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Nov. 12,' 1946.
Filed Jan. 26, 1943
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
Beardsley Lawrence, .lr., Huntington, W. Va., as
signor to Utility Fabrics Company, Inc., Hunt- ,
ington, W. Va., a corporation of Massachusetts '
Application January 26, 1943, Serial No. 473,633
4 Claims. (01. 154-46)
This invention relates particularly to fabrics
comprising open texture web of heterogeneously
distributed strands bonded together at inter
sections-thereof and another web or webs of
loosely’ arranged ‘unspun long ?ber that are
bonded to the strands of the ?rst web to formv
an integral tough sheet.
- .:
It is a purpose of this invention to provide a
fabric which has good tensile strength, good
resistance of the individual strands and permits
yielding .of the individual strands with distribu- .
tion of the tear strains to a plurality of strands
thereby, providing veryv high tear resistance.
The structural combination, moreovér, is pliant
and easily ?exed.
Strand fabrics embodying thisinvention have
a variety of uses, being suitable in some forms
' for packaging of vegetables and fruits, in others,
resistance to tear but which is not excessively 10 when waterproof for tarpaulins and the like, as
substitutes for burlap and for various other
faces are provided.
' ,stiff or leathery and in which smooth ?ne'sur- '
It is a further purpose of this invention to.
Any?bers of the character described in the
unspunweb whether- of cotton or otherwise are .
provide stout fabric that is ineXpensive‘to .pro- :
duce and that is capable of a variety of uses 15 referred to herein as “long” ?bers in order to
distinguish such ?bers from paper stock and the
particularly _ where strength, toughness, ?ex
like. However, it is an advantage of this in
ibility and smooth ?ne surfaces are required.
Generally speaking, according to this inven-.
vention that relatively inexpensive low grade
tion, ?ne closely laid unspun ?ber webs of cotton
or other like ?bers having a length of from 3/8"
?bers may be used. ‘Such ?ber may be animal, .
vegetable, -_ synthetic or mineral- Examples of
to 5/3" ?ber'lengths formed by carding or garnet
suitable. ?bers are hair, wool, bast ?bers, musa
?bers, asbestiform ?bers,. rayon,v cellulose, syn
thetic ?bers, etc. In any event, the ?bers used
ting and weighing from 200 to 400 grains per I
yard and having a thickness of from 2 to 8 ?ber
diameters, or split starched vwadding are com
, in the unspun ?brous web material are “long
bined with loosely, and openly or heterogeneously 25 ?bers” .as this termyhas been de?ned above
Moreover, while the fibersv are ordinarily bonded
laid ?ber webs of sisal, jute,‘ pita or'other like
together in the webs they are nevertheless dis
?bers which have been formed by garnetting or
posed in a loosely mattedrelation [as ‘distin-.
carding to form fabric meeting the purpose of
' guished from a dense compacted and rigid mass
this-invention. The threads, ?bers or strands
in the heterogeneous web may be from 3A" to 30 or sheet of ?bers such as short ?bers formed on
a paper-making screen or densely‘ felted ?bers.
4" long as contrasted with the 3A3” to %" long
When the ?bers in the unspun ?brous web mate
?bers in the unspun web. The weight of the
rialhave been subjected to a carding machine
latter web may vary according to the material
used; theapproximate weight-of sisal may be
from 12 to 20 oz. per square yard but greater or
lesser amounts can be used depending upon the
strength desired in the ?nished fabric. The
unspun and heterogeneous webs may be impreg
nated with the same or different binders or only
the heterogeneous web might be impregnated
with a binder and unspun webs adhered thereto
simply by the stickiness of the impregnant on
the heterogeneous web.
The unspun webs of long ?bers thus arranged
action they have a very desirable condition of
indiscriminate interlacing and curvature of in-
dividual fibers which renders the web material
stretchable and yieldable without rupture in any
. With regard to the‘ strands, other ?bers than
the-heavy sisal, jute‘ and ‘the like ?bers can be
employed. »Thus,ianimal, vegetable, ‘mineral or
synthetic ?bers such as those mentioned above
may be employed. The ?bers may be made into
rovings which either are unspun or slightly
with the ?brous strands afford numerous ad 45 twisted. When it is stated hereinthat the ?bers
in the strands are “bunched” it is to be under
vantages and improvements. Thus,» it is a fea
stood that the ?bers are arranged contiguously
ture and advantage of integrated strand fabrics
either in unspun relation or in a loosely twisted
embodying this invention that strains become
relation as distinguished from ?bers in highly
distributed over a maximum number‘ of the ?bers
with the effect of greatly increasing the load 50 twisted and dense types of cord. It is not with
out the scope of this invention to ‘use more highly
bearing properties of ‘ the. fabric. Tensile
twisted strands such as various types of ?brous
strains are. taken predominantly by the hetero»
cord material. If the strands are tightly spun,
geneously distributed strands, and the unspun
it is difilcult to impregnate the?bers at the cen
web structure with which the strands are in
ters of the strands thoroughly and this renders
tegral, enables such strains to be distributed over
the unimpregnated ?bers subject to deteriora
a plurality of strands’ so that the tendency to
tion by moisture. When the ?bers are initially
rupture is minimized. Moreover, tear strains
impregnated they contain about 10Q% to about
also are taken predominantly, by the strands
200% of bituminous or other like binder based
and in this case, also, the unspun web material
of loosely bonded long ?bers augments the tear 60 on the weight of the ?bers in the strands or rov
‘ ‘
Preferably, though not necessarily, the
B. The latter may be saturated with or coated
strand elements are of larger diameter than the
with a, thermoplastic binder such as a. bituminous
long ?bers.
resinous or other binder, having a softenting
point between about 140° F. and 160° F. This
nature of this invention, further purposes, fea 5 binder may be applied to the web B by spraying
onto the web, dipping the latter into the binder
tures and advantages of this inventionwill be
Or else the binder may be applied in other man
apparent in connection with the following de
ners such as with printing rolls or doctor blades.
scription of certain typical embodiments which
The binder serves to bond'the strands at their
are described for exemplary purposes in connec
10 intersections.
tion with the accompanying drawing, wherein:
The saturated web Bis unrolled from roll 8,
Fig. 1 is a perspective view, largely schematic,
- v‘passed over idler roll I and around roll 8. Simi
of integrated strand fabric embodying this inven
larly,‘ a web A--i is unwound from roll 9 and
passed around idler roll 4 to roll 3 where it en
Fig. 2 is. a perspective view, largely schematic,
Having thus indicated in a general way the
' of an alternative embodiment of this invention; 15 gages a face of web B. The combined webs A--i
Fig. 3 is a perspective view, largely-schematic,
of another alternative embodiment of this invention; and
Fig. 4 is a schematic view illustrating the steps
of combining unspun long ?ber-bearing‘ webs
with strand webs to produce various of the em
bodiments shown in Figs. 1 to 3 inclusive.
The unspun web A of cotton ?bers of %" to
%" ?ber length of the character described is
made into web form using a conventional cards
and B pass around roll I and between the latter
and roll 2. Also, a second web A—! is unwound
from roll 1. and passed around roll I and around
' roll 2, passing between it and roll I and engaging
20 the opposite side of web B from the web A-I.
The combined webs A-i, B, A--2 pass between
the pressure bight of the heated rollers I and
2 producing the ?nished fabric K of Fig- 1.
While the webs A--l and A—2 may be unsat
25 urated before being combined with the web B as
ing or garnetting machine. These webs weigh
from about 200 to about 400 grains per square
yard and have a thickness of 'from 2 -to 8 ?ber
diameters. The web thus produced is in the form
of a thin matted mass of irregularly interlaced 30
long ?bers loosely arranged.
Suitable loosely matted webs of long fibers can
also be made in other ways such as by making
garnetted wadding which may, for example, be
Just described, they also (although this is not pre
ferred) may be previously saturated with the
same or similar binder used for web B, or they
may be saturated with binders unlike the binder
used with webB, such as latex, starch, cellulose
or.vinyl resins or the like. Also, the webs A-|,
A--2 may be left unsaturated until after, their
‘ combination with web B, and then the whole
‘fabric K may be saturated or coated with latex.
composed‘of cotton ?bers about % inch to about 35 oils, resins or other plastics preferably of the non
% inch in length. Thus. for example, garnetted
thermostatic class.
In a further alternative the webs A-l, A-2
wadding containing about 400 grains per square ,
may be peptized so as to cause the ?bers there
yard may be lightly starched on opposite sides
of to adhere and in effect become welded together
and then split midway thelthickness thereof.
The soft ?brous surface at the plane of the split 40 and thereafter causing the peptizedsu‘bstance to '
harden. For example, a peptizing agent such as
is then used on the inside adjacent to the strand‘
zinc chloride or sulphuric acid may be used which
elements. In such case, the starched surfaces
has the effect of gelatinizing cellulosic ?bers such
make the web material easier to handle while the
a soft inner surface is suitable for surrounding and
as cotton ?bers so that the
will adhere to
maintaining in position the strand elements of 45 gether. Preferably, only th'giglffaces of the ?bers
are peptized so that after the ?bers have become
the fabric. The ~starched surface of the wadding
adherent and set, the resulting fabric will not
, ,oes not materially interfere with the impregna
be excessively stiif. After the ?bers have been
ion of the composite fabric and tends to make
su?iciently peptized, the peptizing agent is re
the outer surface of the fabric haveless stickii
50 moved, e. g. by washing or. neutralization and
the ?bers are permitted to set in situ inbonded
relation to each other. The impregnated strands
“openly laid ?ber webs of sisal, jute or other like
, of the web B are not affected by the peptizing v
?bers which have been formed by carding or gar
agent and are encased between webs A--|, A--!
netting, is also prepared. The ?bers or‘ strands in
. this web B are from %" to 4" long as contrasted 55 which are substantially free of the bituminous or
. A web B of coarse, loosely heterogeneously' an -
with the %" to %" ?bers in web A. The weight
_ other binder. Such structure is especially desir
of this web B varies with the ‘material used. The
approximate weight of such a web when made
from sisal would be from about 12 to about 20
‘ with an article which is to be maintained out of
direct contact-1 with the bituminous or other
able when thefabric is to be used in connection
‘ounces per square yard. . Greater or less amounts 30 binder material that is used in the heterogeneous
can be used depending upon the strength desired
in the ?nished fabric.
The fabric may be constructed by using vari
ous combinations of webs A and B.
strands of web B. If the ?bers are synthetic such
as rayon, cellulose, acetate, etc., a suitable solvent
can be used as the peptizing agent, e. g. acetone,
and it can be removed by drying which may be
In a prefered form of fabric K a web Bis sand 65 accelerated by heating or by washing out.
Another way of accomplishing the bond be
wiched between .two webs A-l, A-‘2 as‘ shown
tween these webs A-i, B and A—! is to coat the
in Fig. 1. The fabric K may be formed in the
manner illustrated in Fig. 4. In the latter, I and ' sides of webs A—-| and A—2 that will come in
contact with the web B in the operation of Fig. 4,
2 represent a pair of heated pinch rollers and
3, 4, 5 and 6 represent idler rollers. A roll 8 of ‘70 with the same thermoplastic material as would
the material of web B saturated with binder and
ordinarily be used to saturate the web B, and
rolls ‘I and 8 of the material of webs A-l, A-2
leave web B unsaturated and uncoated and com
are provided.
bine the so-treated webs A—I, B and A—-2 with
the heat and pressure in the apparatus of Fig. 4.
The webs A-l, A-,-2 of rolls ‘I and 8 maybe
unsaturated before being combined with the web 75 By omitting the roll 1 from the apparatus of
the invention. For example, if such fabrics are
used for. bag material, the added strength makes
such bag material highly resistant. to sudden
strains incurred as by dropping of a ?lled bag
which would cause ordinary bags to‘ split open.
Bags embodying the fabrics of the invention do
not split open when dropped because of the
fabrics’ great toughness and resistance to tear
Fig. 4 bearing web A-Z, the _fabric L of Fig. 2
is produced which consists simply of a combined
web A-l and a web 13. The web A-l of this
fabric L may be treated in any of the ways of the '
web A—I' described in connection with the fab
ric K.
In the completed fabric K or L, the web B, by
reason of its ?bersor strands being longer and
stronger than those ?bers used in webs A—-i and
A—~2, provides the strength.
in all directions.
Webs A—l and 10
A-2 by virtue of their ?bers being ?ne and close
While this invention has been described in
connection with certain speci??c embodiments
ly laid, provide sheets which hold the ?bers of
thereof, it is to be understood that this has been
web B in place and also provide a fabric with a , done for illustrative purposes only and that the
practice of this invention. may be varied within
smooth ?ne surface which is desirable. Further_
more, the webs A—l and A—2 act as barriers to 15 the scope thereof as de?ned by the language of
the seepage of the thermoplastic binder used in
web B. As thermoplastic binders must be neces
sarily of low softening point, i. e. between about
140° F. and 160° F. when used in fabrics which
the following claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A composite fabric comprising an open
texture web of heterogeneously distributed
are designed to be ?exible, the binder under warm 20 strands saturated with and bonded together at
the intersections thereof by a thermoplastic bind
conditions, often stains or discolors articles com
ing in contact with the fabrics. If the coating or ' er and another web of loosely arranged unspun
' long ?bers that are bonded together by a non
saturant used on webs A—l, A—-2 is preferably
non-thermoplastic and, preferably, non-come
thermoplastic binder that is non-compatible with
patible with the binder used in web B, this seepage 25 said thermoplastic binder, and that are bonded
is eliminated.
to the strands of said first web to form an in
Su?icient binder material of the. appropriate
tegral tough sheet, said strands of said ?rst web
kind may be used either in webs A-l, A--2 or B r
being of substantially greater tensile strength to make the fabric moisture proof or resistant to
than the ?bers of said second web, and the ?bers
gases and chemicals (depending upon the type of 30 of said second web being arranged in closer
binder) or a lesser amount may be used to make
texture than the strands of ‘said first Web and
the fabric porous.
preserving the structural integrity and strength
Another modi?cation of this invention shown
of said ?rst web, and said strands being of larger
in Fig. 3 may be prepared with the apparatus of
diameter than said ?bers.
Fig. 4 by substituting rolls bearing respectively 35 2. A composite fabric comprising an open
webs B-—| and B—2 of the material of web B
texture web of heterogeneously distributed
for the rolls ‘I and 9, and by substituting a roll - ‘ strands saturated with and bonded together at
bearing a web A—3 of the same-material as web
' the intersections thereof by a thermoplastic bind-e
A for the roll 8. The resulting fabric M of Fig. 3
er and another web of loosely arranged unspun
consists of a web A-3 sandwiched between the 40 long ?bers bonded to said strands by said binder .
webs B—l, 3-2 of heterogeneously distributed
and bonded together by a non-thermoplastic
strands. The webs B-l, B—2 and A—3 as well
binder that is incompatible with said thermo
as the resulting fabric M may be treated in any
plastic binder to form an integral tough sheet,
of the ways previously described with respect to I said. strands of said ?rst web being of larger
the webs A, B and the fabrics K and L.
vdiameter, of greater length and of substantially
The fabrics K, L oriM produced according to
greater tensile strength than the ?bers of said
this invention have great toughness and tear re
second web, and the ?bers of said second web
sistance as a result of the special coactions
being arranged in closer texture than the strands
of said ?rst web and preserving the structural
wrap about and yieldably hold the strands of the 50 integrity and strength of said ‘?rst web.
wherebythe ?bers of the weaker web or webs
stronger web or webs providing a fabric which
as a whole is yieldable without tearing. These
fabrics are unlike so-called reinforced papers
wherein the paper sheets‘ have short ?bers rein
forced by adherent ?bers. In such paper, the
~ paper backing sheets are relatively; stiff, dense,
_ 3. A composite fabric comprising'a web of un
spun long ?bers and adherently bonded to the
?bers of said web a multiplicity of strands having
greater tensile strength than the tensile strength
of the ?bers of said web, said strands occurring
in a condition of heterogeneous distribution, the
said strands being saturated with a thermoplastic
binder and the said ?bers being saturated with
a non-thermoplastic binder that is non-compati
brittle and unyieldable. The reinforced paper
does not have the high degree of toughness of
fabrics made according to this invention. The
short ?bers of the paper do not wrap about the 60 ble with said thermoplastic binder.
strands of the reinforcing ?ber. The strands on
4. A composite .fabric comprising a pair of
reinforced paper, therefore, strip off easily. In ' webs each of uniform long fibers and adherently >
contrast, the fabrics K, L and M have their
bonded to the?bers of each of said pair of webs
strands enwrapped by ?bers and hold together
and between the latter a multiplicity of strands
very well and, insofar as toughness is concerned, 65 having greater tensile strength, than the tensile
manifest a resistance to sudden strains that is
strength of the ?bers of said pair of webs, said
much greater than the sum of the strengths of
strands occurring in a condition of heterogeneous
the individual webs of the fabrics. The enwrap
distribution, the said strands being saturated
ping of the strands by the ?bers appears to in
with a thermoplastic binder and the said ?bers
troduce a multiplying factor. In some fabrics 70 being saturated with a non-thermoplastic binder
embodying the invention the strength of the fab
ric has been found to be as much as twenty times
the sum of the strengths of the individual webs.
This is a very important attribute of fabrics of
that is non=compatible with said'thermoplastic
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