Nov. 12, 1946. H. R. MONTAGUE , 2,410,835 TRANSCRIBING DEVICE Filed Sept. 25, 1945 Pic-"1.5V Human. l1. MouTAeue WW8? O'MY Patented Nov. 12, 1946 2,410,835 . UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Homer It. Montague, Washington, D. G. I Application September 25, 1945, Serial No. 618,594 .2 Claims. (Cl. 179—100.4) (Granted under the act of “:March 3, '1883, as amended April 30, 1928; .370 0. G.‘ 757) ‘2 1 type, or the type which uses a sleeve of recording material stretched between two parallel mandrels. Broadly, my system contemplates the use of a The invention described herein may be manu factured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment of any royalty thereon. , _ transcribing device of the type commonly used ' with the particular type of record which it is de sired to‘ transcribe, but modi?ed in such a way that the transcribing process can be intermittently stopped and started with substantially no time de This invention relates to a transcribing device of the type used for the aural reproduction of speech, telegraphic code or other signals which have been recorded in more or less permanent form upon any of the common media used for lay. In general, I accomplish this by arranging such purpose,'such as disks, cylinders, and belts. 10 the‘ principal driving system of the transcribing machine for constant rotation, and I provide a fly wheel or the like to increase the rotational energy In the ordinary process of transcribing dicta-- ' tion, other speech signalsor indeed, signals of any kind, the transcribing operator listens to the ma terial as it is played by a reproducing machine, and operates a typewriter to take down, withor 15 without necessary decoding or translating, the material reproduced by the machine. Since the speed at‘ whichthe signals are reproduced bythe machine is often greater. than the speed with which the operator can transcribe such signals, it 20 is common to provide means permitting the repro ducing ‘machine to beslowed down, that is, run at a speed slower than that corresponding to the speedat which the record was made. .In the case of speech signals, however, such slowing down has the e?'ect of altering the pitch of the recorded voice in direct proportion to the reduction in rec-‘ 0rd speed. Experience has shown that the maxi mum amount. of slow-down which. canbe used with speech records is about‘ 20%, greater re ductions resulting in lack of intelligibility of the 1 signals. In the case of code signals, such as tele of such parts. This driving system is coupled to the record-carrying part, that is the turntable or mandreL-by a very rapidly acting clutch, such as a magnetic clutch. The record-carrying parts are made so as .to have, as littlev inertia as possible so that it‘ can be brought to a standstill very quickly when the clutch is deenergized, but with suflicient damping, so as to be capable of being accelerated " very quickly when the clutch is engaged. "I provide the output of. the, reproducer with a sensing system which is capable of sensing pauses in the reproduced signal, and which is so arranged as to control the action of the clutch to stop the transcriber automatically for a predetermined time immediately upon the cessation of substan tial signal, and then to start it again for continua tion of the reproducing process. This results in the insertion of delay ‘between speech or code ele ments without substantially affecting the pitch of the signals as such. My invention will be described in more detail in graph code, the recorded note is likewise reduced connection with a proposed. embodiment thereof in pitch by the speed reduction, and substantial reductions in record speed result in a lowepitched 35 applicable‘ to a known type of recording and re producing apparatus, but it is to be understood note which is “muddy” and of low intensity. In that it is also applicable, by suitable modi?ca both cases, the speed reduction also results in an tions, to other known types of records and proc undesirable reduction of the ratio of signal esses. The selected example of my invention is strength to background noise level. It is an object of my invention to provide a 40 illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which ‘ Figure l is a schematic diagram of a transcribing transcribing device which enables records of sig device-equipped with my invention, while Figures nals of all kinds to be reproduced by an operator 2 ‘and 3 are respectively illustrations of oscillo whoseability could not cope with the speed of the graphic' records of code and voice recordings of original signal, and to do this without any varia _ tion of the pitch of the signal. In effect, my in 45 the type which are to be transcribed. Referring now to Figure 1 of the drawing, I vention enables a slowing down» of the signals designates one of a pair of parallel, spaced man emitted by the reproducer, without a concomitant drels adapted to carry a belt-like sound record reduction in the ‘audio pitch. I-accomplish' this new result by inserting a metered amount of'de-v having a helical sound track thereon, such as is lay between successive portions of the signal," 50 used in a well-known recording system. Repro duction of the material contained in the sound without in any way altering the speed at'whie track is accomplished by the usual pick-up ele-‘ the words or code groups as such are reproduced. My invention is applicable to any known type of transcribing, system, whether of the wax cylinder ment 22 which has a stylus that rides in the track. Rotation of the mandrel I, and hence of the rec type commonly used for oflice .dictation,ithe disc5 55 ord, is accomplished by a drive ‘system consisting 2,410,835 3 of a driven disc 3 and a, driving disc 4 constituting 9 is energized, and the magnetic clutch is en the two plates of a magnetically operated clutch. gaged. Therefore, when motor 8 is started, the mandrel I begins to rotate, and continues to Disc 4 is shown as a pulley, and is driven by a belt 6 from a second pulley ‘I which is in turn driven by the usual motor 8. In order to accom plish the required rapid starting and stopping of the reproducing process, I provide a, heavy ?y rotate until the existance of signal on the sound track produces output from pick-up 22 and hence from ampli?er II). This signal, recti?ed and ap plied to relay I5 causes the latter to operate, wheel 5 on the driving side of the system, the same ?rst making contacts I1 and then breaking con tacts I6. Relay I9 is at once deenergized, but being here shown as connected to the pulley or drive disc 4. The control coil of the magnetic 10 the opening of its contacts 20 does not disen clutch is illustrated at 9, it being understood that gage the magnetic clutch, because the circuit to upon energization of coil 9 the discs 3 and 4 are pulled into engagement so that mandrel I is driven at its normal speed, while upon deenergization of coil 9, the discs are disengaged to enable mandrel I to come to a quick stop. If necessary, braking coil 9 is maintained by contacts I'I. So long as there is no pause, such as a word space, in the signal, the device continues to reproduce through speaker II or the equivalent reproducer. As soon as there is a sensible interruption in the signal, the output of ampli?er I0 decreases rapid stop, although I have found that there is and relay I5 falls down, making contacts I6 and immediately thereafter breaking contacts II. sufficient friction in existing mandrel bearings, and in other parts normally connected to the man 20 The coil of relay I9 is hence energized, but due drels to make such a brake unnecessary. to its slow-to-operate construction, its armature The signal output from pick-up 22 is applied, does not at once pull up, and contacts 20 remain mechanism may be provided to ensure a more open for a short time, which is predetermined as is usual, to a vacuum tube ampli?er designated by the adjustment of the relay. Since both con II], the output of which is fed to a loudspeaker or other reproducer II. In order to enable the 25 tacts I1 and 20 are open, clutch coil 9 is deen transcribing process to be stopped or delayed ergized and the clutch is disconnected, mandrel I and its record immediately becoming stationary. automatically between groups of code signals or between the words or syllables of speech, I con This condition persists until the operate time of relay I9 has expired, whereupon it pulls up, clos nect a suitable recti?er, such as a dry disc recti ?er I2, to the output of the ampli?er ID, and 30 ing contacts 20, whereupon coil 9 is again ener apply the recti?ed signal energy through a voltage gized and the‘ mandrel again begins to rotate. divider I3, I4, to a relay I5 which is of the quick It will be seen from the above that the opera acting type so that it will pull up and drop out tion of the relays is to insert an additional delay in the transcribing process,’ and that such delay as the signal level from ampli?er In rises or falls, these variations corresponding to normal pauses 35 is inserted only at points in the reproduction at. in recording signals, such as the character spaces which there is zero signal, corresponding to pauses in the dictation, or relatively long spaces syllable spaces of ordinary speech. in the case of Morse code records. Further, it Relay I5 has two pairs of contacts, a normally is apparent that such insertion will notrresult in closed pair I6 and a normally open pair I1, so 40 any distortion of the signals being reproduced, arranged that, upon energization of relay I5, con since the delay cannot be inserted at any point other than one corresponding to zero signal. tacts I‘! close shortly before contacts I6 open. The contacts I 6 are used to control the operation The operation of the device will be more clearly , understood by referring to Figure 2 of the draw of a second relay I9, which is of the type which is “slow to operate”, that is, one whose armature 45 ing, representing the time-variations in the ampli tude of the recorded signal in the case of a Morse is not operated until a short time has elapsed record. Portion 2a of Figure 2 represents a Morse since its coil was energized. One common type dot, portion 2b represents a dot-space, portion 20 of such relay has a copper slug surrounding the represents a Morse dash, and portion 2d repre— core adjacent the armature end thereof, eddy currents in which retard the building up of the 50 sents a dash-space, that is, a character space. In ‘ordinary Morse, the space between characters is magnetic flux through the armature and hence approximately three times as long as the dot delay its operation; this type of relay will, how space; hence, if relay I 5 is so adjusted as to release ever, release promptly upon deenergization of after its circuit has been open for a length of time its coil. The delay characteristics of such a re lay can be adjusted in various ways, such as 55 slightly longer than one dot-space, the pause in the transcription process will be introduced only by adjusting the air gap between the core and between each two characters. This is desirable the armature, the spring tension employed on since the operator recognizes Morse characters as the armature, and other factors. units, and interruptions within a character would Relay I9 is provided with a single pair of nor mally open contacts. Current for the operation 60 possibly result in confusion. Figure 3 represents the amplitude envelope of, of relay I9 may be obtained from any source, such as a battery I8, connected through con a recorded voice signal, portions 311 and 3c reptacts it of relay l5 to the coil of relay I9. resenting two syllables of a word, or two short Contacts I‘! of relay I5 and 26 of relay I9 are words spoken in quick succession, while portion connected in parallel, the closing of either set 65 3d represents a pause ‘between words. It Will be i completing a circuit from any convenient power understood that voice signals do not have the source, such as the A. C. supply 2|, to the coil 9 regularity of Morse code signals, and that often of the magnetic clutch controlling the move successive syllables are found without any sub-P ment of mandrel I. stantial decrease in amplitude therebetween,~ The operation of the device is as follows: prior 70 while on the other hand there may be substantial‘ to the starting of motor 8, there is, of course, no pauses within certain words. Nevertheless, I output from pick-up 22, and hence none from have found that the insertion of the delay in re ampli?er I9. Relay I 5 is therefore not energized, production at points which exhibit low amplitude‘ contacts I6 are closed, and hence relay I9 is 'results in a slowing down of the average rate of j energized and contacts 20 are closed. Hence coil 75 delivery without a decrease in intelligibility. At between letters of Morse code, or the word or 2,410,835 5 worst, this non-regularity of speech has the effect of occasionally breaking up a word into its syl lables or of reproducing a burst of short words without any delay being inserted. In either case, an operator familiar with the language has no more trouble transcribing such matter than he 6 plated that the controls necessary for the ad justment of the various time delays described above will be brought out to convenient posi tions for adjustment. Also, it is contemplated that the same overall result can be accomplished by other means, for example by the use of elec tronic delay circuits in place of the electro would transcribing the natural speech of persons mechanical relays described in detail herein. whose delivery speed has a similar and quite nor Therefore, I do not intend to limit myself to any mal variation. particular means for accomplishing the novel re 10 I have earlier characterized relay [5 as being sult disclosed herein, and I desire to include with of the quick-acting type. This must be under in the scope of my invention all the changes and stood in a relative sense, that is, that the operate modi?cations which lie within the scope of the and release times of relay [5 are both shorter appended claims. than the operate time of relay l9. However, the release time of relay I5 is made moderately long, 15 _ I1.claim: In a transcribing device of the type in which in order to prevent the stopping of the mandrel a sound record is moved relative to a reproducing when there is a very short pause in the signal pick-up to produce an audible signal, means for (such as in the dot-space between elements of a inserting a predetermined delay between succes Morse character); otherwise it might be impos sible to re-start the mandrel without clipping a 20 sive elements of the signal as reproduced, com prising means sensitive to the presence and ab portion of the signal immediately following such sence of signal energy in the output of said de short pause. vice, means responsive to the condition of said As an example of the characteristics required sensitive means for stopping the relative move in the relays, suppose that it is desired to tran scribe Morse signals recorded at the rate of 40 25 ment of said record and said pick-up after a con dition of substantial absence of signal from the output of said device has existed for more than a predetermined interval, and means for auto 20 words per minute. The length of an average matically causing a resumption of said relative Morse character is about 10 times the length of the dot-unit, hence the speed of 209 characters 30 movement after the lapse of a predetermined time measured from the operation of said stop per minute corresponds to about 2,000‘ dot-units ping means. per minute, and the interval between characters, words (200 characters) per minute, and. that the operator is able to transcribe at a top speed of 2. In a device for the reproduction of recorded the dash-space, is about 1%,000 of a minute, or sounds consisting of discrete signal elements, about 0.1 second in length. In other words, the interval between the elements of a character 35 means for effecting relative movement between a sound record and a reproducer system, an am would be about 0.03 second, and the interval be pli?er for amplifying the output of said repro tween characters would be about 0.1 second. In ducer system, means for converting the output order for relay l5 to effect the insertion of the of said ampli?er to audible sound, a relay con of each character, it is essential that the release 40 nected to the output of said ampli?er and adapted to break a normally closed circuit in response to time of relay [5 be somewhat greater than 0.08 the existence of signal energy in the output of second, and it may be almost as large as 0.1 sec said ampli?er, a slow-to-operate relay in said ond. This will insure that relay [5 will accom normally closed circuit, and a pair of normally plish the insertion of the delay only between suc open contacts adapted to be closed upon opera cessive complete characters. tion of each of said relays and connected in par It is clear that, to accomplish a change in the allel in a second circuit, a source of energy in said average rate of reproduction of the signals from second circuit and electromechanical means in 200 characters (40 words) per minute to 100 said second circuit and responsive to a flow of characters (2'0 words) per minute, about 1,1300 of a minute delay must be inserted after each char 50 energy therein for initiating relative movement between said record and said reproducer system, acter. This will be accomplished if relay [9 has whereby such relative movement will be inter an operate time of approximately 1/200 minute, or predetermined delay only after the completion 0.3 second. In order to increase the flexibility of the device and make it useful in the reproduction of signals at all speeds, as well as to meet the requirements of operators of different abilities, it is contem rupted upon a substantial cessation of signal in the output of said ampli?er, and will be resumed only after the expiration of the operating time of said slow-to-operate relay. HOMER R. MONTAGUE.