig. 16 shows another arrangement for obtain
ing improved ei?ciency at low axial velocities by
using the kinetic energy of the gases discharged
shows such an element consisting of a metal tube
‘I5 which is formed into a cone by pressing the
sagewithin the combustion zone. The elements
may be heated electrically, by the combustion -
constructed of heat resisting materials. Fig. 15
by a prime mover 10 of the form shown in Fig. 5
large open end of the cone
faces the airstream in a passage of the prime
without the fork 38, the rear extension of the
spindle l5 of which runs in bearings housed in a l0 mover and as its area is greater than that of the
slits in the ?ns the kinetic energy of the entering
streamlined part ‘II to which three arms 12 are
air is converted partially into increased pressure
rigidly ?xed. One arm 12 has a. trunnion 39 as
at higher temperature. As the device is in the .
in Fig. 5 and for the same purpose. Attached to
zone of high pressure in the passage pressure and
or integral with the arms 12 are any number of
tubular members of successively larger diameters 15 temperature in 15 are additional so that its tem
perature will be su?flcient for ignition when the
13, 14 and the like each of which contracts in a
total pressure is above a certain value. For quite
manner depending on the ?ow of air and the dis
a, high pressure in 15 it can be very light because
charge from 10 therein. The arms 12 are in
of its small diameter particularly when outside
axial planes and of streamline section to present
minimum resistance to air?ow. The discharge 20 pressure is also considerable therefore it is a
means of obtaining compression ignition without
from 10 is at the same pressure as that on the
the structure of the prime mover being subjected
outside thereof, at lower density, higher temper
to the full high pressure necessary for such igni
ature and higher velocity, conditions favourable
tion. In addition the ?ns 16 extend into the
to molecular diffusion between the discharge and
combustion zone and are heated therein so main
air entering the forward end of 13 so that the lat
ter is accelerated by the former, heated, and
therefore density reduced, so that with proper
25
taining the whole device at ignition temperature.
design of 13 all gases at the point of discharge
be inoperative by winding a
refractory insulation around the device 15 as
perature and axial velocity in a transverse plane.
The kinetic energy of the discharge from 10 at 30 shown in Fig. 15 and heated by passing an electric
current through it. The strips 11 are provided for ,
discharge from 13 is shared with extra air taken
attachment to the walls of the passage so hold
in by ‘I3. This reduction in the velocity of the
ing the device in proper position therein as shown
discharge from ‘ill means a rate of change of
momentum which is negative thrust, i. e., drag, 35 in Fig. 3 where the lower strips '11 are ?xed to 3
and the upper strips 11 would normally be ?xed
exerted on 13 but the rate of change of momen
from it have substantially uniform density, tem
tum in accelerating the extra air ?owing into 13
is greater so that the difference of these two
rates is a positive thrust which is obtained with
Prime movers according to the invention may
out further combustion of fuel by using some of 40 be used in marine propulsion by using the high
velocity gases discharged to accelerate water.
the kinetic energy of the discharge from 10 which
For this purpose the modi?cation, shown in Fig.
otherwise would be lost and therefore repre
16, of the arrangement of Fig. 14 may be used,
sents an increase of propulsion e?iciency over
the parts 13 and 14 being immersed in water out-_
that of ‘NI alone. The number of tubes such
side of the hull 18 of a ship and attached thereto
as 13 and 74 depends on the additional mass of
by a frame 80. The prime mover 10 is installed
air to be accelerated and each tube has to be of
such a diameter and change thereof along the
inside of the hull 18 above water level 82 and a
duct 19 is provided to convey the high velocity
axis that additional air ?owing through it is ‘prop
erly accelerated. The arrangement of .Fig. 14 is
gases to a nozzle 8|. The kinetic energy of the
similar to the well known steam jet exhausters ' gases is transferred to the water entering 13,
and compressors and to the ejector exhausts now
which is accelerated thereby producing thrust.
‘ The succeeding tubes
used in aircraft with the distinction that the
such as 14 increase
the
e?i
ciency.
'
'
nozzle 10 is self operative, internal combustion,
of itself gives a large thrust and gives a jet veloc
ity higher than can usually be obtained with a
simple nozzle at usual pressures.
'
The advantages of Fig. 14 over Fig. 13 are that
the prime mover may be of the smallest bulk for
the service it is designed for, additional parts
Iclaim:
1. A prime mover including a rotatable struc
; ture having therein a system of helical passages
coaxially disposed around the axis of rotation
of said structure with inlets at one end and out
lets at the other end of the structure for con
may be light as they have not to withstand
centrifugal stress or high pressure and tempera 60
passages have along them progressive changes of
ture and the arrangement is operative at all axial
velocities up to terminal.
cross-sectional area whereby each said passage
comprises an accelerating zone, a heating zone
Ignition of the combustible mixture in the pas-i
sages of prime movers according to the invention 65 and a ?nal zone, means for heating said gases
by fuel combustion throughout at least some of
can be accomplished by any of the known means
and methods, depending on conditions in the
combustion zones, the particular design of prime
mover, and mode and range of operation.
The most satisfactory forms of ignition employ
said heating zones, including an igniter and sup
ply systems for fuel and air, said gases entering
said inlets ?owing through said accelerating zones
and being therein mechanically accelerated by
70 rotation of said structure and compressed by re
a heated solid element ?xed, one or more, in each
tardation of said ?ow due to said changes of
passage at the commencement of the combustion
cross-sectional area in the accelerating zones and
zone at such separation from the walls of the
to back pressure of the heated ?uid in said heat
passage and from each other that ?ame travels
to every part ofthe transverse area of the pas 75 ing zones, the ?uid then ?owing into said heating
zones throughout which the ?owing gases are
.
audese
is ‘
heated while expanding by the heat of said fuel
16
now due to said changes of cross-sectional area
in the accelerating zones and to back pressure of
the heated ?uid in said heating zones, the ?uid
then ?owing into said heating zones throughout
charging through said outlets, the unresisted 5 which the ?owing gases are heated while ex
pending by the heat of said fuel combustion the
expansion in said heating and ?nal zones accel
?owing gases then entering said ?nal zones
erating the ?owing gases along said helical pas
throughout which they are progressively expand
sages, thereby exerting by reaction on said struc
ed, the ?owing gases then discharging through
ture a torque which maintains its rotation and
said outlets, the unresisted expansion in said heat
an axial thrust which, multiplied by the velocity
ing and ?nal zones accelerating the ?owing gases
, of said structure relative to said ?owing gases,
along said helical passages, thereby exerting by
is the power output of the prime mover in recti
" combustion, the ?owing gases then entering said
final zones throughout which they are progres
sively expanded, the ?owing gases then dis
reaction on said structure a torque which main
.
i
tains its rotation and an axial thrust which, mul
2. A prime mover including. a structure con
tiplied by the velocity of said structure relative
sisting of a plurality of elements each of which
to said ?owing gases, is the power output of the
rotates independently about a common axis, each
prime mover in rectilinear form. _
of said elements having in it a system of helical
4. A prime mover including a rotatable struc
ducts which are coaxially disposed about said
ture having therein a system of helical passages
axis, said ducts in the several elements adjoin
ing end to end to build up passages with inlets at 20 coaxially disposed around the axis of rotation of
said structure, with inlets at one end and out
one end and outlets at the other end of each said
lets at the other end of the structure for con
passage through which a gaseous ?uid can ?ow
tinuous ?ow of gases such as air and products of
continuously from end to end of said structure,
combustion through said passages, the walls of
the walls of said ducts in each said element being
shaped so that said ducts have along them pro 25 said passages being shaped so that said passages
have along them progressive changes of cross
gressive changes of cross-sectional area, whereby
sectional area, whereby each said passage com
each said duct in each said element comprises
linear form.
an accelerating zone and a final zone, and each
prises an accelerating zone, a heating zone and
a ?nal zone, means for supplying fuel to fuel
duct in at least one said element also includes
a heating zone, means for heating said gases by 30 ducts in said structure, each of said ducts hav
ing its discharge end opening into one of said
'fuel combustion throughout at least some of
heating zones and its intake end at less radius
said heating zones, including an igniter and sup
from said axis than its discharge end, centrifugal
ply systems for fuel and air, said gases entering
force on fuel in the said ducts causing injection
said inlets ?owing through said accelerating
of fuel into at least some of said heating zones
zones and being therein mechanically accelerated
for combustion of air ?owing therein, an igniter
by rotation of said structure and compressed by
in each heating zone receiving fuel, air entering
retardation of said ?ow due to changes of cross
said inlets ?owing through said accelerating
sectional area in the accelerating zone and to
zones and being therein mechanically accelerated
back pressure of the heated ?uid in said heating
zone, the ?uid then ?owing into said heating 40 by rotation of said structure and compressed by
retardation of said ?ow due to said changes of
zones throughout which the ?owing gases are
cross-sectional area in the accelerating zones and
heated while expanding by the heat of said fuel
to back pressure of the heated ?uid in said heat
combustion, the flowing gases then entering said
- ing zones, the ?uid then ?owing into said heat
?nal zones‘ throughout which they are progres
ing zones throughout which the said ?owing gases
sively expanded, the ?owing gases then dis
are heated while expanding by the heat of said
charging through said outlets, the unresisted ex
pansion in said heating and ?nal zones accelerat
ing the ?owing gases along said passages built
up of said helical ducts, thereby exerting by re
fuel combustion, the ?owing gases then entering .
said ?nal zones throughout which they are pro
gressively expanded, the ?owing gases then dis
action on each said element a torque which main 60 charging through said outlets, the unresisted ex
pansion in said heating and ?nal zones accelerat
tains its rotation and an axial thrust on said
structure which, multiplied by the velocity of
said structure relative to said ?owing gases, is the
ing the ?owing gases along said helical passages,
thereby exerting by reaction on said structure a
torque which maintains its rotation and an axial
power output of the prime mover in rectilinear
55 thrust; which, multiplied by the velocity of said
form.
structure relative to said ?owing gases, is the
3. A prime mover including a rotatable struc
power output of the prime mover in rectilinear
ture having therein asystem of helical passages
form.
coaxially disposed around the axis of rotation of
5. A prime mover capable of propelling itself
said structure, with inlets at one end and out
through gases in which it is immersed, said prime
lets at the other end of the structure for con
mover comprising a rotatable body having an an
tinuous ?ow of gases such as air and products
nular passage running throughout the length
of combustion through said passages, the walls
of said passagesbeing shaped'so that said pas
sages have along them progressive changes of
cross-sectional area whereby each said passage
comprises an accelerating zone, a heating zone
and a ?nal zone, means for heating said gases by
of said body, the walls of said passage being
shaped so that said passage has along it pro
gressive changes of cross-sectional area where
.by it comprises an accelerating zone, a heating
zone and a ?nal zone, vanes having a helical pitch
disposed in said accelerating zone and fixed to
fuel combustion throughout at least some of said
said
body, vanes having a helical pitch disposed
heating zones, including an igniter and a supply
system for injecting fuel into at least some of 70 in said ?nal zone and ?xed to said body, means
for heating said gases by fuel combustion
said heating zones for combustion in air flowthroughout
said heating zone, including an igniter
ing.v therein, air entering said inlets ?owing
and supply systems for fuel and oxygen, said
‘throughsaid accelerating zones and being therein
gases entering said inlets ?owing through said
mechanically accelerated by rotation of said
accelerating
zone and being therein mechanically
76
structure and compressed by retardation of said
17
2,410,588
18
accelerated by rotation of said structure and
said ducts in the several elements adjoining end
compressed by retardation of said ?ow due to
to end to build up passages through which a
said changes in cross-sectional area in the ac
gaseous ?uid can ?ow continuously from end to
celerating zone and to back pressure of the heated
end of said structure, the walls of said ducts in
gases in said heating zone, the gases then ?ow
each of said elements being shaped so that said
ing into said heating zone throughout which
ducts have along them progressive changes of
the said ?owing gases are heated while expand
cross-sectional area whereby each said duct in
ing by the heat of said fuel combustion the ?ow
each said element comprises an accelerating zone
ing gases then entering said ?nal zone through
out which they are progressively expanded, the 10 and a ?nal zone, and each duct in at least one‘
said element also includes ayheating zone, means
?owing gases then discharging through said out
for
heating gases by fuel combustion throughout
lets, the unresisted expansion in said heating and
at
least
some of said heating zones, including an
?nal zones accelerating the ?owing gases along
igniter and a supply system for injecting fuel into
said passage, and therefore between the said
at least some of said heating zones for combus
vanes in the ?nal zone, thereby exerting .by re 15 tion in air ?owing therein, air entering said inlets
action on said structure a torque which main
and ?owing through said accelerating zones and
tains its rotation and an axial thrust which serves
being therein mechanically accelerated by rota
to overcome resistance to translation of said body,
tion of said structure and compressed by retarda
the product of said thrust and the velocity of
tion of said ?ow due to said changes of cross
translation of said body being the useful power 20 sectional area in the accelerating zones and to
output of the said prime mover in rectilinear
back presure of the heated gases in said heating
zones, the air then ?owing into said heating‘
6. A prime mover for direct jet propulsion of
zones throughout which the ?owing gases, con
a vehicle in air, comprising a spindle, an an
sisting of the air and products of combustion,
chorage ?xed to the vehicle for said spindle, a
are heated while expanding by the heat of said
structure freely rotating on said spindle andhav 25 fuel combustion, the ?owing gases then entering
ing in it a system of helical passages coaxially
said ?nal zones throughout which they are
disposed around the axis of rotation of said struc
progressively expanded, the ?owing gases then
ture with inlets at one end and outlets at the
other end of the structure for continuous ?ow 30 discharging through said outlets, the unresisted
expansion in said heating and ?nal zones ac
of gases through said passages, the walls of said
celerating the ?owing gases along said passages
passages being shaped so that said passages have
built up of said helical ducts, thereby exerting by
along them progressive changes of cross-sectional
form.
-
,
reaction on each said element a torque which
area whereby each said passage comprises an ac
celerating zone, a heating zone and a ?nal zone, 35 maintains its rotation, and an axial thrust‘ on
said structure which is applied to the vehicle
means for heating gases by fuel combustion
through the aforesaid anchorage for the purpose
throughout at least some of said heating zones,
of propelling that Vehicle.
,
including an igniter and a supply system for in-v
8. A prime mover including a rotatable struc
jecting fuel into at least some of said heating
zones for combustion in air ?owing therein, air 40 ture having therein a system of helical passages
coaxially disposed around the axis of rotation
entering said inlets and ?owing through said ac
of said structure with inlets at one end and out
celerating zones being therein mechanically ac
lets at the other end of the structure for con
celerated by rotation of said structure and com
tinuous ?ow of air through said passages, the
pressed by retardation of said ?ow due to said
changes of cross-sectional area in- the accelerat 45 walls of said passages‘ being shaped so that said
passages have along them progressive changes of
ing zones and to back pressure of the heated
cross-sectional area whereby each said passage
gases in said heating zones, the air then ?ow
comprises an accelerating zone, aheating zone and
ing into said heating zones throughout which the
a ?nal zone, means for heating gases by fuel com
?owing gases consisting of air and the products
of combustion, are heated while expanding by 50 bustion throughout at least some of said heating
zones, including an igniter and a supply system
the heat of said fuel combustion the ?owing gases
for injecting fuel into at least some of said heat
then entering said ?nal zones throughout which
ing zones for combustion in air ?owing therein,
they are progressively expanded, the ?owing gases
air entering said inlets and ?owing through said
then discharging through said outlets, the unre
sisted expansion in said heating and ?nal zones 55 accelerating zones being therein mechanically
accelerated by rotation of said structure and com
accelerating the ?owing gases along said helical
pressed by retardation of said ?ow due to said
passages thereby exerting by reaction on said
changes of cross-sectional area in the accelerating
structure a torque which maintains its rotation
zones and to back pressure of the heated gases in
and an axial thrust which is applied to the vehi
said
heating zones, the air then ?owing into said
cle through the aforesaid anchorage for the pur 60
heating zones throughout which the ?owing gases
pose of propelling that vehicle.
consisting 'of air and the products of combustion,
7. A prime mover for direct jet propulsion of a
are heated while expanding by the heat of said
vehicle in air, comprising a spindle, an anchorage
fuel combustion, the ?owing gases then entering
having bearings for the said spindle, said anchor
age being rotatable in a bearing ?xed to said 65 said ?nal zones throughout which they are
progressively expanded, the ?owing gases then
vehicle about an axis at an angle to the axis of
said spindle, thereby permitting adjustment of
discharging through said outlets, the unresisted
the direction of the spindle relative to the vehicle,
expansion in said heating and ?nal zones ac
a structure consisting of a plurality of elements
celerating the ?owing gases along said helical
each of which rotates, and each of the said ele 70 passages, thereby exerting by reaction on said
ments which rotates relative to the spindle has
structure a torque which maintains its rotation
bearings on said spindle for relative rotation of all
and an axial thrust which multiplied by the
elements to one another, each of the said
velocity of said structure relative to the expanded
elements having therein a system of helical ducts
gases is the rectilinear power output, and meter
which are coaxially disposed about said spindle, 75 ing means responsive to variation in the pressure
2,410,638
20 '
which it is immersed, providing a power output
in rectilinear form.
of air in said passages at the points of fuel in
iection for regulating the rate of fuel supply.
12. A prime mover comprising a spindle, an
9. A prime mover as de?ned in claim 3, and in
anchorage for said spindle, a structure consisting
which the igniter consists of a vessel having an
ori?ce facing the ?ow of gases in a heating zone C1 of a plurality of elements each of which rotates
independently, each of said elements which ro
as said gases enter said vessel and are retarded
tates relative to the spindle having bearings on
therein, thereby converting kinetic energy of the
said spindle for relative rotation to one another,
?owing gases into heat of those gases, and thereby
each or said elements having in it a system of
heating the said vessel by conduction.
.
helical ducts which are coaxially disposed about
10. A prime mover as defined in claim 1, and 10 said spindle, said ducts in the several elements
in which there is provided a convergent tube so
adjoining end to end to build up passages through
arranged that the expanded gases axially dis
which gases can ?ow continuously from end to
charged from said passages is conducted into
end of said structure, the walls of said ducts in
‘ the throat of said tube and kinetc energy of the
each said element being shaped so that said ducts
15
said gases is transferred to ?uid in which said
have along them progressive changes in cross
tube is immersed, and which is accelerated thereby
sectional area, whereby each said duct in each
and discharged through said tube, thereby
said element comprises an accelerating zone and a
exerting a thrust by reaction on said tube, the
?nal zone, and each duct in at least one said
product of said thrust and the velocity Of con
element also includes a heating zone, means for
tinuous movement of said tube relative to the 20 heating said gases by fuel combustion throughout
?uid in which it immersed thereby providing
.power output in rectilinear form, a support for
said structure and said tube, and bearing means
at least some of said heating zones, including an
igniter and supply systems for fuel and air, said
gases entering said inlets ?owing through said
between said structure and said support.
accelerating zones and being therein accelerated
11. A prime mover comprising a spindle, an 25 by rotation of said structure and compressed by
anchorage for said spindle, a structure freely
retardation of said ?ow due to said changes of
rotatable on said spindle and having in it a
cross-sectional area in the accelerating zones and
system of helical passages coaxially disposed
to back pressure of the heated gases in said
around the axis of said spindle with inlets at one
heating zones, the gases then ?owing into said
end and outlets at the other end of the structure 30 heating zones throughout which the ?owing gases
for continuous ?ow of gases through said pas
are heated while expanding by the heat of said
sages, the walls of said passages being shaped
fuel combustion, the ?owing gases then entering
so that said passages have along them progressive
said final zones throughout which they are pro
changes of cross-sectional area whereby each said
gressively expanded, the ?owing gases then dis
passage comprises an accelerating zone, a heating 35 charging through said outlets, the unresisted
zone and a ?nal zone, means for heating said gases
expansion in said heating and ?nal zones ac
by fuel combustion throughout at least some of
celerating the ?owing gases along said passages
said heating zones, including an igniter ‘and
supply systems for fuel and air, said gases enter
ing said inlets ?owing through said accelerating
built up of said helical ducts, thereby exerting by
40 reaction on each said element a torque which
zones and being therein mechanically'accelerated
by rotation of said structure and compressed by
retardation of said ?ow due to said changes of I
maintains its rotation, the discharged gases re
taining the axial componentof increased kinetic
energy thereof due to said expansion, a plurality
of tubes of successively increased cross-sectional
cross-sectional area in the accelerating zones and 45 areas, the-said discharged gases as an accelerating
to back pressure of the heated gases in said
?uid being discharged into the tube having the
heating zones, the gases then ?owing into said
least cross-sectional area by the aforesaid struc
heating zones throughout which the ?owing gases
ture, and each of said tubes in an intermediate
are heated while expanding by the heat of said
position discharging into the following tube, at
fuel combustion, the ?owing gases then entering 60 least one of said tubes being convergent and im
said , ?nal zones throughout which they are
mersed in a ?uid, the discharged fluid from the
progressively expanded, the ?owing gases then
discharging through said outlets, the unresisted
preceding tube transferring part of its kinetic
energy to ?uid in the said convergent tube so that
expansion in said heating and ?nal zones ac
discharged ?uid therefrom has greater mass and
celerating the ?owing gases along said helical 55 lower velocity than the ?uid discharged by the
passages, thereby exerting by reaction on said
preceding tube, and therefore the ?nal tube of
structure a torque which maintains its rotation,
said plurality of tubes discharges an increased
a duct with its entrance portion coaxial with the
mass of ?uid at lower velocity, the acceleration of
said structure, and a convergent tube coaxial
said increased mass of ?uid exerting by reaction
with the other end of said duct, the said gases 60 a thrust on 'said tubes, and the product of said
discharged from said structure ?owing through
' thrust and the velocity of continuous movement
said duct and being discharged by that duct into , of said ?nal tube relative to said ?uid providing
the throat of said convergent tube which is im
power output inrectilinear form, and means ?xed
to the aforesaid anchorage for preventing move
mersed in a ?uid so that the said discharged gases
transfer part of their kinetic energy to ?uid in 65 ment of said tubes relative to each other and to
said convergent tube, thereby causing ?ow of that
?uid through that tube, and discharge by that
tube of a greater mass at a lower velocity of ?uid
than the mass and velocity of gases discharged
by said structure, the said duct and said conver
gent tube being ?xed to said anchorage, the ac
celeration of said greater mass in said convergent
tube exerting by reaction a thrust on that tube,
the aforesaid structure in the direction of ?uid
?ow.
13. A prime mover adapted to propel itself
through the atmosphere, and including a rotatable
70 structure having'therein a system of helical pas
sages disposed around the axis of rotation of said
structure with inlets at one end and outlets at
the other end of that structure, through which
air can ?ow continuously, said structure being also
and the product of that thrust and the velocity
of said convergent tu-be relative to the ?uid in 75 shaped by progressive changes of cross-sectional
2,410,538
21
area of said passages along said axis so that each
passage comprises an accelerating zone, a heat
ing zone and a ?nal zone, said structure compris
tive to such atmosphere, said ‘prime mover in
cluding a tubular shell of substantially cylindri- ,
ing a plurality of chambers disposed within the
helices constituted by said system of passages, at
cal form but of progressively reduced diameter
at its leading end, a core coaxially disposed with
chamber being a reservoir for fuel, fuel feed ducts
leading from said fuel reservoir and opening into
sages therebetween which are helically disposed
least one of said chambers being a container for 5 in said shell, means connecting said core and
said shell and forming therewith a series of pas
a disposable load, and at least one other said
said heating zones of at least some of said pas
about the common axis of said core and said shell
which are rotatable about said axis, said core
heated by said combustion while expanding, the
?owing air and products of combustion then ?ow
into, the heated ?uid partially expanding in the
said divergent portions, ?owing thereinto from
sages, ignition means in said heating zones which 10 being shaped to have variations of its diameter
along said axis, thereby giving each said passage
receive fuel, centrifugal force on fuel in said ducts
variations
of cross-sectional area along the axis
injecting fuel into the heating zones of said pas
so that each passage comprises an accelerating
sages for combustion in air ?owing therein, air
zone, a heating zone and a ?nal zone, said ac
entering said passages through said inlets being
mechanically accelerated by rotation of said struc 15 celerating zones receiving, accelerating and com
pressing working ?uid ?owing therethrough on
ture and compressed by retardation as it ?ows
rotation and rectilinear movement along said
through said accelerating zones, due to said
axis of the ‘prime mover relative to said at
changes of cross-sectional area therein and to
mosphere, and means associated with said heating
back pressure caused by heating said air as it
?ows in said heating zones throughout which 20 zones of at least some of said passages for heat
ing the compressed working ?uid ?owing »there-'
the ?owing air and products of combustion are
said accelerating zones while that ?uid expands
ing through said ?nal zones in which it pro
the ?uid then ?owing into said ?nal zones in ~
gressively expands and then flows through said 25 which
it fully expands before discharge from the ,.
outlets, the unresisted expansion in said heat
passages,
the unrestricted expansion in the said .
ing and ?nal zones accelerating the air and prod
heating and ?nal zones accelerating the ?uid
, nets of combustion along said helical passages,
along the passages so that it has additional kinetic
thereby exerting by reaction on said structure a
30
energy in such directions that the peripheral
torque which'maintains its rotation and an axial
component of the kinetic energy is used to main
thrust which propels said prime mover through
tain said rotation while the axial component
the atmosphere.
>
thereof serves to maintain said rectilinear move
14. A prime mover capable of propelling itself
ment.
through air, said prime mover comprising a tubu
35
16. A prime mover as claimed in claim 8,‘where- '
lar shell, a hollow elongated core coaxially dis
in said metering means include an evacuated
posed within said shell, said core including a
chamber having a ?exible wall, a rack ?xed to
fuel reservoir, means connecting said core and
said wall and displaceable along said axis, a
said shell and forming a series of passages there
pinion engaging with said rack, and a screw needle
between which are helically disposed about the
40
valve operatively connected with said pinion.
common axis of said core and said shell, said
l7. A prime mover as claimed in claim 8, where
core being shaped to have variations of its di
in said metering means ‘include a stop valve in
ameter along its axis, thereby giving each said
a duct arranged to supply fuel to a selected group
passage variations of cross-sectional area along
of said passages.
the axis, so that each passage comprises an ac 45
18. A prime mover as claimed in claim 8, where
celerating zone, a combustion zone and a ?nal
in said metering means include a‘ plurality of
zone, whereby air entering and ?owing through
stop valves in separate ducts arranged to supply
said accelerating zones is accelerated therein by
’ fuel respectively to selected groups of said pas
rotation of said prime mover and compressed
sages, and gearing connecting said means re
by retardation of said ?ow of air, due to back
pressure caused by heating and said variations 50, sponsive to variation in the pressure to- said valves
for opening and closing them successively and
of cross-sectional area, when the prime .mover is
subjected to translation along and rotation about -
thereby progressively increasing the number of
active passages with decrease in said pressure.
said axis, and means for transferring fuel from
19. A prime mover intended for propulsion
said reservoir to at least some of said passages for
combustion in said combustion zones thereof into 55 of abody through air by the reaction of a jet,
»of gases having a relatively high velocity, said
which the compressed air ?owsv and, heated by the
prime mover including a self-energizing rotary
said combustion, partially expands in the said di
nozzle for gases, a convergent tube so positioned
vergent portions, the discharge into which the
coaxially with and adjacent to said nozzle that
compressed air from said accelerating zones flows
and is heated while ‘expanding by the said com 60 ‘the gases discharged by said nozzle enter the
throat of said tube and thereby accelerate ?ow
bustion and then ?ows into said ?nal zones of
of surrounding air into said tube which dis
said passages in which the air and products of
charges an increased massof gases’at a higher
combustion have full ?nal expansion and are
velocity compared with the velocity of air external
65 to the said tube and increasing the propulsive
ei?ciency of the whole, relative to that of the
celerating the air and products of combustion
nozzle alone, a support for said tube and said
along said helical passages, thereby exerting an
nozzle, and bearing means between said nozzle
axial thrust and a torque by reaction on said
and said support, said nozzle including a passage
prime mover appropriate for maintaining said
discharged from the passages‘, the unrestricted
expansion in said combustion and ?nal zones ac
translation and rotation.
'
15. A prime mover for operation immersed in
an atmosphere of gaseous working ?uid and for
producing power by maintaining continuous sub
stantially rectilinear movement of itself rela
70 helically disposed about its axis of rotation, hav
ing its inlet at one end and its outlet at the other
end of said nozzle, the wall of said passage being
shaped to provide progressive changes of cross
sectional area of said passage along said axis so
75 that it comprises an accelerating zone, a heating
2,410,638
zone and a final none, means for injecting fuel
into said heating zone for combustion in air
entry portion of said passage being helically dis
posed. and the wall of the passage being shaped
so that said entry portion has progressively
?owing therein throughout the heating zone, air
changing cross-sectional area so that said rota
entering said passage through said intake being
tion causes mechanical acceleration and compres
mechanically accelerated by rotation of said
sion of ?uid entering the passage as caused by said
nozzle and compressed by retardation of the air
changes of cross-sectional area and back pressure
due to said changes of cross-sectional area and
due to heating which retards that ?uid, means
back pressure caused by heating as the air ?ows
for heating ?uid while so compressed and while
through said accelerating zone into said heating
zone, throughout which the ?owing air and prod 10 it expands throughout a heating zone in said
passage, the outlet portion of said passage being
ucts of combustion are heated by said combustion
helically
disposed and the wall of the passage
while expanding, the ?owing air and products of
being shaped so that said outlet portion has
combustion then ?owing through said final zone
progressively changing cross-sectional area so
in which they progressively expand and then flow
through said discharge as said jet of gases, the 15 that ?nal expansion of the ?uid in the passage
occurs with conversion or heat into additional
unrestricted expansion in said heating and ?nal
kinetic energy of such ?uid whereby said rotation
zones accelerating the air and products of com:
is maintained while a rectilinear power output
bustlon along said helical passage, thereby exert
results from the continuous axial relative move
ing by reaction a torque on said nozzle which
between said structure and the air stream
maintains its rotation, the said jet retaining the 20 ment
through said passage, and an electro-magnetic
axial component of increased velocity.
machine including co-operatlng magnetic circuit
20. A prime mover comprising a support, a
elements respectively fast with said spindle and
spindle on said support, a structure mounted for
said structure and an electrically conducting
rotation on said spindle and including a passage
leading from end to end of the structure through 25 winding on at least one of said circuit elements.
GEORGE WILLIAM WALTON.
which a gaseous ?uid can flow continuously, the
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