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Nov. 5,1946.
G. w. LECK
Filed June 14, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
l l l li
' NOV. 5, 1946.
G_ w_ LECK,
Filed June 14, 1941
s Sheets-Sheef 5
L, /28
d-c‘. Harm/6
m; 7965
Z SnveFtor
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
‘ George W. Leek, Collingswood, N. J ., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
‘ ~ Delaware
1 Application J ime 14, 1941, Serial No. 398,057
3 Claims. (01. 250-_11)
' vThis invention relates to scanning devices and
particularly to improvements in devices for Vary
in'g-f the direction of a beam of energy from a pulse
echoisystem and for directing in synchronism
therewith the scanning beam of a cathode ray
connect the gear shaft 25 with a potentiometer
arm 21 so that the potentiometer armv oscillates
in synchronism' with the antenna system 5; , The
output leads from the potentiometer 29 are con
nected to the horizontal de?ecting electrodes of
a cathode ray tube 3i.
Pulse echo systems are usedto detect'objects
The antenna system 5 is oscillated about‘ the
and to indicate the'direction and distance of the
yoke pivots by an eccentric 33 which is driven" in.
object. In such systems a directive antenna is
the following manner: A ?rst bevel gear 35 is
generally used for the pulse transmission and a 10 connected to the motor shaft l3 and is arranged
non-directive antenna may serve for reception
to engage a second bevel gear 31 which is mounted
or ,vice versa, or directive antennas may be used
on a stub shaft 39. A cam M is secured to the
forboth ‘transmission and reception.
shaft 39 and is arranged to engage the inside sur
While separate antennas may be used, the in
face of an aperture‘in a'connecting rod vI33, The
stant invention is described by referring to a 15 connecting rod 43 is pivotally vconnected to a
single directive antenna which may be used ‘for
member 45 ‘which terminates in the antenna ’
both‘ transmissionand reception. {Such an an
The eccentric 33 is also connecte'd’to a
tenna system is described in the copending ‘ap
potentiometer arm ‘41. The potentiometer arm
plication Serial No. 184,354, ?led January 11, 1938,
is arranged to oscillate in synchronism with the
by Wolff and Herschberger, for Signaling system. 20 antenna system as'it moves'about its horizontal One of the objects of the instantinvention is
axis on the yoke. The output of thev potentiome
to'provide improved means for'scanning a region
ter 48 is applied to the vertical deflecting elec-v
by a beam of pulse energy. Another object is to
provide iniprovedmeans for moving a beam of
pulse energy andja cathode ray beam in syn
chronism. .Another object .is'to provide means
‘for directing a beam‘ of pulses throughout a
conical region and for synchronously directing
a cathode ray beam in‘ a helical pattern;
trodes of the cathode ray tube 3i.v
v -' ‘' ~
‘The antennasystem is connected by} a‘ trans
mission line llllto a' pulse transmitter Friend-to
a pulse'receiver '53. ‘ Theoutp'ut of the pulse're
ceiver is applied tothe control electrodes ofthe
cathode ray tube 3! so that received signals may
brightenor dim the cathode ray trace.' ~ The trace
' The invention will be described by referring to ~30 is moved horizontallyfin synchronism with the
the accompanying drawings in which Figures 1
and‘ 2 are front and side views, respectively, of
one embodiment of the invention; Figure 2a, is
a ‘fragmentary sectional View along the line
IId-Ha; Figure 3 is a sectional view of another
embodiment of the ' invention; Figure 4 is a
schematic diagram of a‘mo'di?cation for conical
scanning; and Figure 5 is‘a circuit diagram of a
oscillations of the antennasystem about ‘its ver-;
tical axis. The trace is moved‘vertically in syn
chronism with'the oscillations'oi the antenna
system about its’horizontal axis. _ The ratiolof
' horizontal toverticaloscillations is dete'rminedby
the several gear ratios.
_ -
The cathode ray screen may be-jprovidediwith
a'suitable calibration so that'the azimuth and
elevational angles at which'an' echo pulse‘ is "ob
modi?cation of Figure '4. Similiar reference
characters'are applied to similar elements in'the 40 served may be indicated.’ ‘From the nature of
the antenna movements, it follows that the‘ direc
: ‘Referring to Figs. 1,v 2 and 2a,_ a motor vl is
mounted‘ on 'a base-3 which supports a directive
antenna system .5.‘ The. antenna system ‘is
pivotally mounted in a yoke T. The yoke is oscil
latably'mounted on a-hollow bearing member 9.
The." oscillations .of the lyokeeare produced by
means of a driving gear H which is securedtoa
, tive beam will explore a substantially pyramidal
form. ' The cathode ‘ray trace
the base of the pyramid‘) I
will correspond to
-_In some ‘installations it may-be-desirable-to
explore a conical region. ~-‘One"suitable arrange
ment for scanning conically is shown in Fig-‘3;
In'this arrangement the antenna-system: (Si (is
shaft. l3 ‘extending from the motor I through
mounted on a cylindrical member 63 which-liis
the hollowbearing member 9. The driving gear .50 journalled in bearings 65, B1. The antenna sys-'
engages ‘a driven, gear l5.. A, pair of links. I1,
tem is rotated by a motor 69 which may be con
19 or a cam slot or the like, connect the driven
nected by a belt, chain drive 1!,» gearing or?'the
gearto-the yoke so that as the gear rotates the
like, to the cylinder 63. A ringgear '13 is ‘secured
yoke gis?loscillated through the desired angle‘: A
to the" base. ‘l51which supports- a. synchronous
second set.“ of; link members v21,: 23 .lare =usedto < 55 motorc69 and‘bearings 65, ~61. , Alpinion .geariifll',
mounted on the cylinder 63, engages the ring
gear ‘I3. A pair of cranks ‘I9 are connected to
the pinion gear shaft on either side of the bear
ings 8| therefor. The cranks ‘I9 are connected
by links 83 to the antenna system 6|.
The synchronous motion of the cathode ray is
effected by'therollowing means: The currents
applied to the synchronous motor 5% are also
applied to a phase splitter 85 and hence to the
cathode ray de?ecting electrodes of the cathode
ray tube 81 to produce a circular trace. The
radius of the trace is controlled by deriving biasing
voltages from a potentiometer 89 which is oper
crease because of the sawtooth wave form of the
generator exciting voltage, the motors I09 pro
duce larger and larger movements and since the
movements are preferably at 120° intervals in
space and in time, the axis I26 of the antenna I28
traces a helical pattern and the beam of pulses
from the antenna scan a conicalor hemispheri
cal region. The three phase currents may be ap
plied to a three coil deflecting system I39 ar
i 10 ranged around the cathode ray indicator I32 to
rotate the cathode ray in synchronism with the
rotations of the antenna, and the sawtooth volt
ages may be applied to produce radial movements.
The cathode ray will trace a helical pattern on
ated in synchronism with the, radialgmovements
of the antenna system. The ‘potentiometer '89» 15 the fluorescent screen of the indicator, which
may be provided with a suitable calibrated scale
is operated as follows: A link Si is used to connect
the antenna system to the potentiometer arm93.
As the antenna system moves on its pivotal
mounting 95, the arm 93 will move to vary-the
potentiometer output voltage, which is applied
to a radial de?ecting electrode 92 of the cathode
ray tube 81.
It should be understood that as the antenna
I34 to indicate the position of the re?ecting ob
iect with respect to predetermined coordinates.
Instead of using polarized magnetic armatures
in the solenoid motors I09 and applying sawtooth
exciting voltages to the three phase generator,
the movable motor members III may consist of
a second solenoid I I2 to which the sawtooth volt
ages from the potentiometer I23 may be applied,
system is rotated about the axis 91 of the cylinder
63, the gear ‘I? through the movements of the 25 as shown in Fig. 5. Under these circumstances,
the three phase currents are applied to the?xed
crank ‘I9 and connection lever 63,‘ slowly tilts
windings and the direct currents are appliedto
the antenna system about its axis. 95. Thus the
the movable windings, or vice versa, so that the
beam of- pulse energy from the antenna traverses
antennas will be de?ected by variable amounts
a conical region, or expressed another way, the
axis of the beam traverses a. spiralpath. The 30 so that its axis follows a helical path as before.
In either arrangement the connecting rods may
cathode ray also traverses a spiral path and it
be provided with biasing springs I25 to maintain
moves in synchronism with the beam from the
The ratioof the twomovements which make
the zero or central position of the antenna, which
has been omitted to avoid complicating the dia
used to scan throughout the azimuth as willqbe
tinuously scanned and re?ections'from an air
up the conical scanningby means of the radio 35 gram.
Thus the invention has been described as an
beam is determined by the. ratio of the ring gear
improved means for scanning a region by means
‘I3 to the pinion gear 11. This ratio maybe se
of a beam of pulses. A cathode ray is moved
lected to obtain the required de?nition of scan
in synchronism with the scanning beam. Re
ning. While the arrangement has been shown
for scanning a conical region in which the axis 40 ceived pulse echoes are applied to modulate or
vary the cathode ray so that an object will be
of the cone lies between the horizon, and the
indicated according to predetermined coordinates
zenith and including a de?nite azimuth angle,
on‘ the vcathode. ray tube screen. Inthis manner
it should be understood thatbymounting the
the sky from the horizon upwardly may be con
base ‘I5 in a vertical plane the device may be
shown in a modi?cation. of the invention.
A modi?cation of the foregoing arrangement
is shown in Fig. 4 in which an electromechani
cal drive is substituted for the mechanical sys
tem of:Fig. 3. In the modi?ed arrangement the
directive antenna system IIII is mounted in va'ball
and socket or other universal joint IIIB which is
supported by a post I05 extending from the-base
member III‘I. Three solenoid type motors I99 are
preferably mounted at 120g intervals. The motors
each include a polarized magnetic armature or
movable member III.
a The movable members III are connected ,by
suitablelinks II 3 tolbearings »I I5 on the .outer
portion of the antenna re?ector or other antenna
member. The ?eld coils of they-motors are. ener
gized by a-three phase alternator'I I‘I,>_~w.hich is
driven bya motor H9. The shaft-k200i the al
ternator, or the driving motor II9,iis connected
through suitable gearing IIZI' to .arheostat I23. in '
the generator exciter circuit I24. The generator
craftor surface vessel coming over the horizon
will'indicate the azimuth and elevationof the
I claim as my invention:
1. A pulse echo scanning device including a
directive antenna for radiating a beam of pulses
and for receiving reflected pulses returning sub
stantially along said beam, means for moving
said antenna so that said beam traces a spiral
ina plane normal to said beam so thatsaid beam
scans a conical region, a receiver connected to
said antenna and responsive to said re?ected
pulses, a cathode-rayindicator including ray de
?ecting and ray varying elements, means forvde
riving from said antenna movements currents.
corresponding to said spiral, meansior applying
said currents to said ray de?ecting elementssc
that-said ray is synchronously moved inayspiral
pathgcorresponding tothe said beamspiral, and
means: for.v applying to said ray varying element
currents deriving from said receiverand corre
sponding to'said re?ected; pulses to indicate-the
position of a pulse. reflecting object.
2..A;pulsev echo scanning deviceincludingin
.follows, for example, a sawtooth pattern. The
motors I09 are successively energizedby the three 70 combination,:.a directive antenna'for radiatinga
beam .of pulses and for receiving echo pulses ‘from
phase currentsso that theantenna system under
objects in saidbeam, av rotatable support forsaid
goes‘ a circular. rockingzmovement, ofjan amplitude
antenna,.means for pivotally mounting said an
varying according tor-the generator. output, The
output is thus varied according to any desired
pattern so that the three phase output voltage
resulting . antenna beam deflections follow a spiral
That. is, . as the applied: voltages .in
tenna on said- support, means forrotating :said
L75 support, aring. gear and a. pinion gear. cooperate
ing with said rotatable support so that said pinion
3. A radio beam scanning device including an
gear is rotated as said support is rotated, a crank
antenna system for establishing a sharply de
member operated by said pinion gear, a link mem
?ned beam, a rotatable support including a piv
ber connecting said crank and said antenna for
otal mounting for said antenna system, means
moving said antenna back and forth on said piv 5 for rotating said support, a ring gear and a pinion
otal mounting as said antenna support is ro
gear cooperating with said rotatable support so
tated, the movements of said support and said
that said pinion gear is rotated as said support
antenna directing said beam of pulses in a spiral
is rotated, a crank member operated by said
path, a receiver connected to said antenna and
pinion gear, and a link member connecting said
responsive to said echo pulses, a cathode ray
crank and said antenna system for moving said
indicator connected to said receiver for indi
antenna system back and forth on said pivotal
cating said echo pulses, and means responsive
mounting as said antenna support is rotated.
to said antenna support and antenna movements
for synchronously moving said cathode ray along
a path corresponding to said spiral.
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