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'Novl5, 1946._
|_. H. MANDERSTAM' ETAL
2,410,579
APPARATUS FOR USE IN THE HYDROGENATION OF OILS _
Filed March 19, 1943
s Sheets-‘Sheet 1
30
Inventors,
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1,4.
5 M¢ J. madlttorney.
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_
Nov. 5, 1946.
r L. H. MANDERSTAM ET AL'
APPARATUS FOR USE IN
.
2,410,670
HYDROGENATION OF OILS
Filed March 19, 1945
s Sheets-Sheet 2
-
Nov, 5, 1946..
‘
_1_. H. MANDERSTAM ET AL
2,410,670
- APPARATUS FOR USE IN THE HYDROGEAIATION 0F OILS
Filed March 19, 1943 A
_
'
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
2,410,670
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
2,410,670 ‘
APPARATUS FOR USE" IN: THE
HYDROGENATION OF OILS
Leopold Herman Manderstam-and Lionel ~William
Warner, London, England
Application March 19, 1943, Serial No. 479,810
In Great Britain March 20, 1942
9 Claims.
1
.
(Cl. 23—288)
»
This invention relates to apparatus for use in
the hydrogenation of oils such as vegetable, ani
mal, animal-marine and ?sh oils.~
The main object of the present invention is to
provide hydrogenation apparatus by which a
batch of oil can be treated uniformly. The oil
which has been treated may be withdrawn and
passed to a deodoriser after being ?ltered, without
the necessity of first cooling the oil and whilst
2
at its lower end thechamber I is closed by a bot
tom 5. '
Through the. bottom 5, preferably centrally,
passes a supply pipe 6, controlled by a valve 1, for
the admission of hydrogen under pressure and
the oil to be treated, which is also supplied under
pressure.
The supply pipe 6 leads through a boss=50, in
the bottom 5, and a‘ lower plate 5i secured to a
preventing. access of air to the latter.
10 chamber 8 of which the upper end is formed as
A further object of the present invention is the
a socket 52. In the socket 52v is mounted a Valve‘
provision of a hydrogenation apparatus in which
body 9 secured to the: lower end of a shaft l0
catalysts can be replaced conveniently after ex
mounted axially of the hydrogenation chamber I.
haustion by‘ freshor re-activated catalysts.
The shaft l0 passes through the cover 3 and
According to’the‘present'invention an appara 15 through a bracket ll mounted on the cover. 3.
tus ior1the hydrogenation of oils, .such as vege
Near its upper end the shaft I0 is provided with.
table, animal, animal-marine or ?sh oils, is pro
a boss [2, freely rotatable thereon, having a cam
vided with a. hydrogenation‘ chamber in which
surface forco-operating with a cam surface on a
are mounted in parallel a number of tubes for
boss I 3 mounted on the bracket l I. The arrange
the passage of the oil to be‘ hydrogenated, each 20 ment of the camsurfaces on the bosses l2, I3 is
tube being adapted to receive a catalyst, the tubes
being arranged substantially parallel to the longi
such that inone position of the boss l2 relatively
to the boss 53 the valve socket 9 is slightly raised,
tudinal axis of the chamber, the chamber being
whilst in another position the valve socket 9v en
provided with a‘ cover havingatleast-one closable
gages-with its seat.
opening thereinfor gaining access to the tubes‘ 25
For this purpose of turning the boss. [fit is
for the'removal and replacement of the catalyst.
provided with an operating lever Iii.
The tubes are preferablymounted so‘ as to be
The cover 3 is provided with eccentrically posi
capable of being» rotated about the longitudinal
axis of the chamber in order to bring the tubes
successively into register with the opening or
openings provided eccentrically in they cover.
The tubes are preferably supported by a carrier
rotatably mounted on an axial shaft and the
lower ends of the tubescommunicate with a ro
tarydistributing chamber, at the lower end of the
hydrogenation chamber, to which hydrogen and
theoil to betreated are supplied.
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,
Suitable means are provided for circulating the»
oil to betreated one or more times through the
apparatus.
,
The invention will now be described With refer
ence to the accompanying drawings, showing-one‘
example of construction of a hydrogenation
chamber,
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 shows a sectional elevation,
Fig. 2 shows a section‘ on the line 11-11 of Fig. 1,
Fig. 3 is plan of Fig. 1 with the hand wheel and
supporting bracket removed, and
Fig. 4 is a section on the line IV-IV.of Fig. 1.
The apparatus, for the hydrogenation of oils,
shown inthe drawings, consists of a vertical cylin
drical chamber I provided at itsupper end with
an. outwardly extending ?ange 2sto which a cover
tioned holes l5, [6 closed by covers ll, l8.
A pressure guage I9 is mounted on thecover 3
whilst the cover is also provided with a suitable
valve-controlled vent 20 through which‘ hydrogen
can be allowed to escape from the hydrogenation
- chamber, preferably into a recovery apparatus
for re-use, should it exceed a predetermined
35 pressure.
On the shaft in is mounted‘ a rotatable carrier
2| which is held in the required‘ position on the
shaft 10 by collars 22..
In the carrier are mounted twosets of uni
formly spaced slightly inclined tubes 23, 24' of
which the upper ends are spaced the same dis
tance, from the central axis of the ‘hydrogenation
chamber I as the centres of the holes l5, I6 in- the
cover 3 from the centre of the latter.
The tubes 23, 24 are each adapted to receive any
suitablesolid metal catalyst such as'nickel, nickel
alloys or aluminum, arranged in any suitable
manner and preferably contained'inia- removable
container so that it can be withdrawn through
the eccentric holes I5, IS in the‘cover 3 in the
manner hereinafter described; the lower ends of
the tubes 23, 24" are connected to the- valve
- socket 9.
The upper ends of the tubes 23; “are spaced
3. is suitably ‘secured for "example. by bolts. 4 and 55.. a-suitable distance from the cover 3 so as to’ allow
2,410,670
3
4
possible to circulate the oil through the tubes 2?»
oil passing out of the upper ends of the tubes 23,
24 to over?ow into the hydrogenation chamber I‘.
The hydrogenation chamber I is heated in any
or 24 or through both sets of tubes 23 and 24.
suitable manner by an internal heater, for ex
ample an electrical heater or a steam coil 25 pref
required position by the handwheel 3|. In order
to enable this operation to be performed the lever
For this purpose the shaft Ill is turned into the
14 is operated to bring the cam surfaces of the
bosses l2, I3 into such a position that the valve
socket 9 is raised from its seating thus enabling
the shaft Hi to be turned.
The liquid level in the hydrogenation chamber 1
The arrangement of the chamber 8 is shown
may be inspected through inspection glasses 26. 10
in Figs. 1 and 4. The valve body 9 is provided
The hydrogenation chamber I may also be ?tted I
with a plurality of passages 33', 33 with which the
with a thermometer,
tubes 23, 2t communicate respectively. The pas~
In the bottom 5 are provided a valve-controlled
sages 33', 33 are adapted to co-operate respec
outlet pipe 26’ and a valve-controlled sampling
tively with ducts 34, 35 in the chamber 8. The
tube 21.
>
‘
ducts 34, 35 preferably lead into grooves 36, 31
A suitable pump 28 has its suction end con
erably controlled by a thermostat.
'A cooling coil 32 may also be provided if re
quired.
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'
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in the upper face of the chamber 8 so as to facili
nected to the outlet pipe 26' and its delivery end '
tate a clear passage for oil and hydrogen between
is connected to the supply pipe 5, in advance of
the ducts 34, 35 and the passages 32, 33 even
‘the hydrogen inlet 29, for circulating oil one or
more times through the apparatus above de 20 when these are not in complete register.
The ducts 34, 35 open into a space 3'!’ in the
scribed until su?iciently hydrogenated.
distributing chamber 8 into which oil and hydro
When the oil has been sufficiently hydrogenated
gen are supplied by the pipe 6.
the delivery end of the pump is disconnected ‘from
The upper ends of the tubes 23, 24 may be
the supply pipe 6 and discharges the treated oils
from the apparatus through the pipe 30. The 25 closed in any suitable manner for example by
plugs 49 and at a short distance below their closed
treated oil may be passed without cooling, to a
upper ends the tubes 23, 24 are provided with
outlet tubes 4! of which the outlet ends are lo
cated over a gutter or trough 42 arranged in the
ing'~- chamber 1 is ?rst ?lled with oil which is
heated to the required temperature by the heater 30 interior of the chamber l. One or more pref
deodoriser, preferably after being ?ltered. ‘For the purpose of treating oil the hydrogenat
erable valve-controlled tapping points 43 may be
provided in the trough or gutter 42.
25. When the desired temperature is obtained
the heating is continued, whilst the pump 28 cir
culates the oil through the chamber 3, the valve
body 9, and the tubes 23, 24 containing the cata
lyst‘, whilst at the same time hydrogen is Sup
plied to the supply pipe 5.
The pressure of the pump 28 is sufficient to
force the oil up the tubes 23, 24 from which it
over?ows into the hydrogenation chamber l.
We claim:
1. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of
3: oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
tion chamber having a. bottom and a cover, of a
plurality of tubes, removable containers for a
catalyst, positioned one in each tube, said tubes
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber
' i The oil is circulated by the pump 28 until it 40
has been sufficiently and uniformly treated, which
is ascertained by withdrawing samples at inter—
vals at 21.
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Should it appear at any time that the catalyst
in one or more of the tubes 23, 24 has been ex
and being arranged substantially parallel to the
longitudinal axis of said chamber and having
their upper ends spaced from said cover, said
cover having a closablev opening therein, said
opening being positioned to permit access to said
45 tubes for removal and replacement of the catalyst
therein, means for supplying hydrogen and the
oil to be treated to the lower ends of said tubes,
a rotatable shaft mounted in said chamber along
rier 21 is rotated so as to bring the tubes 23, 24
the longitudinal axis of the latter, said shaft
successively into register with the eccentric open
ings l5, It so as to enable any desired catalyst to 50 carrying said tubes, and means for rotating said
shaft, the arrangement being such that by rotat
be withdrawn and replaced by fresh or re-acti
hausted, then before treating the next batch of
oil,’ the covers ii, iii are removed, and the car
ing the said shaft the said tubes are brought suc
’
cessively into register with said closable opening.
_When the exhausted catalysts have been re
2. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of
placed'the covers l1, 18 are again ?tted into the
eccentric holes I5, I6 and the apparatus is ready 55 oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
vated catalysts.
for treating a fresh batch.
-
' ‘Bymeans of the apparatus as: above described
a batch of oil can be hydrogenated substantially
uniformly throughout.
1
~The hydrogenation‘ apparatus as above de
scribed has a minimum ‘number-of parts and con
sequently the sources of leakage ‘are considerably
tion‘ chamber having a bottom and a cover, of a
plurality of tubes, removable containers for a
catalyst positioned one in each tube, said tubes
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber
and being arranged substantially parallel to the
longitudinal axis of said chamber’ and having
their upper ends spaced from, said cover, said
cover. having a closable opening therein, said
opening being positioned to permit access to said
During treatment the oil may be agitated in
any suitable manner. For example this agitation 65 tubes for removal and replacement of the cata
lyst therein, means for supplying hydrogen and
may be produced by placing into the hydrogena
the oil to be treated ‘to the lower ends of'said
tion chamber I, around the tubes, one or more
tubes, a rotatable shaft mounted in said chamber
apertured coils 30 to which hydrogen under pres
along the longitudinal axis of the latter, said
sure is supplied.
‘
The ‘shaft I0 is provided at its upper end with 70 shaft carrying said tubes, said tubes being ar
rangedin‘two sets, said sets of tubes being ar
a handwheel 31 for enabling it to be turned so as
ranged concentrically around said shaft, one set
to bring the tubes intoregister with the openings
being located at a shorter radius than the second
15, 16 in the cover 3 for enabling exhausted cata
set, said cover having a second closable opening
lysts to be replaced.
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V
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With the arrangement. as above describedit is 75 therein, and means for rotating said shaft, said
reduced.
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5
2,41'0570
6
openings being so positioned that by rotating the
one face thereof shaped to form a socket in which
shaft one set of tubes can be brought successively
said valve body is rotatably mounted, said valve
into register with one of said openings and the
body having a plurality of passages therein, one
second set of tubes can be brought successively
of said passages vbeing associated with each tube,
into register with the second opening.
5 said second chamber having a plurality of ducts
3. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of
in that face shaped to form a socket, said ducts
oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
being adapted to co-operate with said passages,
tion chamber having a bottom and a cover, of a
- plurality of tubes, removable containers for a
said ducts and passages being so arranged that
in one position of the valve body relatively to
catalyst positioned one in each tube, said tubes 10 the second chamber, one set of tubes communi
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber
cates with the ducts, in a second position of the
and being arranged substantially parallel to the
valve body the second set of tubes communicates
longitudinal axis of said chamber and having
with the ducts, and in a third position of the
their upper ends spaced from said cover, said
valve body both sets of tubes communicate with
cover having a closable opening therein, said 15 the ducts, and means for supplying hydrogen
opening being positioned to permit access to said
and oil to said second chamber.
>
tubes for removal and replacement of the catalyst
5. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of
therein, a rotatable shaft mounted in said cham
oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
ber along the longitudinal axis of the latter, said
tion chamber having a bottom and a cover, of
shaft carrying said tubes, said tubes being ar 20 a plurality ‘of tubes, removable containers ‘for a
ranged in two sets, said sets of tubes being ar
catalyst positioned one in each tube, said tubes
ranged concentrically around said shaft, one set
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber
being located at a shorter radius than the second
and being arranged substantially parallel to the
set, said cover having a second closable opening
longitudinal axis of said chamber and having
therein, means for rotating said shaft, said open
their upper 'ends spaced from said cover, said
ings being so positioned that by rotating the shaft
cover having a closable opening therein, said open
one set of tubes can be brought successively into
ing being positioned to permit access to said tubes
register with one of said openings and the second
for removal and replacement of the catalyst
set of tubes can be brought successively into
therein, a rotatable shaft mounted in said cham
register with the second opening, a valve body
ber along the longitudinal axis of the latter, said
mounted at the lower end of said shaft, the lower
shaft carrying said tubes, said tubes being ar
ends of said tubes being connected to said body,
ranged in two sets, said sets of tubes being ar~
and a valve seat structure in the lower end'of said
ranged concentrically around said shaft, one set
?rst mentioned chamber, said valve seat struc
being located at a shorter radius than the second
ture having one face thereof shaped to form a 35 set, said cover having a second closable opening
socket in which said valve body is rotatably
therein, means for rotating said shaft, said open
ings being so positioned that by roating the shaft
mounted and provided with a space below and
partitioned from said socket, said valve body hav
one set of tubes can be brought successively into
ing a plurality of passages therein, one of said
register with one of said openings and the second
passages being associated with each tube, ducts
set of tubes can be brought successively into regis
through said partition in said valve seat struc
ter with the second opening, a valve body mounted
ture leading from the space therein into said
at the lower end of said shaft, the lower ends of
socket and arranged to- coincide with said pas
said tubes being connected to said body, and a
sages on movement of said valve body and means
second chamber in the lower end of said ?rst
for supplying reactants to said space in said valve 45 mentioned chamber, said second chamber having
seat structure.
one face thereof shaped to form a socket in
4. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of
which said valve body is rotatably mounted, said
oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
valve body having a plurality of passages in that
tion chamber having a bottom and a cover,
face shaped to form a socket, one of said pas
of a plurality of tubes, removable containers for 50 sages being associated with each tube, said second
a catalyst positioned one in each tube, said tubes
chamber having a plurality of ducts therein, said
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber
ducts being adapted to co-operate with said pas
and being arranged substantially parallel to the
sages, said second chamber having grooves there
longitudinal aXis of said chamber and having their
in, said grooves leading to said ducts and serving
upper ends spaced from said cover, said cover 55 to provide a passage between said ducts and pas
having a closable opening therein, said opening
sages even when said ducts and passages are not
being positioned to permit access to said tubes
in complete register, and means for supplying
for removal and replacement of the catalyst
hydrogen and oil to said second chamber.
therein, a rotatable shaft mounted in said cham
6. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of
ber along the longitudinal axis of the latter, said
oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
shaft carrying said tubes, said tubes being ar
tion chamber having a bottom and a cover, of
ranged in two sets, said sets of tubes being ar
a plurality of tubes, removable containers for a
ranged concentrically around said shaft, one set
catalyst positioned one in each tube, said tubes
being located at a shorter radius than the second
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber
set, said cover having a second closable opening 65 and being arranged substantially parallel to the
therein, means for rotating said shaft, said open
longitudinal axis of said chamber and having
ings being so positioned that by rotating the shaft
their upper ends spaced from said cover, said
one set of tubes can be brought successively into
cover having a closable opening therein, said
register with one of said openings and the second
opening being positioned to permit access to said
set of tubes can be brought successively into regis 70 tubes for removal and replacement of the cat
ter with the second opening, a valve body mounted
alyst therein, means for supplying hydrogen and
at the lower end of said shaft, the lower ends of
the oil to be treated to the lower ends of said
said tubes being connected to said body, and a
tubes, a rotatable shaft mounted in said cham
second chamber in the lower end of said ?rst
ber along the longitudinal axis of the latter, said
mentioned chamber, said second chamber having
1.5
shaft carrying said tubes, a plurality of plugs
2,410,670
said tubes are brought successively into register
located one in the upper end of each tube, a
with said closable opening.
1
gutter located inside the upper end of said cham
9. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of
ber, a plurality of outlet tubes, one of said out
oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
let tubes extending from the upper end of each
tion chamber having a bottom and a cover, of
of said ?rst mentioned tubes and leading to said
a plurality of tubes, removable containers for a
gutter, and means for rotating said shaft, the
catalyst positioned one in each tube, said tubes
arrangement being such that by rotating the said
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber
shaft the said tubes are brought successively into
and being arranged substantially parallel to the .
register with said closable opening.
7. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of 10 longitudinal axis of said chamber and having
their upper ends spaced from said cover, said
oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
cover having a closable opening therein, said
tion chamber having a bottom and a cover, of
opening being positioned to permit access to said
a plurality of tubes, removable containers for a
tubes for removal and replacement of the cat
catalyst positioned one in each tube, said tubes
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber 15 alyst therein, a rotatable shaft mounted in said
chamber along the longitudinal axis of the lat
and being arranged substantially parallel to the
ter, said shaft carrying said tubes, said tubes
longitudinal axis of said chamber and having
being arranged in two sets, said sets of tubes
their upper ends spaced from said cover, said
being arranged concentrically around said shaft,
cover having a closable opening therein, said
one set being located at a shorter radius than
opening being positioned to permit access to said
the second set, said cover having a second clos
tubes for removal and replacement of the cat
able opening therein, means for rotating said
alyst therein, means for supplying hydrogen and
shaft, said openings being so positioned that by
the oil to be treated to the lower ends of said
tubes, a rotatable shaft mounted in said cham
rotating the shaft one set of tubes can be brought
ber along the longitudinal axis of the latter, said 25 successively into register with one of said open
ings and the second set of tubes can be brought
shaft carrying said tubes, heat exchange means
successively into register with the second open
in said chamber, and means for rotating said
ing, a valve body mounted at the lower end of
shaft, the arrangement being such that by rotat
said shaft, the lower ends of said tubes being
ing the said shaft the said tubes are brought
sucessively into register with said closable open 30 connected to said body, and a valve seat struc
ture in the lower end of said first mentioned
chamber, said valve seat structure having one
face thereof shaped to form a socket in which
said valve body is rotatably mounted and pro
tion chamber having a bottom and a cover, of a
plurality of tubes, removable containers for a 35 vided with a space below and partitioned from
said socket, said valve body having a plurality
catalyst positioned one in each tube, said tubes
of passages therein, one of said passages being
being arranged in parallel inside said chamber
associated with each tube, ducts through said
and being arranged substantially parallel to the
partition in said valve seat structure leading from
longitudinal axis of said chamber and having 40 the space therein into said socket and arranged
their upper ends spaced from said cover, said
to coincide with said passages on movement of
cover having a closable opening therein, said
said valve body and means for supplying re
opening being positioned to permit access to said
actants to said space in said valve seat structure,
tubes for removal and replacement of the cat
the means for rotating the shaft comprising a
alyst therein, means for supplying hydrogen and 45 hand wheel keyed to the shaft, and a ?xed cam
the oil to be treated to the lower ends of said
and a rotatable cam, said movable cam in one
position relatively to the ?xed cam raising said
tubes, a rotatable shaft mounted in said cham
valve body in said socket and in a second posi
ber along the longitudinal axis of the latter, said
tion allowing said valve body to seat in said
shaft carrying said tubes, means for circulating
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the oil from the chamber through the tubes, and 50 socket.
LEOPOLD HERMAN MANDERSTAM.
means for rotating said shaft, the arrangement
LIONEL WILLIAM WARNER.
being such that by rotating the said shaft the
ing.
‘
8. In an apparatus for the hydrogenation of
oils, the combination with a vertical hydrogena
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