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_ _'Nov. 5; 1946.
T. A@ COHEN
y
2,410,568
CONTROL APPARATUS
Filed Jan. 26, 1943
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Patented Nov. 5, 1946
2,410,568
->5UNITED STATES "PATENT OFFICE
CONTROL APPARATUS
Theodore A. Cohen, Chicago, Ill., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Wheelco Instruments j
Company, Chicago, Ill., a corporation o_f Illinois ,
Application January 26, 1943, Serial No. 474,041
1i claims.y (01.122-448)
~
This invention relates to control apparatus in
general and‘boiler control apparatus in particu
lar.
«
Control apparatus have been proposed hereto
fore for maintaining a supply of water to a boiler
or for maintaining a liquid level in a container
'
2
l
self contained grid tank unit 8 substantially the I
same as the grid tank unit I4 of said copending
application, with the exception hereinafter
noted.
A similar lower liquid level- clip 'I isv
' mounted on the glass 4 at a level corresponding
with the hypothetical liquid level in the drum
but it is highly desirable to provide, in conjunc
I which‘ would be considered so dangerously low
tion therewith, means for shutting ‘down the
as to require shutting down of the fuel supply to
burner or other heating means for the boiler in
the burner 2l hereinafter referred to.
event of failure of thewater or liquid supply for 10
This lower liquid level clip "I, also takes the
some reason’to thereby assure that there will
form and functionfof a condenser having two
be no explosion when the water level drops to
plates and whose capacity is lowered when the
water recedes between the said plates.
provision for automatically maintaining the liq
The ‘unit 8 differs from the unit I4 of the afore
uid level by controlling the liquid supply. In this 15 said copending application only~ in that this
connection it is highlydesirable to provide such
second clip ‘I is connected with its condenser in
a dual control-for safeguarding the boiler where
parallel with the condenser of clip 6 which is
in duplication of parts is minimized, consistent
led to the opposite ends of the inductance in
with maintaining the safeguarding character of
said unit 8, a pair of conductors 8b and 8c lead
the component parts of >such dual control, Where 20 ing from said clip 'I to said opposite ends also.
inthe burner will be shut down in event of fail
The oscillating circuit of unit 8 is separably
ure of the water supply, and wherein the dual
connected to a dual conductor cable I0 having
control is accomplished sharply, effectively and
'a concentric conductor and vconducting sheath,
efûciently.
said cable being 'separably connected to an os
Other and further objects of this invention will 25 cillator, circuit 9, all of which unit 8, cable IIJ and
be apparent as the same becomes better under
oscillator 9 are substantially the same, with the
stood from an examination of the specification
differences herein noted, as shown and described
and claims in conjunction with the accompany
in the aforesaid copending application.
`
ing drawing -whereinz
The principal difference between the electronic
Figure 1 is a schematic and diagrammatic view 30 oscillator circuit 9 and the oscillator circuit in
of an apparatus embodying my invention;
said copending application is that the latter cir
Figure 2 is a graphic illustration of the charac
cuit has only one relay (58) in its output plate
teristics of~the output current changes of the
circuit whereas in the present casethere are two
electronic apparatus in relation to the variations
relays II and I2 respectively with their windings
in capacity in the sensitive devices in the input 35 in series in the output plate circuit of the oscilla
of said electronic apparatus forming a part of
tor 9. These relays are chosen to pull up at wide
the Aapparatus of Figure 1.
ly different plate current levels. The character
Referring to the drawing, more particularly,
istics, including the constants of the clips 6 and
reference character I designates a water drum of
l and the windings of the relays II and ‘I2, are so
a boiler containing a liquid which may be water 40 chosen and adjusted that when the liquid level
- 2 normally at a level 3. 'I‘he drum I is provided
is at normal level 3 in the drum I, the output
with the usual gauge ‘glass 4 connected to fittings
plate current of the oscillator 9 will -be low and
5 and 5a communicating with the drum above
release the relay II to open contacts IIa and
' a dangerous level notwithstanding the normal
and below, respectively, the level 3.
'
The gauge glass 4 has mounted thereon an
-deenergize an electric supply valve I3, feeding
boiler drum. -When the liquid level recedes the
upper liquid level pick up clip 6 situated at the
normal liquid level 3. This clip 6 is similar to the
clip I2 shown and described in my copending
application Ser. No. 479,917 filed Dec. 31, 1942,
reverse occurs'to energize and open said valve
as in the aforesaid copending application to
maintain the liquid level 3. This system takes
care of normal liquid level control. A pilotA light
for Control apparatus, executedOct. 21, 1942, 50 I5 across valve I3 indicates to operator normal ’
operation of control valve. Should the liquid
` and acts as a pair of condenser plates forming a
condenser, the capacity of which is increased
by the rising of the liquid in the glass between
. the plates of the clip and decreased by the re
level within drum I drop to and below the clip
‘I as would be the case if there were a failure of
liquid supply from source I 4 or failure of valve
ceding of the liquid. This clip 6 is connected to a 55 I3 to operate, the relay I2 will pull up because
` ^
>alliance
.
e l 3
it operates at a higher plate current'level from`
that of relay II. This diñerent plate current
level is caused by the further detuning of the os
cillator circuit due to the impedance changes
effected in the-oscillating circuit within _the unit
l by the further capacity decrease which takes.
place in the clip 1 when the liquid level is low
ered to and «below the latter. The relationship
between thecapacities (with level changes) of
the clips 6 and 1 and the resultant plate cur
» rents through the windings of the respective re
4
wall 29 to form a flame 28 for heating the boiler
of which drum I is apart.
The advantages of the aforedescribed appara-l
tus will be apparent without further detail.
. I am aware that many changes may be made
and details varied without departing from the
principles of my invention and I therefore do
not wish to be limited _to the detalls shown or
described.
'
I claim:
'
1. In combination, a liquid container, .a'liquid
supply therefor, heating means for the container,
liquid level impedance change responsive means
lays II and I2 and the operating ranges of these
respective capacities and currents is shown in
Figure 2.
responding to liquid level changes to and from
The contacts I2a. of relay I2 are closed as pre 15 predetermined normal liquid level in the boiler, '
viously stated when the liquid level drops to a
a second liquid level impedance change respon
predetermined position within the clip ‘I to shut
sive means responding to ‘liquid level changes to
and from a predetermined dangerously low liq
off thefuel supply to the burner `2‘I but, although
the relay contacts I2a will automatically open
uid level in the container and electronic oscilla
when the liquid level is restored, the burner fuel 20 tor means operatively connected to both liquid
level means having an electro-responsive device
supply will not automaticallybe restored until a
in its output circuit responsive to the 'iirst liquid
push button 24 has been operated to effect same.
level means for controlling the liquid supply in
This is accomplished by connections wherein
contacts I2a, operated by relay I2, are interposed
accordance with liquid level departures to and
in circuit with the Winding of a multi-contact 25 from normal level and having a second electro
third or controlY relay I1 and a normally closed
responsive device in its output circuit responsive
i to the second liquid level means for controlling
push button 2l across the line supply I6,
Assuminglthat the contact I2a has been closed
the heating means.
2. In combination, a container, a liquid supply
due to the pull up of the armature of relay I2
with a high plate current level coinciding to a 30 therefor, heating means for the container.- liq
uid level impedance change responsive means
level position below clip 1, current will flow from
responding to liquid level changes to and from
line supply through contact I2a to coil I1 where
predetermined normal liquid level in the con
upon armature I9 will pull up opening “contact
22-2I to deenergize fuel supply valve 25 shut
tainer, a second liquid level impedance change
ting down burner. Contact 2I-20 will be made 35 responsive means responding to liquid >level
changes to and from a predetermined danger
causing the energizing of alarm 22 as a warning
to the operating engineer. Contact I8-I8a will
ously low liquid level inthe container and elec
be closed so that any further change of con
tronic oscillator means operatively connected to
both liquid level means having an electro-re
tacting of I2a cannot disturb the locked up' posi
tion of relay I'I. The relay II is also pulled up 40 sponsive device in its output circuit responsive
to' the first liquid level means for controlling
. with the high piste current level maintaining
contact IIa closed and the water feeding control - the liquid supply in accordance with liquid level
valve I3 open so that the boiler may be fed upon
departures to and from normal level and having
a second electro-responsive device in its output
the resumptionof liquid ~flow.
circuit responsive to the second liquid level
A normal closed push button 24, if depressed
means for controlling the heating means and a
during the condition of liquid level -below clip 1
control means for the heating means so con-A
has no effect in resetting relay I'I, since the coil
nected between the second electro-responsive de
I‘Ia remains energized through closed contact
vice and the heating means as to be operable by
I2a and the alarm 23 continues to be energized.
Should the level be restored above clip l, oscilla-v 50 said second device only to shut off the heating
» tor approaches resonance as the capacity of clip
means but not to restore same.
.
3. In combination, a container, a liquid supply
'I is increased, plate current falls, contact I2a
opens and the operator may then depress push
therefor, heating means for container, liquid
level impedance change responsive means re
button 2t whereupon relay I‘I- now becomes de
energized restoring the valve 25 to open position 55 sponding to liquid level changes to and from
pre-determined normal liquid level in the con
>to again supply fuel to the burner at the same
tainer, a second liquid level impedance change
time the alarm `23 is deenergized through open
responsive means responding to liquid level
ing of contact 2I-.2II. The apparatus is now
changes to and from a predetermined danger
restored for normal liquid level control around
clip 6.
60 ously low liquid level in the container and elec
tronic oscillator means operatively connected to
This control relay I‘I has contacts „2l and 22
both liquid level means having an electro-respon
which `when closed and being in circuit with fuel
sive device in its output circuit responsive to
valve 25 across the line during normal opening,
the first liquid level departures to and from
of the relay I1 maintain the fuel supply on by
65 normal `level for controlling the normal level and holding said valve open.
having a second electro-responsive device in its
A pilot light or alarm bell 23 is >energized by
output circuit responsive to the second liquid
the closing of relay contact 20 which connects
level means for controlling the heating means,
said light (or bell) across the line when relay Il
and initiating means and control means so con
is energized. A contact I8 of relay I'I is closed
by the energization of relay Il to maintain the 70 nected between the second electro-responsive de-_
vice and the heating means that the control
same energized by directly connecting the relay
means is operable by said second device to shut
winding across the line, independently of contact
off the heating means but is not operable to
I2a, until push button 24 has been operated to
restore the heating means without first operating
reset said relay.
,
The burner 21 extends through the furnace 75 the initiating means.
2,410,568
6
5
4. In combination, a container, a liquid supply
8. In combination, a container, a liquid supply
~ therefor, heating means for the container, liquid
therefor auxiliary control means, liquid level im
pedance change responsive means responding to
liquid level changes to and from a predetermined
normal liquid level in the container,-'a second
liquid level impedance change-responsive means
level impedance change responsive means re
sponding to liquid level changes to and from a
predetermined normal liquid level in the con
tainer, a second liquid level impedance change
responsiv'e means responding to liquid level
changes to and from a dangerously low liquid
level in the container and an electronic oscillator
controlled by both liquid level means and oper
atively connected to the liquid >supply for auto
matically controlling the liquid level, and, also
operatively connected to the heating means for
shutting the same down when the liquid level
‘ responding to liquid level changes to and from a
dangerously low liquid level in the container and
an electronic oscillator apparatus controlled by
both liquid level responsive means and operatively
connected’to the liquid supply for automatically
controlling the liquid level at a normal level and
also operatively connected to the auxiliary means
for controlling the same when the liquid level
approaches a dangerously low level.
approaches a dangerously low level;
9. In combination, a container, a liquid supply '
5. In combination, a container,.a liquid supply
therefor, heating means for the container, liquid _
therefor, heating means for the container, liquid
level impedance change responsive apparatus
level impedance change responsive means re
having a plurality of operating ranges, one range
sponding to liquid level changes to and from a
predetermined normal liquid level in the 'con 20 responding to liquid level changes to and from a
predetermined normal liquid level in the con
tainerl a second liquid level impedance change
tainer and the other range responding to liquid
responsive means responding to liquid level
level changes to and from a dangerously low level
changes to and from a dangerously low liquid
in the container and electronic oscillator means
level in the container, an electronic oscillator
apparatus having a plurality of current levels in 25 controlled by both ranges and operatively con
nected- to the liquid supply yfor automatically con
response to the respective liquid level means and.
trolling the liquid leveleand also operatively con
relay apparatus iny the output circuit of said elec
nected to the heating means for shutting the
tronic apparatus responsive to the respective cur- '
same down when the liquid level approaches a
rent level for controlling the normal level of the
'
I
liquid in the container and for cutting the heat 30 dangerously low level.
ing means off when. the liquid level approaches »a
10. In combinatioma container, a liquid supply
therefor, burner control i means, a manometer
dangerously low level.
\
associated with the container, capacitor plate
6. In combination, a container, a liquid supply
pickups responding to liquid level changes to and
_ therefor, heating means for the container, liquid
level impedance change responsive means re 35 from a-predetermined normal liquid level in the
manometer, a second set of capacitor plate pick
sponding to liquid level changes to and from
ups responding to liquid level changes to and
vnormal liquid level in the container, a second
from a dangerously low liquid level in the' ma
liquid level means impedance change responsive
nometer and an electronic oscillator apparatus
to liquid level changes to and from a dangerously .
low liquid level in the container, an electronic 40 controlled by both sets of capacitor plate pickups
oscillator apparatus controlled `by both liquid
level means and operatively connected to the
and operatively connected to the liquid supply for
automatically controlling liquid level at a normal
level and also operatively connected to the burner
liquid supply for maintaining the liquid level and
control means for controlling the same when the
„also operatively connected to the heating means
for shutting the same oil when the liquid level 45 liquid level approaches a dangerously low level.
ll. The combination of a container, a/liquid
approaches a dangerously low level, and control
supply therefor, heating means for the container,
means interposed between the heating means and
'the electronic apparatus as to be operable thereby , liquid level responsive apparatus, responding to
liquid level changes to and from a predetermined
to shut off the heating means but not to restore
50 normal liquid level in the container, an oscillator
circuit spaced a substantial> distance from the
7. In combination, a container, a liquid sup
container, an oscillating circuit mechanically
ply therefor, heating means for the container,
mounted in proximity to said liquid level respon
liquid level impedance change responsive means
sive apparatus and operatively connected thereto
responding-to liquid level changes to and from
normal liquid level in the container, a second 55 for control thereby, ay concentric conductor cable .
having its central conductor and sheath con
liquid level impedance change responsive means
nected between terminals of said second circuit
responsive to liquid level changes to and from a
and the grid circuit of said ñrst circuit and a
dangerously low liquid level in the container, an
second liquid level responsive apparatus respond
electronic oscillator apparatus controlled by both
ing to liquid level changes to and from a danger
liquid level means and operatively connected to
the liquid supply for maintaining the liquid level 60 ously low liquid level in the container also oper
atively connected to said oscillating circuit for
and also operatively connected to -the 'heating
controlling the same, said oscillator circuit being
means for shutting the same off when the liquid
operatively connected to said liquid supply for
level approaches a dangerously 10W level and
initiating and control means interposed between 65 controlling same in accordance with said iirst liq
uid level responsive apparatus and being also op
the heating means and the electronic apparatus
whereby the latter may operate the control means - eratively connected to said heating means for con
trolling the same'in accordance with the second
to shut off the heating means ybut operation of
liquid level responsive apparatus.
the initiating means- is necessary to restore the
THEODORE A. COHEN.
heating means.
70
same.
l
.
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