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Patented Nov. 12, 1946
2,410,867
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
2,410,867
FABRIC TREATMENT
Cyril M. Croft and William J. Cramer, Jra,
Cumberland, Md., assignors to Celanese Cor
poration of America, a corporation of Delaware
No Drawing. Application May 7, 1942‘,
Serial No. 442,070
14 Claims.
(Cl. 8—17)
1
This invention relates to the preparation of
crepe fabrics, and more particularly to the prep
aration of crepe fabrics containing organic de
rivatives of cellulose.
.
Textile fabrics exhibiting crepe effects have
long been obtained by employing in their con
struction highly twisted yarns, hereinafter re
2
this condition. As a result, the appearance of
such unevenly dyed areas, or exposure marks, as
they are called, is a serious problem and causes
substantial portions of the dyed crepe fabrics to
be degraded with respect to commercial value.
We have now discovered, however, that the ap
pearance of exposure marks on dyed crepe fab
ferredto as crepe yarns or crepe threads, made
of natural silk in the gummed state, the crepe
rics may be minimized or entirely eliminated.
These beneficial results may be achieved if an
effects appearing when the gum is subsequently 10 aqueous creping or boil-01f bath containing a
removed by scouring or like treatment. The pro
small amount of a lower aliphatic acid is employed
duction of crepe effects by the employment of
in place of the creping baths heretofore employed.
highly twisted crepe threads made of cellulose
Lower aliphatic acids such as'formic, acetic,
acetate or other organic derivatives of cellulose
propionic, and butyric acid may be employed
is however accomplished with considerable dimsatisfactorily in accordance with our invention.
culty.
An object of our invention is the economic pro
duction of crepe fabrics containing organic de
rivative of cellulose yarns or threads.
A further object of our invention is the pro
duction of improved crepe effects upon fabrics
containing crepe yarns or threads of an organic
The concentration of the acid in the creping bath
may be varied. Generally, creping baths con
taining the acid in a'concentration of from 1% to
5% by Volume are ‘suitable. In the case where
fabrics containing crepe yarns of cellulose ace
tate are'treated with an aqueous creping bath
containing acetic acid, we preferably employ an
aqueous bath containing the acetic acid in a con
derivative of cellulose which shrink and buckle
when treated in a creping bath.
centration of about 2% by volume. The creping
A still further object of our invention is to 25 bath may be prepared by adding glacial acetic
minimize the appearance of exposure marks on
acid, or other acid, to the water in’ the desired
dyed fabrics containing said crepe yarns‘ or
volumetric proportion.
threads while at the same time producing the
In carrying out our invention, the fabric may
desired crepe effects by treatment in a creping
be treated in the boil-off bath in the open width
bath.
30 or in skein form. The bath may be maintained
Other objects of our invention will appear from
at temperatures ranging from 60° to 99° C. and
the following detailed description.
the desired crepe effect in the fabric may be ob
It has previously been found that if yarns of
tained ‘by maintaining the fabric in the bath for
cellulose acetate or other organic derivativeof
from 3 to 50 minutes. Preferably, when treating
cellulose have a high twist imparted thereto in the 35 fabrics containing crepe yarns of cellulose acetate
presence of hot aqueous media, such as steam or
with an aqueous creping bath containing a small
hot water, they produce crepe effects in fabrics
amount of acetic acid, We enter the fabric in
containing them when the fabrics are given treat
skein form in. the bath heated to about 90? C. and
ment in hot aqueous baths. It has also been
gradually bring the temperature up to about 99°
found that if certain scouring or penetrating 40 0., usually in from. 10 to 30 minutes. The fabric
agents, such as soaps, pine oil, tetralin, etc., are
is held in the bath, which is maintained at this
incorporated in the creping or boil-off bath, the
temperature, until the crepe is fully developed.
desired crepe effect is enhanced and is achieved
The additional period necessary for the full de
in a relatively short period of time. When fabrics
velopment of the crepe may be from 3 to 30min
which have been treated with crepe baths con
taining such crepe enhancing agents are dyed,
however, it has been observed that the resulting
crepe fabrics take the dyestuffs some-what un
evenly.
45 utes,'and is preferably 10 or more minutes.
As stated above, the fabric treated by this in
vention contains ?laments, yarns or thread which
which have been twisted in the presence of hot
This undesirable effect is particularly
aqueous ?uids such as steam or hot Water; for
noticeable in the case of fabrics which have been 50 instance, in the manner described in U. S. Patents
stored for even a limited time prior to the creping
Nos. 2,088,628 and 2,089,191. This twisting may
operation, especially at those portions of the fab
be effected on a device of the kind in which the
ric which have been exposed to the air during
thread is drawn off over the head of a rotating
storage. The use of scouring and penetrating
package through a guide ?xed substantially in
agents in the creping bath appears to aggravate 55 line with the axis of rotation of the package and
2,410,867
3
is thereafter wound on a bobbin or the like, the
thread being passed through hot aqueous ?uid on
its way from the guide to the bobbin. In this way
the yarn is subjected to the action of the hot aque
ous ?uid during the actual application of 7twist.
The twisting spindle, the guide ?xed in line with
the axis of the spindle and the device for'apply
ing the hot aqueous ?uid to the ?laments, yarns
4
from a commercial point of view, may be consid
ered to be substantially eliminated.
In order further to illustrate our invention but
without being limited thereto the following ex
amples are given:
Example I
A fabric having a warp of 90 ends per inch of
cellulose acetate yarn of 75 denier having 28
ing resulting from the rotation of the package 10 turns per inch, and a weft of '70 picks per inch of
cellulose acetate yarn of 120 denier having 77
is at least partially inserted while the thread is
turns
per inch, which twist has been inserted in
in contact with the hot aqueous ?uid.
the presence of steam, is entered in skein form
The crepe twisting may be applied in a single
into an aqueous boil-off bath containing 2% by
stage. If desired, however, the crepe twist may
volume
of glacial acetic acid. The bath is at a
be applied in two or more stages, at least the ?nal
temperature of 90° C. when the fabric is entered,
stage of twisting being effected while treating the
and is brought up to 99° C. during the course of
thread with hot aqueous ?uid, as described in
30 minutes. The bath is held at this tempera
U. S. Patent No. 2,088,587.
ture for another 30 minutes to obtain a full crepe
The total twist applied may vary within wide
effect.
limits, and the crepe ?gure in the fabric may be
The resulting crepe fabric is dyed a navy shade
regulated according to requirements. The total
with
a dye bath of suitable composition contain
twist desirable in any particular case depends
ing dyestuffs having an a?inity for cellulose ace
upon a number of factors, including the precise
tate materials. Upon examination, after a suit
effects required, the number of ?laments and the
able ?nishing treatment, the fabric is found to be
denier of the thread. The number of turns to
entirely free of those unevenly dyed areas which
be employed may be from 55 to 90 turns per inch.
are commonly termed exposure marks. When a
The highly twisted crepe threads may be in
length of fabric of the same age is creped in a
corporated in the fabrics in various ways. Thus,
bath
of the usual composition and then dyed it
for example, the weft may be wholly or partially
is observed that about 30% of the fabric is de
composed of such threads while the Warp may
graded due to the presence of exposure marks.
be composed of other threads. Or, in some in
or threads should be so arranged that the twist
Example II
stances, both the warp and the weft may be com
posed of said highly twisted crepe threads. Val
A fabric of a construction similar to that em
uable fabrics may be produced by employing warp
ployed in Example I is entered into an aqueous
threads of relatively low twist and in the weft
boil-o?‘ bath containing 4% by volume of glacial
employing crepe threads having both a left hand
acetic acid. The bath is at a temperature of
twist and crepe threads having a right hand
60° C. when the fabric is entered and is brought
twist, pairs of threads of left hand twist alter
up to 90° C. in 45 minutes. To complete the
nating with pairs of threads of right hand twist.
development of the crepe, the fabric is held in
If desired, the cellulose acetate crepe threads 40 the bath at this temperature for 10 minutes.
may be associated in the fabrics with highly
The crepe fabric obtained by this treatment,
twisted crepe threads of other materials, e. g. of
when dyed, is found to be free of exposure marks.
natural silk or regenerated cellulose, or with
It is to be understood that the foregoing de
highly twisted threads produced by other proc
tailed description is merely given by way of illus
esses. Where the fabrics contain threads of low 45
tration and that many variations may be made
twist these may be wholly of cellulose acetate or
therein without departing from the spirit of our
wholly or in part of other materials, e. g. nat
invention.
ural silk or regenerated cellulose. The cellulose
It is also to be understood that the expres
acetate crepe threads may be doubled with ordi
nary cellulose acetate yarns or yarns of other 50 sion “creping bath,” as employed in the claims,
is to be construed as meaning a creping or boil
materials prior to incorporation in the fabric.
oif bath containing scouring or penetrating
In carrying our invention into effect, fabrics
agents, such as soaps, pine oil, tetralin, etc.
containing ?laments, yarns or threads of any or
Having described our invention, what we de
ganic derivative of cellulose may be employed in
to secure by Letters Patent is:
the manufacture of the new crepe threads. For 55 sire
1. Process for the production of crepe e?ects
example, ?laments, yarns or threads containing
on fabrics comprising yarns containing ?la
cellulose esters such as cellulose acetate, cellulose
ments of an organic derivative of cellulose which
propionate, cellulose butyrate, mixed esters, such
have been crepe twisted while being subjected to
as cellulose acetate-propionate and cellulose
ethers, such as ethyl cellulose and benzyl cellulose 60 the action of a hot aqueous fluid, which com
prises treating said fabrics with a hot aqueous
may be employed. The invention, however, is of
creping bath to which has been added a small
especial value in the production of crepe fabrics
amount of a lower aliphatic acid.
containing yarns or threads of cellulose acetate
2. Process for the production of crepe effects
and will accordingly be described in connection
on fabrics comprising yarns containing ?laments
therewith.
65
of cellulose acetate which have been crepe twist
Fabrics containing highly twisted crepe threads
ed while being subjected to the action of a hot
of an organic derivative of cellulose may now be
aqueous ?uid, which comprises treating said fab
stored inde?nitely with little or no danger that
rics with a hot aqueous creping bath to which
upon subsequent creping and dyeing the fabric _ .
will be of limited commercial value due to the 70 has been added a small amount of a lower ali
phatic acid.
appearance of exposure marks. By developing
3. Process for the production of crepe effects
the crepe of the fabric in an aqueous creping bath
on
fabrics comprising yarns containing ?laments
containing a small amount of a lower aliphatic
of cellulose acetate which have been crepe twist
acid, the danger of exposure marks appearing
when the fabric is dyed is greatly minimized, and, 75 ed While being subjected to the action of a hot
2,410,867
5
6
aqueous fluid, which comprises treating said fab
prising yarns containing ?laments of cellulose
rics with a hot aqueous creping bath to which
has been added a small amount of acetic acid.
4. Process for the production of crepe e?ects
on fabrics comprising yarns containing ?laments
of cellulose acetate which have been crepe twist
ed while being subjected to the action of a hot
acetate which have been crepe twisted while be
ing subjected to the action of a hot aqueous fluid,
which comprises treating said fabrics with a hot
aqueous creping bath to which has been added
a small amount of acetic acid until the desired
crepe effect is obtained and then dyeing said
aqueous ?uid, which comprises treating said fab
rics with a hot aqueous creping bath to which
has been added from 1 to 5% by volume of acetic
acid.
5. Process for the production of crepe effects
on fabrics comprising yarns containing ?laments
of cellulose acetate which have been crepe twist
ed while being subjected to the action of a hot
aqueous ?uid, which comprises treating said fab
fabrics with a dye .bath containing dyestuffs hav
ing an affinity for the cellulose acetate material,
whereby there are obtained dyed fabrics exhibit
rics with a hot aqueous creping bath to which
a hot aqueous creping bath to which has been
has been added from 1 to 5% by volume of acetic
acid for from 3 to 50 minutes.
6. Process for the production of crepe effects
on fabrics comprising yarns containing ?laments
of cellulose acetate which have been crepe twist
ed while being subjected to the action of a hot
aqueous ?uid, which comprises entering said
added from 1 to 5% by volume of acetic acid
until the desired crepe effect is obtained and
then dyeing said fabrics with a dye bath con
taining dyestuffs having an affinity for the cel
lulose acetate material, whereby there are ob
tained dyed fabrics exhibiting substantially no
fabrics into a hot aqueous creping bath to which
has been added 2% by volume of acetic acid
maintained at about 90° C., gradually raising the
temperature of said bath to about 99° C. over the
course of 30 minutes and maintaining the fabric
in said bath until the desired crepe effect is ob
tained.
7. Process for the production of crepe effects
on fabrics comprising yarns containing ?laments
of cellulose acetate which have been crepe twist
ed while being subjected to the action of a hot
‘ing substantially no exposure marks.
'
11. Process for ‘the coloration of fabrics com
prising yarns containing ?laments of cellulose
acetate which have been crepe twisted while be
ing subjected to the action of a hot aqueous
fluid, which comprises treating said fabrics with
exposure marks.
.
12. Process for the coloration of fabrics com
prising yarns containing ?laments of cellulose
acetate which have been crepe twisted while be
ing subjected to the action of a hot aqueous ?uid,
which comprises treating said fabrics with a hot
aqueous creping bath to which has been added
from 1 to 5% by volume of acetic acid for from
3 to 50 minutes and then dyeing said fabrics with
a dye bath containing dyestuffs having an affinity
for the cellulose acetate material, whereby there
are obtained dyed fabrics exhibiting substantially
no exposure marks.
aqueous ?uid, which comprises entering said
fabrics into a hot aqueous creping bath to which
13. Process for the coloration of fabrics com
prising yarns containing ?laments of cellulose
has been added 4% by volume of acetic acid
maintained at about 60° C. gradually raising the
‘acetate which have been crepe twisted while be
temperature of said bath to about 90° C. over the 40 ing subjected to the action of a hot aqueous ?uid,
which comprises entering said fabrics into a hot
course of 45 minutes and maintaining the fabric
aqueous creping bath to which has been added
in said bath until the desired crepe effect is
obtained.
2%. by volume of acetic acid maintained at about
90° C., gradually raising the temperature of said
8. Process for the coloration of fabrics com
prising yarns containing ?laments of an organic 45 bath to about 99° C. over the course of 30 min
‘ utes and maintaining the fabric in said bath until
derivative of cellulose which have been crepe
twisted while being subjected to the action of a
the desired crepe effect is obtained, and then
dyeing said fabrics with a dye bath containing
hot aqueous ?uid, which comprises treating said
dyestuffs having an affinity for the cellulose ace
fabrics with a hot aqueous creping bath to which I
has been added a small amount of a lower ali 50 tate material, whereby there are obtained dyed
fabrics exhibiting substantially no exposure
phatic acid until the desired crepe effect is ob
marks.
tained, and then dyeing said fabrics with a dye
bath containing dyestuffs having an a?inity for
.14. Process for the coloration of fabrics com
prising yarns containing. filaments of cellulose
the organic derivative of cellulose materials,
whereby there are obtained dyed fabrics exhibit 55 acetate which haveibeen crepe twisted while be
ing substantially no exposure marks.
9. Process for the coloration of fabrics com
ing subjected to the action of a hot aqueous
fluid, which comprises entering said fabrics into
a hot aqueous creping bath to which has been
prising yarns containing ?laments of cellulose
added 4% by volume of acetic acid maintained
acetate which have been crepe twisted while be
ing subjected to the action of a hot aqueous ?uid, 60 at about 60° C., gradually raising the tempera
which comprises treating said fabrics with a hot
aqueous creping bath to which has been added
a small amount of a lower aliphatic acid until
the desired crepe effect is obtained and then
ture of said bath to about 90° C. over the course
of 45 minutes and maintaining the fabric in said
bath until the desired crepe effect is obtained,
and then dyeing said fabrics with a dye bath.
dyeing said fabrics with a dye bath containing 65 containing dyestuffs having an affinity for the
cellulose acetate material, whereby there are ob
dyestuffs having an a?inity for the cellulose ace-'
tained dyed fabrics exhibiting substantially no
tate material, whereby there are obtained dyed
exposure marks.
.
fabrics exhibiting substantially no exposure
marks.
CYRLIL M. CROFT.‘
WILLIAM J. CRAMER, JR.
10. Process for the coloration of fabrics com 70
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