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Nw s, was.
M_ B, SCHUL-rz
Filed June 3. 1942
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Patented Nov. 5, i946
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rnnssnn‘e serveren VALVE
Harold B. Schultz, South Bend, llnd., assigner to
Bendix Aviation Corporation, South Bend,
End., a corporation of Delaware
Application .lune 3, 1942, Serial No. 445,629
2 Claims. (Cl. 137-153)
This invention relates generally to accumula
tor systems for aircraft and particularly to im
provements in regulating or unloading valves
therefor. In modern aircraft which employ ac
cumulators for maintaining ñuid under pressure
« for operating various mechanisms such as land
ing gears and wing flaps it is desirable that the
pressure in such a system be kept within rather
The accumulator system of Figure 1 comprises
a reservoir lil connected by a conduit l2 to a
Á pump
I fi which delivers duid under pressure
through conduits I6 past a check valve i8 to> an
accumulator 20. A conduit 22 branches from
conduit i6 and fluid is supplied by the pump Ml
vthrough the conduit 22 and past a check valve
2B to a port 25 of a regulator valve 26 which` com
definite limits, for example, between 800 and 1000
prises a part of this invention.
pounds per square inch. .In such systems, it is 10
Accumulator 2U is connected to various hy
not feasible to start and stop >a pump to main
ta‘m the desired pressures, since such pumps may
be operated by some sort of power take~oif from
. an airplane engine, and since lt is not feasible to
maintain extra control meansfor‘connecting and
disconnecting the pump from the power take-olf.
It is generally desirable tooperate such an ac
cumulator by having the pump operate con
stantly, and to‘ provide means for unloading the
draulically operated devices through|a conduit 28
and is connected also to another port 3l of the
valve 26 through a conduit 363. A conduit 32
Y connects the valve 26 to the reservoir'lß.
The operating parts of the valve 26 are housed
- within a body made up of two parts, body mem-lbers 313 and 36 which are held together by means
of capscrews 33 or the like. A bore ¿il in body
member 35i is coaxial with a bore e2 in the body
pump back into the reservoir. Such a system in 2@ member 36 and parallel thereto and spaced, there
sures that the pump is operating against very
from is a bore di in member Sil coaxial with a
small head when the accumulator in >the system
bore «i6 in member 36.
has attained a desired pressure, so that power
A-bore 50 intersects bore il@ and bore et, and `
loss and pump wear are reduced ‘to a minimum.
communicates port 25 with bores lill and lill.
It is an object of this invention to provide a 25 Conduit 32 is open to the bore M at port 52.
regulator or unloading valve in such a system
-Within the bore 4B is a valve member 5t which
which will operate within close limits, insuring ' also extends into »bore d2, and which is normally
that the accumulator system is maintained with
_biased to the right by a spring 56. The valve
in a close range of pressures.
member' 5d is reduced as at 58, is shouldered as
Another object of this invention is to provide 30 at 59, and has a tapered face'ôêl. When valve 5t
such a valve which, when in the open position,
is urged to the left, as will be explained later, it
.will have very little resistance to -iiuid flow, so
forms a seal with a liner 62 within the bore 40.
that the head against which the pump must op
.At such times the reduced portion 58 of the Valve
erate is kept to a minimum. .
5ft will intersect the bore 59. A passage |018 com
Still another object is to provide such a valve 35 municates one end of the bore 40 with the bore 50.
for an accumulator system which will make it
Within bore 46 is a liner 68 having a bore 66
unnecessary to keep within close limits the con
which istapered at B8 to form a seat `for a ball
centricity or alignment of various of the valve
lli. Ball lil is urged to the left by a spring 'l2
' which is retained by a slotted and threaded mem
A still further object is to provide a regulator- 40 ber 'lâ which has an axial opening T6 therein to -
or unloading valve for such a system which will
permit dow of fluid. A passage .l02 _communi
be light in weight and simple to manufacture.
Still further objects and desirable features will-
cates bore 46 with bore' i12.
Within the bore de is a plunger 'I8 having a
be apparent from a study of the description which « -conical face 8G which is seated on a liner 82.
follows, in which:
The plunger 78 is ñtted with a hollow valve mem
Figure 1 shows an accumulator system for'air
craft having therein a valve according to the pres
ber 84 having a tapered face 86 which is seated
at an oriiìce 88 in the plunger i8. 'I‘he hollow
ent -invention, the valve being shown in longitu
valve member 8d engages an extended shank 9u
dinal section, certain parts thereof being shown of a ?lutedmem-ber 92 positioned between the
in elevation;- and
50 ball l0 and the hollow valve member 85. The
Figure 2 shows an alternate embodiment Aof
hollow valve member 8è is drilled as at 85 to in- ‘
the valve made according to the present inven
tersect a bore 83 in the valve member 8€, and is
tion, only that portion which differs from the pre
normally urged to the right by a spring 9d;
ferred embodiment shown in Figure _1 being
Spring 94 is enclosed Within the bore Mi by a
x55 hollow cap bolt. l96, and is load-adjusted by means
of a threaded member having a head 99 bearing
against the spring >94. Member -98 is threaded
in the cap bolt96, and is locked into position by
ferentlal pressure across member 92, causing ball
10 to snap to its seat 68 in liner 64.
-The pressure in` the chamber behind the
plunger 18 will now be dissipated through the
opening 85 until it is equal to the pressure in the
reservoir I0. The pressure in the bore 46 will
now be communicated through the passage |02
anut |00.
An alternate embodiment of the valve `26 of.
Figure 1 is shown in Figure 2. Essentially, the
valve of Figure 2 differs only from the valve of
Figure 1 in that the ball valve 'I0 is replaced «by
tothe bore 42 where it acts over the area of bore
40 onvalve member 54, tending to force valve
. a DODpet-type valve.
The regulating or unloading valve of Figure 2 10 member 54 to the left. As soon as member 54
has its operating parts contained within two body
moves to the left to a point where the constricted
members 200 and 202 which are secured together
portion 58 lies across bore 50, fluid under pressure
byv any suitable means, which are not shown.
from pump I4 will be admitted to bore 50, pas
'Within member 200 is a bore 204 which is coaxial
sage |04, and bore 40. Valve member 54 will
with a bore 206 in member 202. Another bore 15 move to the left until the force causedlby any
208 in body member 200 is coaxial with a bore 2 I0
pressure in bore 50, passage |04, and the'chamber
in body member 202. Each pair of coaxial bores
behind valve member 54 in body member 34 plus
may be parallel to and spaced from the other pair
the force of spring 56 balances the-opposing force
of coaxial bores in the manner shown.
of accumulator pressure in bore 42 against valve
Within _bore 206 is a hollow plunger 2 | 2, having 20 member 54. ,
' therein a hollow cylindrical valve member 2M"
The resultant pressure in bore 50 acting on
which has a tapered portion 2|6 extending into
face 80 of plunger 18, being Opposed only- by
an oriñce 2 | 3 in plunger 2l2.
Hollow valve mem- . ‘ reservoir pressure in the chamber behind plunger
ber 2 I4 is drilled as at 220, to intersect the tapered
"I8, will cause the plunger 'I8 to be unseated, re
portion 2|6 and to connect the interior of the 25 lieving pressure in bore 50 to reservoir I0, and
member 2|4 with the opening 2|3 and the bore
causing face 6u of valve member 54 to snap to
its seat on liner 62. The fluid, which is nowby
A poppet 222 has a stem 2 |8 which is slotted as
passed. from pump I4, takes a path past the nar
at 224, and which slides freely in the bore 204,
row portion -58 of the valve member 54 through
and is seated on valve seat 226. The movement 30 bore 50, past unseated plunger 'I8 out the port
of poppet 222 to the right is restricted by a keeper
52, and into the reservoir I0. Thus the pump I4 `
228 inserted in the port 230 which is connected
is operating under no load except for very small
to the accumulator 20 through conduit 30.
head losses of the system.
Bores 208 and 2I0 contain a valve member 232
However, when the hydraulic devices, which
which is slidable in bore 2I0 and which has a
are operated by the fluid under pressure in the
face 234 which» may be seated upon a seat 236 in
accumulator 20, are in use the pressurein the
the housing 202. The construction shown is the
system may drop below a desired predetermined
equivalent of members 54 shown in .Figure l, the
amount. At such time the valve 26 will close the
valve 232 being urged to the right .by a spring
pump I4 to the reservoir I0, and will cause the
which isnot shown. A passage 238 connects bore 40 pump I4 to deliver ñuid to the accumulator 20
208 withport 230.-
from the reservoir I0.
The operation of the system shown in Figure 1
is as follows.
The operation of «the -
valve 26 to cause the pump I4 to deliver fluid to
Assuming that there is no residual
>the accumulator 20 is as follows.
When the pressure acting on the area of the '
pressure in the accumulator 20y valve member 54
will be normally biased to the right as shown .in
Figure 1 to prevent passage of the iiuid through
the regulator valve 26 until the pressure in the
accumulator 20 is sutlicient to -force the plunger
seat 68 of ball l0, which is slightly larger than
that of the seat of the valve member 84, exerts a
torce less than the load on spring 94, hollow valve
member 84 closes on its seat in the orifice B8 and
18 to its seat at 82 to start the normal operating ,
cycle. -- With plunger -18 seated, the pressure con
cioses the chamber behind the plunger l18 to the
pressure- in reservoir I0, and connects it to the
tinues to build up in the port 3|, the bore 66, and
the chamber formed behind the plunger 18. With
pressure'ln the accumulator 20. The pressure in
the chamber behind plunger ‘I8 will then force
. plunger ‘IB'to the left against;> its seat on liner 82,
and thus prevent the ilow of fluid to the reser- "
' the plunger 'I8 seated the pressure from the accu
mulator 20 continues to build up until it is sufli
cient to unseat the hollow valve 64 against its
spring 94.
voir I0.
The operation just described assumed that
When the pressure from t e accumu
lator 20 in the chamber behind plunger 'I8 reaches
a point where the force caused by the pressure,
there was no residual pressure in the accumu- -
lator 20. It will be apparent, therefore, that the
acting on the portion of valve member 84 within Y ~ function of valve member 54 is to make the regu
oriñce 88, exceeds the opposing force of spring 94,
the valve 84 will crack open enough to bleed the
excess of pressure. But the quantity of fluid bled
through orifice 08 and opening 85, and which also '
lator valve 26 entirely automatic regardless of the
pressure in the accumulator 20, and without de
pending upon a low by-pass pressure to achieve
operation as has been the usual case with valves
now known in the art, which have been depend
must pass ñuted member 92, is much less than
ent upon a pressure drop in the valve by building
-the output from pump I4, which continues to 65 up
pressure to oppose a spring-biased plunger.
build up the pressure in theY accumulator 20.
Once the system of Figure 1 is in operation,
Since the valve member 84 bleeds at a constant`
and the accumulator 20 maintains some pres
predetermined pressure, and since -the pressure at
sure which exceeds a value which is a function
port 3| and in bòre`46 is higher than this prede
of the loads on springs 56 and 84, and of the
termined pressure, there is a differential pressure 70 seat areas of members »54 and 84, the valve
' across ñut'ed member 92 which forces ñuted
member 54 no longer controls the movement
member 92 and in turn valve member 84 to the
ofthe other valve members.- The position of
left. This action further decreases the pressure
valve member 54 will then be dependent upon
behindplunger 'I8 and in turn increases the dif 75 the pressures acting against it through passages
H32 and ißt, and also upon the load in spring
Thus it will be seen that once operation
of the system is begun, the valve 26 will be in
the open or closed position depending upon the
pressure _in accumulator 2li, and when in the
open position there will be n_o pressure drop
through the valve 2B, since the by-passing pres
sure is unopposed by any spring-loaded control
ling element.
When the accumulator pressure builds up to
the point where the pressure behind plunger
'i8 exerts a force on the portion of valve mem
ber ad within orifice 83 greater than the oppos
ing force of spring 9d, the cycle will be ne
The operation of the arrangement shown in i
. Figure 2 is similar to that which has been de
be4r repeated when the pressure in the accumu
.lator reaches a. value whereby the regulator valve
will unload the pump id directly into the res
ervoir il).
`Although there has been described a novel
regulator and unloading valve which may be
used in an accumulator system, it is not in-l
tended that this invention be limited to the ap- '
plication disclosed, nor is it limited to' the kind
of system shown. It is obvious to those skilled
in the art that the invention could be applied
to any ’system whereby a iluid is kept within close
pressure limits. While this invention has been>
described with reference to desirable embodi
ments thereof it is not to be construed that the
invention is limited to the embodiment shown but
only by the claims appended hereto.
scribed With reference to Figure 1. With the
I claim:
plunger 2i2 at the seated position like plunger
l.> A regulator valve comprising an inlet, out
'i8 of Figure 1, pressure continues to build up 20 let and control ports, a passageway connecting
in the chamber behind the plunger 2I2 until it
the inlet port to theoutlet port, a first valve
is sumcient to crack the valve member 2id
normally spring-biased to close the passageway
against its spring (not shown) which is like
and responsive to a predetermined pressure in
spring 9d shown in Figure 1. When the pres
the control port to cause the valve to move to a
sure from accumulator 2li in the chamber be 25 position to open the passageway, a second valve
hind plunger 2I2 reaches a point where the '
in the passageway urged toward closed position
force caused by thepressure, acting on the por
by the pressure in the control port and toward
tion of valve member 2id within orifice 263,'
open position by pressure in the passageway when
exceeds the opposing force of a spring corre
the first valve is open; al valve seat in the sec
sponding to spring 94 of Figure 1, the valve 30 ond valve, means for controlling the control port
member 2 lâ will crack open enough to bleed the
pressure which tends to close the second valve
excess of pressure through the opening 220. But
comprising a third valve seated in the second
the quantity of .iiuid bled through oriñce tis
valve and having an area subject to pressure
and opening 220, and which must also pass the
from the control port for unseating the same, a
slot 22d, is much less than .fthe output from 35 transverse passage in the third valve- adjacent
pump it, which continues to build up the pres
the seat and disposed on the side’thereof oppo
sure in accumulator 20. Since the valve mem
site from the area subject to control port-pres
ber 2|@ bleeds at a constant predetermined pres
sure, af’second passagev in the'third valve con
sure, and since the pressure in bore 230 is high
necting the transverse passage to the outlet to
er than this predetermined pressure, there is a 40 release the pressure urging the second valve to
differential pressure across the sternl îit'of the
ward closed position'when the third valve is un
‘ poppet 222 which forces the valve member 2M
' seated, whereby a differential, pressure is created
further to unseat it. This action further de
across the second valve.
creases the pressure behind plunger 2i2 and Vin
2. A regulator valve comprising an inlet, out
turn increase the differential pressure across the 45 let and control ports, a passageway connecting
stem 2i@ causingthe poppet 222 to snap against
the inlet port to the outlet port, a ñrs't valve
its seat 22%. Pressure will then be transmitted
normally spring-biased to close the passageway
through the passage 238 into the bore 208, and
and responsiveto a predetermined pressure at
will force the valve member 232 to the left, in
the control port to cause the valve to move to a
turn moving plunger 212 to the >right es was 50 position to open the passageway, a second valve
described with reference to the embodiment
in the passageway urged toward closed position
shown in Figure 1.
\ 1
by the pressure in the control port and toward
The arrangement of parts Will be like that
open position by pressure in the passageway when
shown in Figure l'except that a constricted por
the first valve is open, an orifice in the second i,
tion of valve member 232, like portion 58 of 55 valve, a seat in the orifice, a third valve urged
valve member 5B, will lie across the bore 50.
toward the seat by a spring and away from
» When hydraulic devices are used the pressure
the seat by pressure from the control port act
in the system drops. When the pressure act
ing through the orifice, a transverse passage in
ing on the seat 226 of poppet 222 (slightly larger
the „third valve adjacent the seat and disposed
than that of the seat of hollow valve member 60 on the side thereof opposite from that portion of.
2id) exerts a force less than the opposing force
the third valve subject to control port pressure,
oi' the spring' (like spring 9d of Figure 1) tend
a second passage in the third valve connecting the
ing to urge valve member 2id to the right, valve
transverse passage to the outlet, and means in
cluding a ball valve normally unseated by the
member 2SA will close oil' the chamber behind
plunger 2I2 rto reservoir pressure and connect 65 third valve but constructed and arranged to seat
it to accumulator pressure in conduit 3D. At the
when the latter unseats to cut of! the pressure
same time the pressure has dropped in the ac-..
from the control port acting on the second valve,
whereby a diii‘erential pressure is created across
cumulator 2li' there will be a balance of pressure
the second valve.
on the valve-member 232 »and it will be urgedv
to the right by its’sprins. The cycle will 'then 70
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