close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

код для вставки
Nov. s, 1946.
M T_ LAWLOR
} _' 2,410,664
SKIN CLAMP
Filed Jan. 20, 1944
>
'
Tia-E2;
INVENTOR
MA/PT/A/ ILA WLOI?
BY
hf /Z@
A TTO/PNE Y
glitter
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
UNiTED STATES PATENT QFHCE
2,410,664
skin‘ CLAMP
Martin T. Lawlor, Waterbury, Conn, assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Irving Rossi
1
Application January 20, 1944, ,Serial No. 518,928
15 Claims. (Cl. 85-5)
The present invention relates to skin clamps or
fasteners of the type serving as temporary rivets
2
stresses to which the clamps have to be subjected
for assembling perforated members in aligned
in use.
' As a result thereof, it has been experienced
position, such as sheets or plates, preparatory to
a riveting or like operation.
that the clamps may ?y apart when parts there
In the co-pending patent applications iiled by
Peter F. Rossmann, Serial No. 384,461, dated
March 21, 1941, entitled “Clamping device,” and
Serial No. 441,153, ?led April 30, 1942, entitled
particular when the heads or shoulders of the re
tainer are accidentally sheared or broken off.
This may result in serious accidents and danger
to the workmen in the neighborhood, as is under
“Fasterner,” now Patent No. 2,354,480, there is
described a clamp of this character comprising
substantially a housing or body having a work
engaging base provided with an opening of a di—
ameter substantially equal to the perforations
in the aligned plates or other work to be assem
bled. A retainer comprising a pair of resilient
legs having shoulders at their outer ends and op~
erable towards each other is arranged to slide
through said opening, a spreader arranged in
stood.
if one of the elements becomes accidentally dam
space said legs apart. The retainer is urged in
wardly of said body into retracted or clamping
position by means of a coil spring interposed be
tween its inner end and said body, whereby to
Further objects and aspects of the invention
will become more‘ apparent from the following
detailed description taken in reference to the ac
cause said shoulders to engage the outer sur
?cation, and wherein:
Figure 1 is an elevation, partly broken away, of
a clamp embodying the principles of the inven
of become accidentally damaged during use, in
'
An object of the present invention is therefore,
to'improve the safety factor of clamps of this
type by preventing the parts to be ejected forcibly
aged or broken.
'
‘
A further object is to provide a clamp of this
type, which'is both simple in construction and
ef?cient in operation and, Which can be easily
and safely installed and removed from the work
fixed relation to said body being interposed to 20 without complicated tools or special operations.
face of said base in the non-operative position of
the device or to resiliently clamp the perforated
sheets or other work between said shoulders and
said base in the operative or ‘use position of the
device.
The clamp is applied to and removed from the
work by compressing the spring by the aid of a
suitable tool such as a plier appliedto the hous
ing and the inner end of the retainer, whereby to
cause the legs to project outwardly of the body
companying drawing forming part of this speci
tion; Figure 2 is a side view shown partly in cross—
section, of the clamp according to Figure 1; Fig
ure 3 is a cross-section taken on line 3—3 of Fig
ure 2; and Figure 4 is a cross-section taken on
line 4—4 of Figure l.
'
‘
Like reference characters identify like parts in
the different views of the drawing.
>
' The vclamp shown comprises a cup or thimble
beyond said spreader in such a manner as to ap
shaped body or housing Ill having a ?ange H at
proach each other or ?ex su?iciently to enable
their insertion through and removal from the
its open end and a sheet engaging bottom or
perforations.
Clamps of this type are required in considerable
base l2 provided’with a central bore or opening
it. The latter has a diameter substantially equal
to the diameter of the perforationsin the work to
numbers,in particular in the manufacture of air
planes, to assist in the riveting of the metal sheets
or, skins to the structure of the planes, in locating
plates A and B shown for illustration in the draw
lock or stop nuts in proper position for secur
ing them to a cowling or other metal structure
and other applications.
Practice has shown that in‘ order to ins ‘re safe
be assembled such as two superposed perforated
mg.
.
A plunger or. retainer comprising, in the exam
ple shown, a member of U- or hairpin shape
having a pair of resilient legs It provided with
projections or shoulders [5 at their outer ends,
is arranged to slide through the opening H3 in the
riveting of the sheets, considerable clamping
forces are required to prevent misalignment of
body 1 it with said legs being held in spaced apart
the sheets or plates during the riveting operation 50 position bythe, depending portion it of a sub
This makes it necessary
stantially T-shaped spreader interposed between
to employ heavy clamping springs which in turn
said legs and having a cross-arm ll’ resting
against the inside of the bottom or sheet engag
and other drawbacks.
require a substantial force to be exerted by the
pliers or other tools during the insertion .and
ingbase1l2. , A cap or inverted cup-shaped wash
removal operations, resulting in considerable
ervlileisplaced over the spreader cross-arm H to
#110,664;
3
4
one hand and the ?ange H on the other hand.
provide a recess for the latter, said washer hav
During compression, the legs will slide beyond the
ing a central opening for passing the legs M and
spreader 16, whereby to cause sections I40 and
being provided with diametrical recesses in its cy
shoulders 15 to approach each other or to ?ex
lindrical portion as indicated at I1’ and adapted
to receive the ends of the cross-arm ll’, whereby 01 su?iciently to enable their insertion through and
removal from the perforations in the plates A
to lock the spreader against or prevent relative
and B or other work to be assembled.
movement with respect to said washer. Alter
The housing and remaining elements may be
natively, the spreader cross-arm I‘! may be
mounted loosely within the recess provided by
the spreader l8.
In the example illustrated, the legs 14 which
hardened to withstand the stress and forces ex
10 erted thereon and to reduce the size of the clamp
’ to a minimum. Sleeve 2! may consist of brass
are preferably constructed from a single length .
of wire of half round or segmental cross-sec~
tion, have inner parallel portions Ma followed
by intermediate portions Mb and outer portions
and may have a length designed to act as a
stop to limit the compression of the spring when
the lower end of the sleeve engages the washer
Hi.
In a clamp of this type intended for many
thousands of insertion and removal operations,
140 which may be bent inwardly as shown in the
applications mentioned above so as to approach
each other by their own spring tension when the
it may happen that due to wear and other causes,
legs are projected beyond the spreader it by
compression of the spring 20 during the insertion
and removal operations. Alternatively, the lower
ders 15, may be damaged or broken away, in
which case the spring and/or retainer will be
portions I40 may be substantially parallel or
normally spaced similar to the portions Mb and
adapted to flex sufficiently to allow insertion
through and removal from the sheet perfora
tions.
The purpose of the washer i8 is to locate the
spreader to prevent canting thereof and to serve
as a base for a coiled clamping spring 26 en
the parts, in particular the projections or shoul
ejected forcibly or ?y apart haphazardly, where
to involve serious danger and operator hazard.
According to the present invention, this draw
back is avoided and adequate operating safety
insured by locking or anchoring the spring 20
to the body or housing It! on the one hand and
- to the retainer on the other hand, in such a man
ner, that, with the spring becoming suddenly re
laXed from the compressed to its expanded posi
circling the legs !Al and having its lower end en- ‘
gaging saidwash-er and having its upper end en
gaging the inner end of the retainer. In this
manner, the washer [8 acts both as a balancing
means for the fastener, while at the same time
tion due to damage or breakage of one of the
parts, in particular the shoulders or projections
[5, both the spring or any of the other remain
taking the thrust of the spring away from the
forcibly or flying apart and endangering work
spreader arm I‘! as well as from‘the housing 10,
resulting in a favorable distribution of the forces
men in the neighborhood.
For this purpose, at an intermediate part of
ing parts will be prevented from being ejected
the housing ii], a plurality of preferably equally
exerted by the spring without producing exces
spaced nibs or inward projections 26 are struck
sive stress on the parts and preventing the legs
and spring from bending sideways or canting in 40 in position, so that they will at least inter-engage
one or more turns at the inner end of the spring
the manner pointed out. This in turn enables
20 adjacent to the spreader l1 and washer l8.
the size of the parts and the clamp to be held
Furthermoreyat the opposite end of the device
at a minimum.
‘
the sleeve 2| has its side walls diametrically
The washer 58 may be omitted if a weaker
skived or punched as shown in 21 leaving two
spring is used, suiiicient in some cases, in which
connecting'straps or projections 28. The latter,
case the lower end of the spring engages the
after the spring has been assembled against the
spreader cross~arm I‘? and in this manner pre
vents the spreader from moving in the longitudi
flange 22 of the sleeve 2 i, are collapsed or folded
outwardly back upon themselves to provide nibs
nal direction by maintaining it in bearing en
or outward projections inter-engaging between
gagement with the inside of the bottom or base
.two turns at the opposite end of the spring 20
In order to further improve the symmetry or
and holding the same permanently connected to
the sleeve 21 and in turn to the legs 14.
balance of the clamp, there is provided a cylin
l2.
.
_
drical sleeve 2! interposed between the legs 14
By this construction, accidental breakage of
the shoulders l5 and sudden slipping of the legs
and the spring 20, said sleeve having an upper
M through the openings in the plates A and B
?ange or shoulder 22 engaged by the upper end
of the spring and terminating in an outwardly
and the housing is due to expansion of the spring
20, will result in a prevention of the parts being
?aring skirt or rim '23 secured to or engaging
forcibly ejected and ?ying apart haphazardly by
the head or cap 24 secured to the inner end of
the legs M. Cap 24 for this purpose has an in 60 the spring It being locked to the housing I8 by
wardly ?aring skirt 24' engaging the skirt 23
the nibs or projections 26 ‘and by the retainer be
ing locked to the spring via the cap 25: and sleeve
of the sleeve 2!. The cap in the example shown
is secured to the legs [4 by means of a pin 25 ‘ 2! by the nibs or projections 28 in the manner
passed through a lateral opening in the cap, said
described and understood from the foregoing.
pin ?tting snugly within the upper bent portion 65
It will be understood that the locking of the
spring 29 to the body l0 and to the sleeve vill
of the legs [4‘ and being secured or held in place
by staking or deforming the cap or in any other
or retainer may be effected in various other
suitable manner. The sleeve 21 advantageously
manners which will readily suggest themselves
has a close ?t within the coil spring and the
to those skilled in the art, the particular method
legs M to obtain an optimum straightening or 70 shown and described for illustration having the
advantage of enabling the use of simple stamp
balance of the entire retainer unit comprising
ing and punching operations.
the parts l4, 2 I, 24 and 25 within the spring 20.
In use, spring '20 is compressed by applying a
The sleeve 21' may be secured to the cap 24 in
suitable tool such as a plier having jaws or'sock
any other suitable manner, the method shown in
the drawing having the advantage of involving
ets engaging the outer surface of cap 23 on the
12,410,664
d
6
a minimum of parts and connecting operations.
Furthermore, the looking or anchoring of the
spring to the housing and retainer, respectively,
is not limited to the speci?c type of clamp shown
in the drawing but may be used with equal ad
vantage 'in any other clamp construction com
posite end of said spring, whereby to lock said
spring both to said body and said retainer.
4. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped housing
having a base provided with a central bore, a
retainer slidable through said bore and having
a pair of resilient legs operable towards each other
and provided with shoulders at the outer ends
thereof, a ‘spreader in ?xed relation to said body
and interposed between said legs, a coil spring
prising essentially a body, a retainer slidable with
respect to said body and having at least one shoul
der or other clamping ‘member at its outer end
and a spring interposed between the inner end of 10 encircling said retainer and interposed between
said retainer and said ‘body to retract said re
said body and the inner end of said retainer to
tainer and to urge said shoulder into clamping
normally retract said retainer and to cause said
engagement with said body. In a clamp of this
shoulders to engage said base, said body being
type, breakage of the shoulder or other-clamping
provided with in-struck internal projections in‘
member would result in a sudden expansion of the 15 ter-engaging adjacent turns at one end of said
spring and forcible ejection of the parts in the
spring and said retainer including means pro
absence of the precautionary features proposed
vided with projections engaging adjacent turns
by the invention to hold the parts together by
at the opposite end of said spring, whereby to lock
locking the spring to both the housing and re
, said spring to both said body and said retainer.
5. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped body ‘having
tainer in the manner shown and described. Thus,
the spreader or other complementary hole-?lling
a base provided with a central bore, a retainer
element cooperating with the retainer may be
slidable through said bore and having at least one
constructed and mounted as shown in any of the
lateral projection at the outer end thereof, a coil
prior art constructions and the spring may di
spring encircling said retainer and interposed‘be
rectly engage the inside of the bottom or base in
tween said base and the inner end of said retainer
accordance with the broad scope of the invention.
to normally retract said retainer and to cause said
Accordingly, it will be evident that the inven
projection to engage said base, a sleeve in ?xed
tion‘isnot limited to the speci?c details and con
relation to the inner end of said retainer and
interposed between said spring and said retainer,
structions shown and disclosed herein for illus
tration, but that the underlying principle and 30 said body being provided with at least one inward
projection inter-engaging adjacent turns atone
novel thought are susceptible of numerous varia
end of said spring and said sleeve having atleast
tions and modi?cations coming Within the
one outward projection inter-engaging adjacent
broader scope and spirit of the invention as de
turns at the opposite end of said spring, whereby
fined in the appended claims. The speci?cation
and drawing are accordingly to be regarded in
to lock said spring ‘to both said body and said
an illustrative rather than in a limiting sense.
I claim:
-1. In a clamp device, a body having a base pro
vided with an opening, a retainer slidable through
said opening and having at least one shoulder at
its outer end, a coil spring encircling said retainer
and interposed between the inner end of said
retainer and said body to normally retract said
retainer and to cause said shoulder to engage said
retainer.
-
-
6. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped body having
a base provided with a central bore, a retainer
slidable through said bore and vhaving a pair of
resilient legs provided with shoulders at‘the outer
ends thereof, a spreader in ?xed relation to ‘said
body and interposed between said legs, a coil
spring encircling said retainer-and interposed be
tween said base and the ‘inner end or" said re
base, said-body and retainer being provided with 45 tainer to normally retract said retainer and to
cause said shoulders to engage the outsideof said
projections inter-engaging adjacent turns at the
base, a sleeve in ?xed relation to the inner end
opposite ends of said spring, whereby to lock said
of said retainer and interposed between said
spring to both said body and said retainer.
spring and said retainer, said body being pro
-2. In a clamp device, a cylindrical body having
a base provided with an opening, a retainer slid
50 vided with at least one in-struck internal pro
jection inter-engaging adjacent turns at one end
able through said opening and having a pair of
of said spring and said sleeve beingprovided with
resilient legs provided with shoulders at the outer
at least one outward projection inter-engaging
ends thereof, a spreader in ?xed relation to said
adjacent turns at the opposite end of said. spring,
body and ‘interposed between said legs, a coil
spring interposed between the inner end of said 55 whereby to lock said spring to both said body and
said retainer.
retainer and said body to normally retract said
7. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped housing
‘retainer and to cause said shoulders to engage
having a base provided with a central bore, a
said base, said body and retainer being provided
retainer slidable through said bore and having
with projections inter-engaging adjacent turns
at the opposite ends of said spring, whereby to 60 resilient legs operable towards each other and
provided with shoulders at theouter ends there
‘lock said spring to both said body and said‘re
of,
a spreader resting against the inside or" said
tainer.
base and having a portion interposed between
3. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped body having
said legs, a coil spring encircling said lretainer
a base provided with a central bore, a retainer
having
one end engaging, the inner endof said
slidable through said bore and having at least
retainer and arranged to maintain said spreader
one lateral projection at the outer end thereof, a
in bearing arrangement with said base, said spring
coil spring interposed between the inner end of
‘drawingsaid retainer inwardly of said. body to
said retainer and said body to normally retract
urge said shoulders spaced by ‘said spreader
said retainer and to cause said projection to en
againstithe outside of said base, a sleeve in ?xed
gage said base, said body being provided with in
relation to the inner end of said retainer and
struck internal projections inter-engaging adja
interposed between said spring and said retainer,
cent turns at one end of said spring and said re
said body provided'withat least one ill-struck
tainer having means provided with outward pro
internal projection inter-engaging adj acentpturns
jection-s inter-engagingadjacent turns at the op i75 "at one-end of said spring ‘and saidsleeve being
2,410,664
7
8
provided with at least one optward projection
equally spaced in-struck internal projections
engaging adjacent turns at the opposite and of
said spring, whereby to lock said spring to both
said body and said retainer.
8. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped housing
inter-engaging adjacent turns at one end of said
spring and said sleeve being provided with adja
cent apertures and intervening connecting straps
having a base provided with a central bore, a
projections inter-engaging adjacent turns at the
opposite end of said spring, whereby to lock said
retainer slidable through said bore and having at
least one lateral projection at the outer end
thereof, a cap secured to the inner end of said
retainer, a sleeve in fixed relation to and having
a ?ange adjacent to said cap, a coil spring encir
cling said retainer having one end engaging said
?ange and having its other end engaging said
body to retract said retainer and to cause said
projection to engage the outside of said base, said
body being provided with at least one inward
projection inter-engaging adjacent turns at one
end of said spring and said sleeve being provided
with at least one outward projection inter-en
folded back upon themselves to provide outward
spring to both said body and said retainer.
12. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped housing
having a base provided with a central bore, a
retainer slidable through said bore and having a
pair of resilient legs provided with shoulders at
the outer ends thereof, a spreader resting against
the inside of said base and having a portion inter
posed between said legs, a cap having an inwardly
?aring rim and secured to the inner end of said
retainer, a sleeve having a ?ange at one end ter
minating in an outwardly ?aring rim engaging
the rim of said cap, a coil spring encircling said
gaging adjacent turns at the'opposite end of said 20 retainer and interposed between said ?ange and
spring whereby to lock said spring to both said
housing and arranged to maintain said spreader
body and said retainer.
in bearing engagement with said base, said spring
9. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped housing
drawing said retainer inwardly of said body to
having a base provided with a central bore, a
urge said shoulders spaced by said spreader into
retainer slidable through said bore and having
at least one lateral projection at the outer end
thereof, a, cap having an inwardly ?aring rim
and secured to the inner end of said retainer, a
sleeve having a ?ange at one end terminating‘ in
an outwardly ?aring rim engaging the rim of said ,
cap, a coil spring encircling ‘said retainer and
clamping engagement with the outside of said
base.
'
~13. A device for temporarily clamping together
perforated‘ sheets in superposed relation com
prising a body having a sheet engaging base pro
vided with an opening, a sleeve movable relative
to said body, a retainer locked in said sleeve for
interposed between said ?ange and said body to
movement therewith, said retainer carrying
retract said retainer and to cause said projection
means on one end projecting through said open
to engage the'outside of said base, said body
ing adapted for engagement against the under
being provided with at least one inward projec
side or" the sheets being clamped, a spreader for
tion inter-engaging adjacent turns at one end of
said retainer resting on the inner face of said
said spring and said sleeve being provided with
base, and a spring having one end resting on said
at least one outward projection inter-engaging
spreader and its other end locked to said sleeve
adjacent helices at the opposite end of said
for drawing said sleeve and retainer inwardly of
spring, whereby to lock said spring to both said 40 said body to urge said one end of the retainer
into sheet clamping engagement.
body and said retainer.
10. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped housing
14. A device for temporarily clamping together
perforated sheets in superposed relation compris
having a base provided with a central bore, a
ing a body having a sheet engaging base provided
retainer slidable through said bore and having at
least one lateral projection at the outer end
with an opening, a hollow sleeve movable rela
tive to said body and having a head on one end
thereof, a cap secured to ‘the inner end of said
retainer, a sleeve in positive connection with said
thereof, a retainer locked in said sleeve for move
cap and having a ?ange adjacent to said cap, a
ment therewith, said retainer including a pair
coil spring encircling said retainer and interposed
of legs projecting through said opening and
between said ?ange and said body to retract said ,
formed with means adapted for engagement
retainer and to cause said projection to engage
against the underside of the sheets being
the outside of said base, said body being provided
clamped, a spreader for said legs, a spring inter
with at least one in-struck projection inter
posed between the head of said sleeve and said
engaging adjacent turns at one end of said spring
spreader for drawing said sleeve and retainer in
and said sleeve having adjacent apertures and at -;
wardly of said body to urge the means on said
legs spaced by said spreader into sheet clamp
least one connecting strap therebetween folded
back upon itself to provide an outward projection
ing engagement, and means on said sleeve and
inter-engaging adjacent turns at the opposite
body for locking said spring to limit its move
end of said spring, whereby to lock said spring to
ment in one direction.
both said body and said retainer.
15. A device for temporarily clamping together
11. In a clamp device, a cup-shaped housing
perforated sheets in superposed relation compris
ing a body having a sheet engaging base pro
having a base provided with a central bore, a
retainer slidable through said bore having a pair
vided with an opening, a sleeve movable relative
to said body, a retainer locked in said sleeve for
of resilient legs provided with shoulders at the
outer ends thereof, a spreader resting against the
movement therewith, said retainer including
means adapted for engagement against the un
inside of said base and having a portion inter
derside of the sheets being clamped, a spring sur
posed between said legs, a cap secured to the
rounding said sleeve and functioning to press
inner end of said retainer, a sleeve in positive
connection with said cap and having a ?ange
said sleeve and retainer inwardly of said body to
adjacent to said cap, a coil spring encircling said
urge the means on said retainer into sheet clamp
retainer having one end engaging said ?ange and
ing engagement, and means on said sleeve and
arranged to maintain said spreader in bearing
body for locking said spring to limit its move
ment in one direction.
7
engagement with said base, said sleeve being
interposed between said retainer and said spring,
said body being provided with a plurality of 75
MARTIN T. LAWLOR.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
786 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа