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Nov. 5, 1946.
Filed ‘Jan . 14, 1944
Patented Nov: 5, 1946
Richard Harte, Parkersburg, W. Va., assignor to
Ames Baldwin Wyoming 00., Parkersburg,
W. Va., a corporation of Delaware
7 Application January 14, 1944, Serial No. 518,300
6 Claims. (Cl. ‘76-109)
This invention relates to tools of the type hav:
ing a broad, relatively thin blade or head and
a manipulating handle. Garden hoes and shov~
els are examples and the tools may, for present
purposes, be generically termed agricultural tools
although obviously not always used for handling
tion of an integral blank or secured as a unit to
a stem portion as in the riveted type of hoe or
shovel. In departing from this conception I am
enabled by utilizing welding to construct in a
particularly simple and expeditious manner a
strong and simple blade.
My invention will be well understood byref
arable earth. Coordinate objects of the inven
tion are to provide a strong and simple blade
erence to the following description taken in con
construction for such tools and an, inexpensive
nection with the accompanying drawing where
and rapid method for producing the same.
l0 in I have illustrated by way of example certain,
If we consider, for example, a typical hoe of
embodiments thereof as applied to the manufac-v '
good quality, it will be seenthat the wide body
ture of a garden hoe, and'wherein:
portion of the blade has projecting from the
Fig. 1 is a broken perspective view of‘ a blank ;.
back thereof a stem portion providing for its
Fig. 2 is. a similar View showing the blank at
union with a handle in a joint of the plug and 15 a later stage;
socket type, in the case of the-shank type of
Fig. 3 shows various parts of the blade col
hoe being the male element or plug, and in the
located adjacent the ?nal position and ready for
case of the socket type of hoe the female ele
ment or socket. At the end of this stem where
Fig. 4 is an elevation showing the parts united;
it joins the blade it merges into a frog by which 20
Fig. 5 is a perspective of the completed hoe
the broad, thin body of the blade, usually of sub
head with a fragment of the handle;
stantially uniform thickness, is secured. For
convenience I shall term this major portion of
Figs. 6 and 7 are sections on an enlarged scale
on the lines 6—6 and l---'! of Fig. 3 respectively;
the blade the “palm,” distinguishing it from the
Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 3 showing an
frog which forms a part or an integral part of 25 other modi?cation;
the blade as such. The frog provides a rela
Fig. 9 is a vertical section of another form of
tively thick portion at the rear of the blade
blank for forming the central portion of the tool;
which may be Wider than the shank and. extends
forwardly a substantial distance toward the
Fig. 10 is a view, partly in section, similar tov
working edge of the blade,,usually tapering in 30 Fig. 3 and showing a collocation of parts includ
thickness, and is designed to provide a strong
ing an element formed by operation on the blank
connection of the blade to theyhandle and to
of Fig. ‘9.
distribute the strains of use over a wide area of
In the form of the invention shown in Figs.
the palm. In a forged hoe or in a shovel of the
1 to 5 I form as a unitary one-piece element a .
' solid shank type the palm, frog and handle-at 35 mid-rib comprising a rearwardly projecting stem
taching stem are forged and rolled from a uni
for union with the handle, a frog and a portion
tary blank having initially a very slight simi
extending forwardly of the frogwhich in the
larity to the ?nished article.
completed blade constitutes a central portion
With the modern development of fusion weld
thereof and which, may conveniently be some,
ing many proposals have been made to apply 40 what heavier than the lateral palm-forming por
it to the manufacture of the blades of agricul
. tions, and attach thereto such lateral palm-form
tural tools. Seam welding has been extensively
ing portions by welding."
and practically used for the manufacture of shov
In Fig. 1 I have shown a blank B which may
els of the plain back type to secure the head of
be a mere'length of round rod of suitable size
the front strap to the rear face portion of the 45 and length. This rod is operated on by suitable
blade, as was formerly done by the blacksmith’s
forging dies to produce the structure Bi vshown
hammer weld. Various proposals for securing to
in Fig. 2. In the present instance a tool of the ,
gether a blade proper or palm to a stem portion
shank type is provided and the rear portion'of
by edge to edge butt welding or by arc welding
the rod B may remain substantially unchanged
as hitherto made have been found to offer cer 50 from its original ‘form as a cylindrical shank l2
tain difficulties in practice and have not come
of suitable length. Between ‘the ends of the
into general use.
blank B it is forged to provide a frog M which is
Conventionally in the manufacture of tool
arrowhead-shaped in plan and may be generally
blades the main body or palm of the blade has
lenticular in section, the double convex lens form
been treated as a unit, either rolled out as a por 55 being shown in Fig. 6, having its greatest thick
the periphery of the arrowhead. Forwardly of
rod adapted to be produced by a rolling mill in
inde?nite length- The frog and forward end of
the frog the metal is formed into an extension
of a length to reach the front edge of the com
pleted blade and this extension may desirably
have a forwardly tapering central rib it (see
.Fig. 7) of lesser cross-section than the blade
the mid-rib may be formed by a single stroke of
a forging hammer. The palm-forming pieces, as
2%, may be cut without waste from sheet steel.
In general the ?nished tool will compare fav
orably= with forged hoes‘ or with so-called solid
and laterally tapering cheek portions l8 which
may be disposed in alignment with the diagonal
sides of the frog 14. If necessary, the flash of
the forging operation may be trimmed as indi
shank shovels of the prior art shaped laboriously
ness at the rear and center and tapering toward
cated by dotted lines in Fig. 2 tobring the mid- '
by a long series of operations from a heavy blank.
{In the form illustrated, where the mid-rib ex
tending from the forward end of the frog to the
edge” of the bladeprovides a heavier central zone
in-the blade tapering-to the lateral palm-forming
rib element to the form shown in Fig. 3,.present-p
portions; ‘ I-Ieretofore shovel blades have been
ing straight sides of the parts I18; extending‘from;
the point of greatest width of the frog 1.4; Be; 15 rollewwithiarheavier portion along the center
line. With rolling, however, uniform results
cause the volume of metal is .the same at all
could not be attained. Moreover, the increased
points, the sides flare outwardly.
thickne'sswas not noticeable. By the forging op
The blade is completed by two lateral palm
eration here described uniformity is assured.
forming pieces 29 which may be out from suitable
The-extension, as. it, may be emphasized to ap- '
sheet steeland aresecuredby electric butt weld
pear as a reducedfrog tothe-edge of. the blade
ing to~the edges of the portions 18 withfinter
which not only is strengthened but looks strong.
fusionandconsequent integral union‘ of the parts.
The parts i3. may provide thickness at the edge
Fig. '4. diagrammatically illustrates this by the
diagrammaticshowingof. the transformer T. To
fora substantial width particularly when. ?aring
complete the tool the shank l2 may, in the case 25 forwardly as shown. Moreover, itwill be observed
that. when they so‘diverge, the welded. joint will
of a. hoe as shown, be bentto the goose-neckform
be disposed at an angle to ordinary bending
of Fig. 5' and its>end entersthesocket provided
strains to which the lateral portions of the blade’
in the end‘ ofv the handle. 22.
are subjected in use.
While in the modi?cation-.ofli?gs. l to 5>the
I am aware that the. invention may be embodied
mid-rib. ofv the hoe isforged- from a one-piece 30
in other speci?c forms without departing. from
the. spirit or essential. attributes thereof, and- I
therefore desire the present embodiment to be
united. Thusin Fig. 8 I have shown a shank
considered in all respects. as illustrative and'not
lZa and frog |4a as forged from a blank similar to
Fig. 1 and have shown disposed in alignment
restrictive, as-is in- fact clear in several matters
from the description itself. Reference is to be had
therewith arelativelyslender rod-like extension
to the appended claims to indicate those prin
160; adapted to be united by butt Welding tothc
ciples of the. invention exempli?ed by the par
“poin ” of the arrowhead, providing. an integral
structure similar. to that showncentrally in Fig. 3.
ticular embodiment described and which I- desire
The palm-formingpieces 200: are united to the 40 toisecure by Letters Patent.
laterally facing sides of the-frog Illa and the sides
I- claim:
11. Amethod of forming a blade. for an agricul
of-(the extension 1-50; as before, but in the. example
tural or like too] which comprises forging a rod of
shown they are ?ve-sided to fit, since in that
metal to provide a frog, arrowhead-shaped in
example the portions l8, which in Figs. 2. to v5
plan and. generally lenticular insection, and a
extend. under the diagonally disposedside por
blank by a single stroke, it is possible to build it
up from separately formed pieces integrally
tions ofthe frog. 14., are omitted.
In Figs. 9 and 10 I have shown a construction
wherein the stem is a female or a socket member
into-‘Which the .endv 'of- the handle ?ts as in the
forward extension therefrom having a‘ thick cen
tralportion and tapering sides» and of a length‘ '
to extendto the edge of the ?nished blade and
buttwelding the edges of two lateral palm-form
may be an extrusion having at its rear end a for
ing.elements-respectively to the two. sides of said
frog, and. extension.
wardly tapering socket 23, they wall of which
tapers-rearwardly in thickness, and having an
integral rod~like extension 24-at itsclosed end. In
’ tural orlike tool which. comprises forging a me--~
tallic rod. toprovide between itsends a frog ar- -
the case of~ai hoe this extension ‘is of- a length- to
i rowh'ead-shaped in plan and. fromthe end of the
provide the-goose-neck' in the ?nishedtool and,
terminally, metal to form- afrog. A structure as
rod. forwardly of the frog an. extension of re
duced thickness relatively ‘to: the frog having
shown inrFig. Q-may be produced, if desired, by
la-terally ‘presented sides diverging forwardly
case‘of. a socket hoe. The blank-shown in Fig. 9 ‘
2.. A method of forming a blade for an agricul
from the point of maximum width of the frog,
the method describedand illustrated in the patent
to Criley2,054,244. Theforward end of the ex 60 the extension beingof- a length to extend to the
tension 24, the lower end viewing; Fig. 9, is then
forgedtorprovidethe frog Mb and, in- the example
shown,mthe- forwardly extending rib. I617 and
lateral portions H31) and‘ corresponding to the
parts» l4, l6 and- lit. in 'Figs.2 ,andi3 and in fact
identical» therewith asishown, the frog I41) being
formed in. such relation to the bottom of the
socket recess as: conditions dictate.
The palm
forming pieces 201) are secured to the» edges of
the-partsl-Sb by-electric butt welding.» as before.’
-All the partsmay be made‘of high carbon steel
and the ?nishedbladewill be essentially a one
piece uniformstructure. The blank from which
the. mid-rib. is .formed;is simple-wand inexpensive,
in the case of Figs. 1 to 5 being a mere length or
edgeof the ?nishedblade and butt welding the
edges. of‘ two lateral palm-forming elements re
spectively to the two sides of said frog and ex
3. Amethod of forming a blade for an agricul
tural or like tool which comprises. forging the
end of a. piece of generally cylindrical contour
to-provide. a frog. arrowhead-shaped in plan, butt
welding" thereto an- extension of aelength to>ex~
tendvto the edgesof the‘?nished blade and butt
welding the edges of two lateral palm-forming
elements respectively to the two sides-of theirog
and‘ extension;
‘l. A methodrof forming ablade for an agricul
tural or like tool which comprises die forging
by a single operation a metal rod of uniform
cross-section to reshape the metal thereof into
a frog, arrowhead-shaped in plan and generally
lenticular in section, and a narrow integral for
ward extension therefrom of a length to extend
to the edge of the ?nished blade to provide a
central mid-rib therefor and then butt welding
the edges of two lateral palm-forming elements
respectively to the two sides of said frog and
_ therefrom of a length to extend to the edge of
the ?nished blade and then butt welding the
edges of two lateral palm-forming elements re
spectively to the two sides of said frog and ex
tension, which elements collectively provide the
major portion of the width of the blade.
6. A method of forming a blade for an agri
cultural or like tool which comprises die forging
by a single operation a metallic~rod of substan—
extension, which elements collectively provide 10 tially uniform cross-section to provide between
the major portion of the width of the blade.
5. A method of forming a blade for an agri
cultural or like tool which comprises forming
a tubular handle-receiving socket having a slen
der rod of uniform cross-section extending there
from, die forging the rod by a single operation
to reshape the material thereof into a unit inte
gral with the socket and comprising a frog, ar
its ends a frog, arrowhead-shaped in plan, and
also from the end of the rod forwardly of the
frog an integral reduced section of a length to
extend to the edge of the ?nished blade and then
butt welding the edges of two lateral palm-form
ing elements respectively to the two sides of said
frog and extension, which elements collectively
provide the major portion of the width of the
rowhead-shaped in plan and generally lenticu
lar in section, and an integral forward extension 20
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