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Nov. 5, 1946.
w. s. HOOVER
BLADE PHASE AND CONSTANT SPEED SYNCHRONIZER
FOR MULTIPLE MOTOR AIRCRAFT
Filed larch 12, 1943
2,410,659
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
.57
.Ii1/ '19.
INVENTOR.
m 5. M
BY 7/"
.
M17’
NOV. 5, 1946.
w, s_ HOOVER
2,410,659
BLADE PHASE AND CONSTANT SPEED SYNCHRONIZER
_FOR MULTIPLE MOTOR AIRCRAFT
Filed March 12, 1945
‘
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
R729. 2
'
‘
' _
2%»
E195
ZNVEN TOR.
7/
w 5- W
BY M,’
W
7'
Patented Nov. 5,1946
; ; 2,410,659
UNlTED “STATE s" PATENT‘ oiFFilcE
2,410,659
BLADE PHASE AND CONSTANT'SPEED SYN- . I
CHRONIZER FOR MULTIPLE, MOTOR vAIR?‘
CRAFT
' Walter S. Hoover, West Hartford, Conn.
Application March 12, 1943, Serial No. 478,879.‘ '
14 Claims. (01. ire-135.6)
1
.
7
,2
r.
-
.
This invention relates to apparatus for and a
Fig., 5 a schematic view of a plurality of pro
method of maintaining phase relation of a plu
rality of propeller blades and for synchronizing
the speeds of the propeller engines, and it is
peller mechanisms with their blades in phase.
In Fig. 1 of the drawing, the numeral I desig
among the objects thereof to provide a hydraulic
governor control for variable pitch propeller
mechanisms for maintaining constant load on
the propeller engines, having auxiliary ‘pressure?
nates a ?uid motor having stationary vanes 2 and
movable vanes 3,.the latter being associated with
a propeller blade to adjust the pitch angle by the
application of pressure ?uid through channels 4
and 5 to get a positive pitch adjustment for both
high and low pitch angle setting.
‘
balanced valve means for regulating the pitch
The application of the pressure ?uid to the
adjusting movements of the blades, and means 10
responsive to the phase change in any one of a
rotor 3 is controlled by a governor valve 6' and
plurality of such propeller mechanisms for auto
matically restoring the phase relation of such
out-of-phase unit.
an auxiliary valve ‘I, the former being actuated in '
its ?ow controlling movements by governor ?ye
weights 8, and. the auxiliary valve by electrical
It is a primary object of the invention to pro
vide a combined constant speed control mech
solenoids 9 and 9'. f
anism for variable pitch propeller mechanism
of the governor valve by a pump I I from a source
l2 which may be the engine lubricating fluid or a
responsive to a governor valve in combination
with auxiliary valve means controlling the ap
.
'
Fluid is delivered to the high pressure port Ill
fluid stored in the propeller hub or other inde
plication of pressure ?uid for actuating the blades 20 pendent self-contained source. A relief valve
l2b normally biased by coil spring l2a returns
in their pitch adjusting movements, with means
the ?uid to the low pressure side of pump ll if
for rendering the auxiliary valve means inopera
the pressure exceeds a predetermined pounds
tive during any pitch‘ adjusting movement of th
per-square-inch pressure. Movement of the
governor valve.
1
p
It is_a further object of the invention to pro 25 governor valve 6 will communicate the pressure
?uid from port ill with either ports l3 or H,‘ de—
vide a combined governor control and auxiliary
pending upon the directional movement of'the
valve control mechanism for constant speed pro
rotor 3 for the desired pitch adjustment.
pellers as a unitary structure which may be
The auxiliary valve 1 is a pressure balanced
mounted on the-propeller engine or incorporated
in the propeller hub.
30 spool type valve communicating with the'high
It is' still a further object of the invention to ' pressure port ill of governor valve 6. Movement
of valve 1 is eifected by energization ofthe sole
provide phase change and constant speed control
noids 9, 9', to draw the armatures liithat are an
mechanism of the above designated character in
integral part of the valve body. Valve '1 isbiased
which the auxiliary valves are rendered operative
through an electric control system by means re 35 ‘by coil springs 16 to normally cover ports of
passages.“ and [8 which communicate with the
lated to a master governor or selective speed
?ow passages 4 and 5 of the ?uid motor I.
operator. '
. The embodiment of the governor valve and
Still a further object of the invention is the
auxiliary control valves 6 and 1 respectively as
provision of phase-change and constant speed
an integral unit is shown in Fig. 2 of the drawings
propeller mechanism of the above designated
in the form in which it may be mounted on the
character in which the auxiliary valves are
nose of the propeller hub or on the propeller
electrically operated and controlled by a synchro
engine.
scope responsive to the difference in speeds of the
The governor shaft designated by the numeral
propeller mechanism in relation to a master 45
I9 is driven through the spline 20 and the pump
governor or selective speed drive ‘mechanism.
II, which is a gear pump, is shown incorporated
These and other objects of the invention ‘will
in
the valve housing. A drain gland 2| from
become more apparent from a consideration of the auxiliary valve communicates at 22 with the
the accompanying drawings constituting a part
drain, which as shown in Fig.v 1 may be through
hereof in which like reference characters desig 50 the
hollow governor shaft. The governor valve
nate like parts and in which;
6 is provided with a speeder spring 23 that may
‘Fig. l is a diagrammatic view partially in sec
be preloaded through a manual control compris- '
tion of a blade phase and constant speed synchro
ing the gear- rack 24 and pinion 25, the latter
nizer for multiple motor aircraft embodying the
being mounted on a shaft 26 that is operated by
principles of this invention;
thelpilot.
~
Fig. 2 a vertical section partially in elevation
The relief yalve 12b is shown in Fig. 2 com
taken longitudinally of a governor valve and
municating with the‘h'igh pressure port III, the
pump mechanism;
\
valve 121) being displaced in an upward direction
Figs. 3 and 4 diagrammatic views of a
to permit recirculation of the high pressure ?uid
60 to the low pressure side of pump I I.
synchroscope and relays;
‘ 2,410,659
.
1
.
-
3
With reference to Fig. 1, the numeral 21 gener
ally designates another hydraulic governor valve"
for a propeller pitch adjusting mechanism. and
both the~ governor valve 6 and the valve 21 are
provided with interrupter cams 29 and 29a which
engage movable contacts 29 and 29a of an electri
cal circuit which e?ect intermittent contact with
terminals 30, and 30a of the circuit'.
4
pitch setting of the propeller blade will adJust
the load on the engine until the speed of the en
gine governor is again in synchronism with the
master governor 21. The auxiliary valve will
continue to deliver pressure ?uid to the pitch ad
justing motor until it is again in synchronism
with the master engine.
A source of power as'indicated by batteries 3|
If the synchroscope switch 42 contacts terminal
44, as shown in Fig. 4, relay switch 41 will engage
supplies current to the circuit, which functions
to operate a. synchroscope generally designated by
terminal 49 to energize solenoid 9 of the auxiliary
valve to apply pressure ?uid to the pitch adjusting
the numeral 32 which consists of the pole pieces
' ?uid motor in the opposite direction.
33 and the armature 34. A transformer com
To provide for increment adjustment of the
prising a primary winding 35 and a secondary
pitch of the blades, the interrupter cam 52 con
winding 36 is connected to the field winding 31
tinues to make and break the solenoid circuit so
of the synchroscope, which is energized by the in
that the auxiliary valve is subjected to slight
termittent contact of terminals 29 and 39.
?uctuations to avoid abrupt adjustment of the
A second transformer comprising a primary
pitch during the period the propeller engine is
winding 39 and a secondary winding 39 is con
brought up to speed, which is almost instanta
nected to a resistance and induction coil 49 and 20 neous.
4|, respectively, to peak up the current which
When a condition exists in the normal maneu
flows to the synchroscope so that it will break off
verability of a plane which calls for constant
sharply, thereby aiding sensitivity.
The armature 34 of the synchroscope is provided
speed adjustment of the propeller blades, the
governor ?y-weights 8 will actuate governor valve,
with an arm 42 which engages terminals 43 and 25 6 to connect the high pressure fluid from port III
44 energizing relays 45 and 46 that operate switch
with port l3 or M depending on the direction of
41 to contact terminals 43 and 49 of the auxiliary
movement of the valve. When this occurs, pres
valve solenoids 9 and 9’. The power circuit of
sure on relief valve I 2 will drop and spring 12a
the solenoids is connected to terminals 59 and
will move the valve to open circuit terminals 55
5|, the latter being actuated by an interrupter 30 and 56 so that no power can be applied to the
cam 52 operated by gear wheel 53' interacting
auxiliary valve solenoids 9 or 9'. When the gov
with the teeth of a pinion 54 on the governor
ernor valve 6 has effected its pitch adjusting
shaft. The terminal 5| is connected to a movable
control, pressure will again build up on the relief
terminal 55 operated by pressure on relief valve
valve l2 displacing it against the spring I21: and
closing terminals 55 and 55 which establishes
the circuit of the auxiliary valve solenoids to
render it operative in response to the control of
the synchroscope as previously described.
are shown in Figs. 3 and 4. Fig. 3 indicating one
It is thus seen that the auxiliary‘valve'mech
position of switch 41, which energizes the auxil
anism is inoperative during normal pitch adjust
iary valve solenoid for one direction 01 valve
ing of the blades and functions only to main
movement, and Fig. 4 shows the switch set to
tain synchronism of the multiple propeller en
move the valve in the opposite direction of its
ginesin relation with the master engine or selec
flow control movement.
tive speed motor. By means of the synchroniza
Operation of the above described phase-change 45 tion control through the auxiliary valve, the
and constant speed propeller control system is
blades of the respective motors will be kept in
brie?y as follows.
phase relation, as shown in Fig. 5.
Assuming the governor 21 to be driven by the
In other words, if initially the blades are set
master engine of a multiple motor plane or by _ as shown in Fig. 5, the auxiliary valve 1 will
a selective speed electric motor to operate the 50 maintain the phase relation of the blade units at
circuit interrupter 29, the interrupter cam 28
all times through the synchroscope control. Fig.
will make contact of terminals 29 and 30 each
1 shows the phase change and constant speed
l2 to contact terminal 55, and lights 51, 5B and
59 are provided to indicate that the auxiliary
valve solenoid circuit is energized.
The synchroscope, relays and operating switch
revolution of the engine or motor as the case may
control as applied to a pair of propeller units.
However, any number of such units may be con
the source 3| through the transformer windings 55 trolled by the master engine by the use of syn
be, producing alternating current in the line from
38 and 39 and the armature will not be subject to
chroscope control systems for energizing the aux
movement, if the speed of cams 28 and 29a are
iliary valve by merely connecting them in the
the same.
circuit with the terminals 29 and‘ 30 of the
If, the frequency of interrupter cam 29a is
master interrupter cam.
‘
changed so that the current of the syncroscope BO
With reference to Fig. 2 of the drawings, the
winding and armature are out of phase, arma
several motors of the plane are originally regu
ture 34 will be moved to contact terminals 43 or
lated in their speed through the manual con~
44, depending upon whether the frequency is
greater or lesser than the master interrupter cam
28.
,
‘
.
.
Assuming that the switch 42 contacts terminal
43, as shown in Fig. 3, the relay switch 41 will
trol gear 25 which, through the speeder spring,‘
preloads the governor fly-weights to maintain a
selective speed of the particular engine.
After this adjustment has been made, the aux
iliary valve and synchroscope control maintains
the phase relation of the several propeller units.
contact terminal 43 and establish a power circuit
with solenoid 9', which moves the pressure bal
The light 51 indicates to the pilot that the aux
anced valve 1 in a downward direction as viewed 70 iliary valve is powered to operate, and when it
in Fig. 1, exposing port |1,to the drainline 2| and
is out, it indicates that the governor valve is
port IE to the high pressure line Ill’ of pump II,
the pressure fluid ?owing through valve 1 to the
gland 5, and thence to the fluid motor | to actuate
functioning to deliver fluid pressure to the pitch
setting mechanism. Lights 58 and 59, when
energized, indicate the direction of adjustment,
the rotor 3 in its pitch adjusting movement. The 75 Whether it is for high or low pitch setting, which
anopge
5" a
.-
6
I
is taldng
plaoe'through the synchroscopecontrol.
v
plication of pressure ?uid to saidmotors, valves
“It is evident from. the foregoing description
, for directing the application of pressure ?uidto .
of this invention-that a rapid and minute ‘adjust
ment of the phase relation of a plurality of pro-1
said motors independently of said governor valves,
and means operative in response to the speed dif
ferential of said engines and prime mover for
actuating said second named valve.
4. In a system of control for synchronizing the
speed of propeller engines with, the speed of a
selected speed prime mover, constant speed pro
‘ peller engines may be‘ effected automatically’
5.
through the governor controlled ?uid system
without interfering with» the normal operation
oi the governor control valve.‘
It is» further evident- that by the use of a
pressure balanced auxiliary valve,-very little en 10 peller mechanism including adjustable pitch pro
peller blades mounted on said engines, ?uid mo
ergy is required to actuate the valve, which can
tors. for controlling the pitch setting of the pro
be controlled through a. commercially available
synchroscope-
.
~
. peller blades, governor valves controlling the ap
‘
While, the auxiliary valve will remain in‘oper
plication of pressure ?uid to said motors, valves
for directing the application of pressure ?uid to
said motors independently of said governor
valves, means operative in response to the speed
ative during violent maneuvering of the plane
as in power diving; the auxiliary valve will rapidly
restore the phase relation of the blades and
engines when the plane has been restored to nor
- di?erential of said engines, and prime mover for
actuating said second named valves, and means
It is further evident that the synchroscor e unit 20 operative in response to movement of said gov
and auxiliary valve can be incorporated in or
ernor vvalves for rendering said‘ second named
valves inoperative.
mounted on the propeller hub or governor hous
5. In a system of control for synchronizing the
ing and, constitute a single compact unit for
speed of propeller engines with the speed of a
.mounting on the engines with no connections
selected speed prime mover, constant speed pro
other than the electrical conductors from the
mal ?ight.
'
\ '
peller mechanism including adiustablepitch pro
synchroscope to the interrupter cam circuits.
peller blades mounted on said engines, ?uid mo
Although one embodiment of the invention
- has been herein illustrated and described, it will
tors for controlling the pitch setting of the pro
peller" b1ades,'governor valves directing the ap
be evident to those skilled in the art that vari
ous modi?cations may be made in the details of 30 plication of pressure ?uid to said motors, valves
directing the application of pressure ?uid to said
construction without departing from the princi
motors independently of said governor valves,
ples herein set forth.
'
"
said second named valves having solenoids for ac
For example, the system may be employed on
tuating the same in their ?ow control movements,
variable pitch propeller mechanisms wherein the
electrical power circuit for selectively energizing.
pitch adjustment may be e?ected by prime movers
said solenoids including a synchroscope, circuit
other than a ?uid motor. In such cases the ?uid
interrupters operated by said engines and se
motor I would function as a servo motor for oper
lected speed prime mover for energizing said syn
chroscope in response to a speed differential of
ating the control of the prime mover.
I claim:
'
' 1. In a system of control for synchronizing the
speed of propeller engines with the speed of a
selected speed prime mover, constant speed pro
40
said interrupters to advance or retard the pitch
setting of the propeller blades.
,
6. In a system of control for multiple propeller
peller mechanism including adjustable pitch pro
engines having variable ‘pitch propeller‘ mecha
peller blades mounted on said engines, ?uid mo
tors for controlling the pitch setting of the pro
peller blades, governor valves controlling the ap
~ plication of pressure ?uid to said motors, and
' nismsand blades mounted thereon, one of said
engines being a master engine, actuators for ad
justing the blades to high or low pitch setting in
cluding a ?uid motor, a governor valve for each
of said motors controlling the ?uid ?ow to said
motor, a second valve for some of said motors
?uid to said motors independently of said gov
ernor valves, said last named valves being opera 50 controlling the ?uid ?ow thereto independently
of their governor valve, each of said second
tive to maintain phase relation of said propeller
named valves having a pair of solenoids connect
engines with ‘the selected speed prime mover.
ed in an electrical Dower circuit, 'a synchroscope
2. In a system of control for synchronizing the
for selectively energizing said solenoids, said syn
speed of‘ propeller engines with the speed of a
selected speed prime mover, constant speed pro Ch ‘Li chroscope being operative in response to a differ
valves for directing the application of pressure
ential in the speed of said propeller engines con
trolled by the ?uid motors having said second
peller blades mounted on said engines, ?uid mo
named valves and said master engine to energize
tors for controlling the pitch setting of the pro
the solenoid to actuate the second-named valve to
peller blades, governor valves controlling the ap
plication of pressure ?uid to said motors, valves 60 e?'ect high or low pitch setting movements of the
propeller blades.
,
_
for directing the application of pressure ?uid to
7. Ina system of control for multiple propeller
said motors independently of said governor valves,
engines -\having variable pitch propeller mecha
said last named valves being operative to main
nisms and blades mounted thereon, one of said
tain phase relation of said propeller engines with
the selected speed prime mover, and means oper 65 engines being a master engine, actuators for ad
justing the blades to high or low pitch Setting
ative in response to movement of said governor
including a ?uid motor, a governor valve for each
valves for rendering said second named valves
of said motors controlling the ?uid ?ow to said
inoperative.
‘
‘
motor, a second valve for some of said motors con
3. In a system of control for synchronizing the
speed of propeller engines with the speed of a se 70 trolling the ?uid ?ow thereto independently of
their governor valve, each of said second-named
lected speed prime mover, constant speed pro
valve's having a pair of solenoids connected in an
peller mechanism including adjustable pitch pro
electrical power circuit, a synchroscope for se
peller blades mounted on said engines, ?uid mo
lectively energizing said solenoids, said synchro
_ tors for controlling the pitch setting of the ‘pro
' peller blades, governor valves controlling the ap 75 szcope being operative in response to a differential
peller mechanism including adjustable pitch pro
2,410,059
7
,
in the speed 01' said propeller engines controlled
by the ?uid motors having said second-named
valves and said master engine to energize the
ment of the ?uid motor independent of the gov
ernor valve.
’
‘
,7
11. In multiple engine aircraft in which each
engine is provided with variable pitch propeller
solenoid to actuate the second-named valve to
high or low pitch setting movement of the pro-"
mechanism including adjustable pitch propeller
peller blades, and means for disconnecting the
blades, a ?uid motor for actuating the propeller
solenoids from the power circuit when said gov
blades in their pitch adjusting movements, a con
ernor valves are operative in their pitch adjust
stant speed control mechanism therefor com
ing movement.
prising a booster pump, a source of ?uid pressure
8. In a system of control for multiple propeller 10 for said pump, a governor valve having ?y-weights
engines having variable pitch propeller mecha
and a port, means connecting said port to the
nisms and blades mounted thereon, or means for
maintaining synchronous speed of said engines
high pressure side of the booster pump, a return
?ow passage in communication with said con-
and phase relation of the propeller blades of said
necting means and the ?uid source, a plurality
engines consisting of a ?uid motor for actuating 15 of ported passages controlled by the governor
the blades in their high and low pitch setting
valve connected to ‘the hydraulic actuator for
movements, one of said engines being a master
adjusting the blades to high or. low pitch setting
engine, a source of ?uid pressure for said ?uid
in response to movement of the governor valve
motors, a governor valve controlling the applica
determined by the speed of the propeller engine,
tion of the pressure ?uid to control the direction 20 a speeder spring for preloading the governor
and degree of pitch setting movement of said
valve ?y-weights, manual means for adjusting
said spring to effect pitch adjusting movement
motors, a second valve for some of said ?uid
of the hydraulic actuator independent or the
motors connected to a pressure ?uid source for
controlling their directional and degree of move
speed of the engine, and an auxiliary valve having‘
ment independently of said governor valves, each 25 ported passages connected to the ports oi‘ the
governor valve to effect pitch adjusting move
of said second named valves having a pair of
ment of the hydraulic actuator independently
solenoids connected in an electric power circuit,
of the governor valve.
a synchroscope in said power circuit for selectively
operating said second-named valves, an inter
12. In a combination with a plurality of pro- '
rupter cam operated by said master engine for 30 peller engines having variable pitch propellers,
of means for maintaining synchronous speed'or
intermittently energizing said circuit, and inter
rupter cams operated by the other propeller
said engines and phase relation of the propeller
engines for controlling said power circuit whereby
blades consisting of ?uid motors for actuating
the second-named valves are selectively energized
the blades in their pitch adjusting movements,
in response to the speed differential between said 35 one of said engines being a master engine, a
interrupter cam operated by said master engine
source of pressure ?uid for said motors, governor
and the other interrupter cams to effect pitch
valves controlling the application of the pressure
adjustment of the propeller blades to maintain
fluid to control the degree and direction of move- ~
the engine speeds in synchronism with the master
ment of said ?uid motors, an auxiliary valve for
engine and to maintain phase relation of the 40 some of said ?uid motors for supplying pressure
blades of the respective engines.
?uid thereto and for controlling the direction and
9. In multiple engine aircraft in which each
degree or the movement of the ?uid motors in
engine is provided with constant speed propeller
dependently of the governor valves, said auxiliary
mechanism including’ adjustable pitch propeller
valves having solenoids for actuating the same,
blades, a ?uid motor controlling the pitch setting
a power circuit for said solenoids including inter
of the propeller blades, a governor valve con
rupter cams actuated by said engines having
trolling the direction and degree of pitch adjust
circuit making and breaking contactsfor regu
ing movement of the ?uid motor in response to
lating the phase of the current of said power cir
speed of its propeller engine and an auxiliary
cuit, a synchroscope energized in response to phase
valve connected to control the direction and 50 relation of its ?eld and armature windings which
degree of movement of the ?uid motor independ
are respectively connected to be energized by
ently of the governor valve, said auxiliary valve
said power circuit to energize said auxiliary valve
being rendered inoperative in response to pitch
solenoids in response to variations in the speed of
adjusting movement of the governor valve.
the engines controlled by the ?uid motors having
10. In multiple engine aircraft in which engine 55 said auxiliary valves and said master engine to
is provided with constant speed propeller mecha
obtain increments of adjusting movement of
nism including adjustable pitch propeller blades
the auxiliary valves to thereby e?ect increments
and a fluid motor for adjusting the propeller
of pitch adjustment of the propeller ‘blades, and
blades to the high or low pitch setting including
a switch for opening said power circuit when the
a source of pressure ?uid, a governor valve for 60 governor valves are moved to pitch controlling
each of said ?uid motors operative in response
position.
I
'
to the speed of its propeller engine having a
13. A system of control as set forth in claim
plurality of spaced ports connected to the ?uid
12 in which the solenoids of the auxiliary valve are
motor and a port connected to the source of pres
selectively operated by a relay switch energized
sure ?uid, said valve operating to connect the 65 by the isynchroscope to determine the directional
high pressure ?uid with one of said ?rst-named
movement of the auxiliary valve.
ports to eifect pitch adjusting movement of the
14. In a vcontrol system as set forth in claim
?uid motor as determined by the direction of
12, signal lights connected in the. auxiliary valve
movement of the governor valve, an auxiliary
control circuit for indicating a setting of the
valve having ported passages connected to the 70 valve for selected pitch adjusting movement and.
ports of the governor valve to route the pressure
a signal light "in said auxiliary light circuit for
?uid through the governor valve passages to the
indicating the functional position of the governor
?uid motor when the governor valve is in
valve.
neutral position, and means for actuating said
WALTER S. HOOVER.
auxiliary valve to e?ect pitch adjusting move 75
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