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Патент USA US2410157

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Patented Oct. 29, 1946
2,410,157
UNITED STATES PATENT QFFIQ'E
2,410,157
LIQUID EXTRACT OF COFFEE AND THE
PROCESS OF EXTRACTING AND PREPAR
ING THE SAME
Walter S. Fredrickson, Fort Wayne, Ind.
N0 Drawing. Application October 13, 1943,
Serial No. 506,068
18 Claims. (Cl. 99——71)
1
This invention relates to the preparation of a
vegetable extract and more particularly to an
improved liquid extract of co?’ee and the process
of extracting and preparing the same.
Heretofore, numerous attempts have been
made to produce, by one method or another, a
liquid extract of coffee containing all the natural
coffee flavors, ingredients and aromas so as to
2
fore, capable-of being exposed in use over a rela
tively long period of time without refrigeration
and without spoilage.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an improved process of extracting and prepar
ing a liquid extract of coffee by which all the
desirable and natural coffee ingredients, ?avors
and aromas are extracted from the coifee bean
be appealing and pleasant. to the taste and smell,
to a maximum degree without being lost,. dissi
and at the same time capable of being stored 10 pated or substantially altered during the extrac
without spoiling for‘ use over a relatively long
period of time.
These attempts, however,: for
tion process.
Still another object is to provide an improved
one reason or another, have in general been rela
process of extracting the desirable. soluble ma
tively unsuccessful‘ in that the extracts so pro
terial from ground coffee beans which comprises
expanding and contracting the coffee grounds in
duced failedv in one or‘ more respects.
In some
instances, the liquid coffee extracts. failed, be
a cold water bath so as to break down the in
cause of the de?ciencies of the extraction proc
esses practiced, to retain. all of the natural
?avors and aromas in that certain of the neces
ternal structures of the grounds and free the
relatively imprisoned soluble material therefrom.
Another object is to provide an improved proc
sary and desirable ingredients and volatile sub 20 ess of extracting the maximum amount of soluble
stances were lost, dissipated or completely a1
material from the .co?ee bean‘.
tered during the process of extraction.
A still further object is to provide an improved
With other extraction processes, the extracts
process of removing the waxy substances con
while being perhaps‘ relatively acceptable from
tained in‘ a liquid extract of‘ coffee.
the standpoint of‘ natural ?avor and aroma, 25
Other and further objects of the invention
nevertheless were incapable of being kept‘ for
will become apparent as this description pro
any substantial length of time without spoilage.
gre'sses.
v
This spoilage was due to the factthat the natural
The initial preliminary phase of the improved
waxes which werev extracted from the coffee bean
process preparatory to the grinding and extrac
along with the other soluble substances were .30 tion phases comprises the baking of the green
wholly allowed to remain in the extract or were
coffee beans. In this phase a quantity of the
imperfectly attempted to be removed therefrom.
green coffee beans is ?rst placed in a hot oven or
This tendency‘ to spoilage was retarded only to
other suitable device and allowed to bake slowly
some extent by refrigeration, which was some
therein for approximately forty-?ve to ?fty min
times inconvenient and restricted the range of ' utes. This baking step differs considerably from
use of such an extract. ’ In. the practice of still
the customary method of roasting coffee for reg
other processes, a great deal of waste resulted
ular table use, which generally involves quickly
due to the inability of those processes to extract
bringing the green coffee beans to a very high
from the coffee bean all of the valuable soluble
heat, almost scorching, subjecting the beans to
material with the consequence that the partly 40 that high heat for approximately ten or ?fteen
used coffee bean containing useful ingredients
was thrown away.
This obviously was not only
minutes and then quickly cooling the roasted
beans. However, in the baking step of the pres
ent invention, it is preferable that the beans
a serious wastageof goodv coffee but necessarily
increased the cost of‘ production of‘ such extracts
be subjected to a heat at a lower temperature
to such an extent as to make them unpro?table 45 and for a much longer period of time. In this
commercially.
_
manner the green beans are baked more slowly
It is, therefore, one of the objects of the present
and the moisture content thereof is reduced to
invention to provide an improved liquid extract
a desired minimum for reasons to be pointed out
of coffee which contains ‘all the desirable and
hereinafter in connection with the subsequent
natural coffee‘ ingredients, ?avors and aromas 50 steps of the process. However, it has been found
and which at. the same, time is capable of. being
that the degree of heat and the length of the
stored relatively‘ permanently without spoilage.
Another object of‘ the invention is to provide
an‘ improved liquid extract of coffee which is
relatively free from deleterious waxes and, there.
baking period may be varied somewhat so long
as the co?ee beans are properly baked and their
moisture content reduced to a minimum.
After the coffee beans have been baked ac
2,410,157
0
O
cording to the ?rst phase of the process above de
4
ance with the recognized physical laws of the
for grinding. In this cooling zone the tempera—
ture of the beans is reduced to a point within
the temperature range of 35 to 40° F. so that,
upon grinding, the volatile oils will be prevented
expansion and contraction of water. When the
temperature of the mixture reaches 40°-42° F., it
is then reduced to its original temperature of 33°
to 34° F., and as the temperature is reduced the
water, including that water contained within the
internal structures of individual grounds, is ex
the beans and permit the volatile oils to escape
to 34° F.
scribed, they are then placed in a cooling zone
such as a refrigerator or the like in preparation
from dissipating into the atmosphere. It has been , panded, thereby expanding the individual
‘grounds. Then, after reaching 33° to 34° F., the
found that ordinarily during the grinding opera
tion the grinder generates a considerable amount 10 mixture is again raised to a temperature of 40°
to 42° F., after which it is again reduced to 33°
of heat which tends to raise the temperature of
During this period of soaking in the cold water
as above described, during which the raising and
reduced prior to grinding, the grinding operation 15 lowering of the temperature of the mixture is
repeated, a great percentage of the volatile‘oils
may be completed before enough heat has been
and other soluble ingredients are extracted from
generated by the grinder and transmitted to the
the coffee grounds. By starting the mixture at a
ground beans to raise their temperature so as to
temperature of 33° to 34° F., followed by raising it
volatilize the essential oils.
Although the degree or size to which the baked 20 to 40° to 42° F. and then reducing it back to 33° to
34° F. and then repeating the raising and lowering '
and cooled bean is cut may be varied somewhat,
of the temperatures, the Water within theindi
it has been determined that the best results from
vidual coffee grounds is ?rst contracted, then ex
the steps of the process to be described hereinafter
panded, then again contracted and then again
can be secured if the grind ranges between a
medium and a ?ne grind. Too coarse a grind has 25 expanded. By this repeated contraction and ex
been found unsatisfactory while a very ?ne grind ~ pansion of the mixture the individual grounds
are progressively expanded and thoroughly
tends to settle into a sticky mudlike mass on the
worked or pumped, and their internal ?brous
bottom of the vats or containers used in carrying
structures are in effect torn apart so that the
out the extraction steps of the process.
The next phase of the process comprises the 30 portion of the soluble and other ingredients which
might otherwise be imprisoned therein are made
application of a cold water contraction and ex
accessible to the water and in a position to pass
pansion method by which the volatile oils and
into solution and into the water. The individual
the other soluble ingredients are extracted from
grounds at the end of this cold water treatment
the coffee grounds. Preparatory to the applica
are in a considerably expanded condition.
35
tion of the cold water, the coffee grounds, upon
In practicing the foregoing cold water extrac
removal from the grinder, are placed in a cooling
tion phase of the process, it is important that the
zone such as a refrigerator or the like, where they
mixture remain relatively quiescent after its ini
are kept until their temperature has been reduced
tial agitation when the 33° to 34° F. water is ini
to a point in a temperature range between 10° to
tially poured on the cold grounds. It has been
15° F. If the grounds are brought to a lower
found that an inferior extract results if the cold
temperature, the results of the process are found
mixture is agitated continually during the pe
inferior, this being due perhaps in part to the
riods when its temperature is being raised and
fact that the coffee oils are congealed and pre
lowered as above described. The best results
vented from ?owing readily during the cold water
45 have been secured by permitting the mixture to
extraction phase.
as the bean is cut and heated by the grinder. '
However, with the initial temperature or the bean
remain substantially quiescent during the entire
When the grounds have been reduced to a tem
coldv water period during the raising and lowering
perature between 10° to 15° F., they are then
of the temperature in order to take full advantage
placed in suitable containers in a cooling zone
of the natural expansion and contraction of the
and to them is added a quantity of water at a
temperature of 33° to 34° F. and preferably at a 50 action of the water.
After the mixture has been ?nally reduced to
rate of one and one-third quarts of water to a
the 33° to 34° F. temperature as above described,
pound of coffee. This mixture of coffee grounds
the liquid is then poured off the considerably ex
and cold water may then be agitated for improved
panded grounds and the grounds are then put
results in order to more thoroughly saturate the
grounds, after which the mixture may be allowed 55 into a press in order to press still more liquid out
of the grounds. Satisfactory results have been
to stand quiescently for a sufficient period of time
secured where the grounds are subjected to a pres
to permit the grounds to soak up as much water
sure of ten tons. The liquid that was poured off
as possible and to permit a considerable amount
prior to the pressing operation and the liquid that
of the soluble and other elements of the coffee
grounds to go into solution or pass into the water. 60 was pressed out of the grounds thereafter is then
commingled and passed into a cooling zone where
Approximately one hour has been found sufficient
it is maintained at a temperature of from 35° to
for this period of quiescent soaking. During this
40° F. until the extracts later produced by the
entire period the mixture of cold water and
hot water phase of the process are ready for mix
grounds is maintained at a non-freezing tempera
ture of from 33° to 34° F.
65 ing therewith as will be more fully described here
inafter. This cold water extract for the purposes
At the end of this period the cold water and
of this description will be referred to as extract
coffee mixture, which by this time contains coffee
No. 1.
'
ingredients in solution and otherwise, is then
Although at the outset, as stated above, one and
heated so as to raise its overall temperature to
approximately 40° to 42° F. IAS the temperature 70 one-third quarts of water was added to‘ each
pound of ground coffee, nevertheless the amount
of the water is raised from 33°-34° to 40°—42° F.,
of the extract recovered even after the ten ton
the water of the mixture, including the water that
press has been used on the expanded ‘coffee
has been absorbed by and is contained within the
grounds, amounts to only three-quarters of‘ a
internal structure of the coffee grounds, contracts
to a condition of its greatest density in accord
75 quart to each pound of coffee. The amount of
5
2,410,157
6
water extracted from the grounds, however, may
vary ‘somewhat- with thedilferent types of coffees
used. The ef?ciency of this cold. water expansion
and contraction method of extractionis-consider
ably increased by providing coffee grounds which
have a relativelylowpmoisture content. so that
the grounds are in a position to absorb a great
deal. ofwater and expand greatly during- the cold
grounds are then again pressed and the pressed
liquid is added to-theamount poured off, resulting
in an extract of substantially the same quantity
as that added. at 200°‘ F. temperature and which
extract will be referred to hereinafter as extract
No.. 4. This extract likewise isquickly cooled to
a temperature of between 35° to 40° F.
When extract No. 4 has been so reduced in
water phase of the process. After the grounds
temperature, all the extracts Nos. 1, 2, 3and 4 are
have been ?rst pressed and the extract No. 1 seg 10 thereafter mixed together into one combined ex
regated, the>coiTee grounds are still in a, greatly
tract of a. temperature ranging between 35° to
expanded condition so that. during the future
40° F. At this stage of the improved process, the
phases of the process to be describedhereinafter,
resultant extract combined from» the extracts Nos.
involving the applicationof hotwater; the soluble
1, 2, 3 and 4.may be used to make a cup of coffee
ingredients of the grounds are in a position to 15 that is pleasant to the taste and possesses a satis
more readily pass into solution. The cold water
fying coffee aroma. However, such resultant ex
expansion and contraction method so expands
tract must be used in the ‘amount of approxi
and affects the internal structure of the indi
mately three-fourths of an ounce to a cup of hot
vidual grounds that operation of the hot: water
water and hence is not in sufficiently'concentrated
phase of the process is facilitated and made
form to- be commercially practical. Also, the
more efficient.
resultant extract contains certain waxy sub
The ?rst step in the hot water phase of the
stances which, if not removed‘, cause the extract
improved process comprises adding to. the grounds
to spoil readily unless placed in a refrigerator.
from which a greater percentage of the cold water
It is, therefore, a ?nal part of the improved
has been poured off or pressed out, another quan 25 processto prepare a concentrate of the resultant
tity of water at a temperature of 33° to 34° F.
extract and to remove the waxy substances from
which is the approximate temperature of the re
the extract to prevent spoilage, these two results
maining grounds after extract No. 1 has been seg
being accomplished-for the» most part at substan
regated‘ therefrom. This second. quantity of wa
tially the same time during the same operation.
ter is added at a rate of approximately one quart
The presence of these waxy substances in the
for every‘ pound of dry grounds initially used.
coffee extract has little effect on the taste or
This mixture is then heated to a temperature of
aroma of the coffee since they are relatively taste
approximately 125° F., after which the liquid is
less. Yet they are the deleterious elements of the
extract causing. souring and being‘ relatively in
drawn off and the grounds‘again pressed in the
same manner'as stated above. ' This resulting ex- ,35
digestible.
I
tract, which for the purposes of." this description
The ?rst operation‘ in the removal of the waxy
will be referred to as extract No. 2, is'then quick
ly cooled to a temperature of from 35° to 40°F. at
inbefore, each of the, hot extracts, Nos. 2, 3 and
substances was commenced when, as stated here
4, werequickly cooled. It has been found. that if '
which temperature it is maintained until all the
extracts are ready for mixing. It has been found .40 those extracts were not quickly cooled but were
cooled slowly or permitted to stand at room tem
that for ‘every quart of water added during this
perature for a, relatively short period of time
?rst phase of the hot water process the extract
without arti?cial cooling means, the waxy sub
therefrom is approximately of the same quan
stances in each of the extracts would become set
tity.
'
therein and impossible to remove without de
Upon segregation of extract No. ‘2, a furtheror‘
stroying the flavor and aroma of the extracts.
third quantity of water is added to the coffee
Upon being mixed, the resultant combined ex
grounds at the rate of one quart per pound of
tractv is ?rst placed in a cooling zone, such as a
dry grounds and at a temperature of 210° F. This
refrigerator or the like, at a temperature from
mixture
Althoughisthe
then
water
heated
is attoa temperature
approximately
of 195°
210° F. ‘
33° to 34° F. where it is permitted to remain un
disturbed for a quiescent period, preferably from
when poured on the grounds, the fact that the
between four to ?ve days. During this quiescent
grounds are at a temperature of less than 125° F.
period at that low temperature a separation of
causes the resultant temperature of the mixture
the waxy substances occurs, the heavier Waxy
to be considerably below 195° ‘F. When this mix.
ture has reached a temperature of approximately “" substances settling to the bottom of the con
tainer, the light waxy substances rising in uncol
195° F. the liquid is again poured off and the
lectible form to the top of the extract and the
grounds again pressed. This ' resulting extract
medium weight waxy substances which are al
which for the purposes of this description will be
most the same density as the coffee extract ?oat
referred to as extract No. 3, is alsoquickly cooled
ing just above the heay waxy substances. At the
to a temperature of from 35° to 40° F. at which‘
end of this quiescent period, the heavier waxy
temperature it likewise is held until the next ex
substances become substantially set or caked on
tract is ready for mixing. The amount of extract
the bottom of the container and the extract is
No. 3 is substantially the. equivalent of the amount
then
drawn off leaving the heavy waxy substances
of hot water that was added at the 210°‘ F. tem
and some of the medium weight waxy substances
perature.
'
‘
in the container. However, much ‘of the medium
Again to the same grounds is added an amount
and light waxy substances are unavoidably drawn
of water in substantially the same quantity as the
off along with the extract and are contained in
previous step but at a temperature of 200° F. and
sui?cient quantities to spoil the extract unless
this mixture is then placed in a pressure cooker
further
steps are taken to effect their removal.
wherein its temperature is raised to apoint with
Upon being drawn on from the heavier waxy
in a range of 275° to 300° F. without boiling.
After this high temperature has been reached the
mixture is then permitted to cool somewhat. following- which the liquid is poured off-
The
substances, the cold extract is then passed on to
dehydrating tables or pansto a depth of from one
Y to ?ve inches Where approximately ?fty to; ninety
percent of the. liquid extract is. dehydrated. to
"2,410,167
7
8
coffee which comprises mixing a quantity of cold
water with a quantity of coffee grounds, varying
the temperature of the, mixture between the
desired, such as coffee body, taste or aroma, and
temperature of greatest density of water and a
the type of coffee being used. The liquid extract
in‘the dehydrating pan is then raised to a tem 5 lower non-freezing temperature to expand and
contract said mixture, then segregating the liquid
perature of approximately 115° F. at which tem
extract from said coffee grounds; then at suc
perature it is maintained constantly with as little
cessive intervals mixing further quantities of
variation as possible until the top waxy sub
water with said grounds and heating each of
stance ripens or is formed by melting together on
make a coffee concentrate. The variation in the
amount of dehydration is dictated by the results
the surface of the extract in which condition it 10 said mixtures, each of said mixtures being heated
to a higher degree of temperature than the pre
ceding mixture and the extract of each of said
mixtures being separated from said grounds after
heating before the succeeding quantity of water
hydration step at the above temperatures any of
the heavy or medium waxy substances which did 15 is added; mixing together all said extracts; and
then removing the waxy substances of varying
not settle out during the cold period of quiescent
densities from said combined extract.
settling will also be de?nitely separated from the
2. The method of preparing an extract of cof
extract when the concentrated extract is drawn
fee which comprises mixing a quantity of cold
off the dehydrating pans.
'
It is important, however, in practicing this de 20 water with a quantity of coffee grounds, varying
the temperature of the mixture between the tem
hydration step of the improved process to .con
perature of greatest density of Water and a lower
stantly maintain the extract at or near the tem
non-freezing temperature to expand and con
perature of 115° F. and certainly within the tem
tract said mixture, then segregating the liquid
perature range of from 110° to 117° F. If the
temperature of the extract in the dehydrating 25 extract from said coffee grounds; then at suc
cessive , intervals mixing further quantities of
vpans is caused to be raised above 117° F. the top
water with said grounds and heating each of
Waxy substances of the extract are liable _ to
said mixtures, each of said mixtures being heated
scorch while the medium waxy substances on the
to a higher degree of temperature than the pre
bottom of the pan may be melted and caused to
be diffused throughout the extract. If such 30 ceding mixture and the extract of each of said
mixtures being separated from said grounds after
scorching resulted the concentrate Would possess
heating before the succeeding quantity of water
an unpleasant burnt or resinous taste and, there
is added; quickly cooling each of said extracts
fore, would be un?t for use. On the other hand,
to prevent the waxy substance in said extracts
if the temperature were allowed to fall below the
minimum of the critical range or below 110° F. 35 from becoming set therein; mixing together all
said extracts; and then removing the waxy sub
the rate of evaporation would be considerably re
stances of varying densities from said combined
tarded and the lighter waxy substances would
extract.
fail to ripen or collect together on the top of
3. The method of preparing an extract of
the extract to permit removal. It has been found
that the lighter waxy substances form together 40 coffee which comprises mixing a quantity of cold
water with a quantity of coffee grounds, varying
more readily for removal when the temperature
the temperature of the mixture between the tem
of the extract is kept from 113° to 116° F., the
perature of greatest density of water and a lower
most satisfactory temperature from this stand
non-freezing temperature to expand and con
point being 115° F.
After the waxy substances have been removed 45 tract said mixture, then segregating the liquid
extract from said coffee grounds; then at suc
by the above described controlled cold and hot
cessive intervals mixing further quantities of
steps and the extract has reached the desired
water with said grounds and heating each of said
degree of concentration, the concentrated ex
mixtures, each of said mixtures being heated to
tracts may then be mixed or blended with other
50 a higher degree of temperature than the preced
concentrated extracts to arrive at an extract that
ing mixture and the extract of each of said mix
is both pleasant to the taste and smell. The de
tures being separated from said grounds after
gree of concentration of the resultant coffee liquid
heating
before the succeeding quantity of water
is such that only one teaspoonful to a cup of
is
added;
quickly cooling each of said extracts
hot water is required for a cup of coffee, and
55 to prevent the waxy substance in said extracts
exact measurements have shown that the volatile
from becoming set therein; mixing together all
oils and other soluble ingredients are so thor
said extracts; and then removing the waxy sub
oughly and completely extracted from the coffee
stances of varying densities from said combined
~ grounds by the above described process that one
extract by subjecting the extract to a period of
pound of dry coffee is capable of producing an 60 quiescence in a cooling zone at a low non-freez—
extract in a quantity sufficient to provide one
ing degree of temperature to permit the relatively
hundred to one hundred and twenty-?ve cupfuls
heavier waxy substances to settle to the bottom,
of hot coffee.
separating the liquid extract from the heavier
Although the improved process comprising the
waxy substances, heating the liquid extract to
invention has been set forth with particularity 65 cause the lighter waxy substances to form at the
in the foregoing description, it is to be under
surface of said extract and then removing the
stood that minor relative cariations may be made
lighter
waxy substances.
in quantities, times and temperatures and the
4. The method of preparing an extract of
like, depending upon the type of coffee and equip
coffee which comprises mixing a quantity of
ment used and results desired, and it is also to
cold water with a quantity of coffee grounds,
70
be further understood that many various types
varying the temperature of the mixture between
of suitable devices and equipment may be used
the temperature of greatest density of water and
in practicing the improved process without de
a lower non-freezing temperature to expand and
parting fromthe scope of the appended claims.
contract said mixture, then segregating the liquid
'75 extract from said coffee grounds; then mixing
1. The method of preparing an extract of
is readily skimmed off. In some instances a
heavier waxy substance also collects on the bot
tom of the dehydrating pans so that by this de
'
Iclaim:
_
_
I
2,410,157
a vfurther quantity of water with thesaid coffee
grounds, heating said mixture to a ‘temperature
of approximately ‘125° F. and then separating
the second extract from the grounds; then ‘mix
ing a further quantity of Waterwith said coifee
grounds, heating said mixture to a ‘temperature
'of approximately 195° F. and then separating the
third extract from the grounds; then mixing a
further quantity of ‘water ‘with said grounds,
heating said mixture in a pressure chamber 'to
a temperature within a range of 275° to 300° F.
and then separating the fourth extract'from the
grounds; quickly cooling each of said extracts
to prevent the waxy substances in said extracts
from becoming set therein; mixing together all
said extracts; and then removing the waxy sub
stances of varying densities from said combined
extract by subjecting the extract to a period
of quiescence in a cooling zone at a low non
freezing degree of temperature to permit the
relatively heavier waxy substances to settle to
the bottom, separating the liquid extract from
the heavier waxy substances, heating the liquid
extract to cause the lighter waxy substances to
form at the surface of said extract and then
10
with said relatively Cooler Coffee grounds, heat
ing ‘said mixture to a temperature ‘of approxi
mately 195° 'F. and then separating the third
extract from ‘theigrounds; then mixing a further
quantity of water at a temperature of ‘200° F.
with said grounds, heating said mixture in a
pressure chamber to a temperature within a range
of “275° ‘to 300° F. and then separating the fourth
extract from said ‘grounds; quickly cooling each
‘of ‘said ‘extracts 'to a non-freezing temperature
below 40° F. ‘to prevent the waxy substances in
said extracts from becoming set therein; mixing
together all said ‘cooled extracts; and then re
moving "the "waxy substances of varying densities
by ~subjecting‘the combined extract to a period of
quiescence in a cooling zone at a low non-freezing
degree of ‘temperature to permit the relatively
heavier waxy substances to settle at the bottom,
segregating the liquid extract from the heavier
waxy substances, heating ‘the segregated liquid
extract to a temperature of approximately 115°,
to cause the lighter waxy substances to form
at the surface of said extract and then removin
the lighter waxy substances.
7. The method of extracting the volatile oils
and other soluble ingredients from coffee which
removing the lighter waxy substances.
5. The method of preparing an extract of
comprises mixing a quantity of cold water with
coffee which comprises mixing a quantity of cold
a quantity of coffee grounds, varying the tem
water with a quantity of coffee grounds, varying
perature of the mixture between the temperature
the temperature of the mixture between the tem 30 of greatest density of water and a lower non
perature of greatest density of water and a lower
freezing temperature to expand and contract said
non-freezing temperature to expand and contract
said mixture, then segregating the liquid extract
mixture, then segregating the liquid extract from
said coffee grounds and then at successive in
from said coffee grounds; then mixing a further
tervals mixing further quantities of water with
quantity of water with the said coffee grounds, 35 said grounds and heating each of said mixtures,
heating said mixture to a temperature‘ of ap
each of said mixtures being heated to a higher
proximately 125° F. and then separating the sec
degree of temperature than the preceding mix
ond extract from the grounds; then mixing a
ture and the extract of each of said mixtures
further quantity of water with saidcoifee grounds,
being separated from said grounds after heating
heating said mixture to a temperature of ap 40 before the succeeding quantity of water is added
proximately 195° F. and then separating the third
to the grounds.
extract from the grounds; then mixing a further
8. The method of extracting the volatile oils
quantity of water with said grounds, heating
and other soluble ingredients from coffee which
said mixture in a pressure chamber to a tem
comprises mixing a quantity of cold water with
perature within a range of 275° to 300° F. and
a quantity of coffee grounds, varying the tem
then separating the fourth extract from the
grounds; quickly coolingeach of said extracts to
perature of the mixture between the temperature
a non-freezing temperature below 40° F. to pre
vent the waxy substances in said extracts from
freezing temperature to expand and contract said
mixture, then segregating the liquid extract from
of greatest density of water and a lower non
becoming set therein; mixing together all said
said coffee grounds; then mixing a further quan
cooled extracts and then removing the waxy
substances of varying densities from said com
bined extract by subjecting the extract to a
tity of water with the said coffee grounds, heat
ing said mixture to a temperature of approxi
mately 125° F‘. and then separating the second
period of quiescence in a cooling zone at a low
extract from the grounds; then mixing a further
non~freezing degree of temperature to permit ‘the 55 quantity of water with said coffee grounds, heat
relatively heavier waxy substances to settle at
ing said mixture to a, temperature of approxi
the bottom, segregating the liquid extract from
mately 195° F. and then separating the third
the heavier waxy} substances, heating the segre
extract from the grounds; then mixing a further
gated liquid extract to a temperature between
quantity of water with said grounds, heating
110° to 116° F. to cause the lighter waxy sub
60 said mixture in a pressure chamber to a tem
stances to form at the surface of said extract,
and then removing the lighter waxy substances.
6. The method of preparing an extract of cof
fee which comprises mixing a quantity of cold
water with a quantity of coffee grounds, varying
the temperature of the mixture between the tem
perature of greatest density of water and a lower
non-freezing temperature to expand and con
tract said mixture; then mixing a further quan
tity of water at a temperature of approximately
34° F. with the said co?ee grounds,'heating said
mixture to a temperature of approximately 125°
F. and then separating the second extract from
the grounds; then mixing a further quantity of
water at a temperature of approximately 210° F. 75
perature within a range of 275° to 300° F. and
then separating the fourth extract from the
grounds; and ?nally mixing ‘together said ex
tracts secured from said grounds at the various
degrees of temperature.
9. The method of extracting the volatile oils
and other soluble ingredients from coffee which
comprises mixing a quantity of cold Water with
a quantity of co?ee grounds, varying the tem
perature of the mixture between the temperature
of greatest density of water and a lower non
freezing temperature to expand and contract said
mixture. then segregating the liquid extract from
said coffee grounds; then mixing a further quan
tity of cold water with the said co?ee grounds,
2,410,157
11
heating said mixture to a temperature of ap
proximately 125° F. and then separating the
second extract from the grounds; then mixing a
further quantity of water at a temperature of
approximately 210° F. with said coifee grounds,
heating said mixture to a temperature of ap
proximately 195° F. and then separating the
third extract from the grounds; then mixing a
further quantity of water at a temperature of
200° F. with said grounds, heating said mixture 10
12
lighter waxy substances to form at the surface
of said extract, and then removing the lighter
waxy substances from the surface of said ex
tract.
15. The method of removing the waxy sub
stances of varying densities from a liquid coifee
extract which comprises the steps of subjecting
the extract to a period of quiescence in a cool
ing zone at a low non-freezing degree of temper
ature to permit the relatively heavier waxy sub
stances to settle to the bottom of the extract,
drawing off the liquid extract from the heavier
waxy
substances, heating the liquid extract to
the fourth extract from the grounds; and ?nally
cause the lighter waxy substances to form at
mixing together said extracts secured from said
15 the surface of said extract and the relatively
grounds at the various degrees of temperature.
medium weight waxy substances remaining in
10. A cold water expansion and contraction
the extract to settle and form at the bottom of
method of extracting the volatile oils and sol
the extract, then removing the lighter waxy sub
uble ingredients of coffee which comprises mix
stances from the surface of said extract, and then
ing a quantity of water with a quantity of cof
separating the extract from the said settled and
fee, maintaining said mixture for a period of
formed medium weight waxy substances.
saturation at a temperature slightly above freez
16. The method of removing the waxy sub
ing but below the temperature of the greatest
stances of varying densities from a liquid coifee
density of water, raising the temperature of said
extract which comprises the steps of subjecting
mixture to the temperature of the greatest den
the extract to a period of quiescence in a cooling
sity of water to contract the same, then reduc 25 zone at a low non-freezing degree of tempera
ing the temperature of said mixture to a lower
ture to permit the relatively heavier waxy sub
non-freezing temperature, and finally segregat
stances to settle at the bottom of the extract,
ing the liquid extract from said coffee.
segregating the liquid extract from the heavier
11. The method of extracting the volatile oils
waxy substances, heating the segregated liquid
and soluble ingredients of coffee which comprises 30 extract to a temperature between 110° to 116°
mixing a quantity of water with a quantity of
F. and maintaining said extract at temperatures
coffee, maintaining said mixture at a tempera
within said temperature range to cause the
ture of approximately 33° F. for a period of ‘sat
lighter waxy substances to form at the surface
uration, then raising the temperature of said
said extract and the relatively medium weight
mixture to approximately 40° F., then reducing 35 of
waxy substances remaining in said extract to
the temperature of said mixture to approximately ‘ ‘
settle and form at the bottom of the extract,
33° F‘. and finally segregating the liquid extract
then removing the lighter waxy substances from
from said coffee.
the surface of said extract, and then segregating
12. The method of extracting the volatile oils
and soluble ingredients of coffee which comprises 40 the extract from the said settled and formed me
dium Weight waxy substances.
mixing a quantity of water at a temperature of
17. The method of removing the waxy sub
approximately 33° F. to a quantity of coffee at
stances of varying densities from a liquid coffee
a low temperature not less than 10° F., and then
extract which comprises the steps of subjecting
varying the temperature of said mixture be
extract to a period of quiescence in a cooling
tween a temperature slightly above freezing and 45 the
zone at a temperature of approximately 33° F.
the temperature of the greatest density of water
for a period of at least four days to permit the
to contract and expand the said mixture.
relatively heavier waxy substances to settle at
13. The method of extracting the volatile oils
the bottom of the extract, segregating the liquid
and soluble ingredients of codes which com
extract from the heavier waxy substances, heat
prises baking said coffee, reducing the moisture 50 ing
the segregated liquid extract to a tempera~
content of said coffee to a minimum to render
ture between 113° F. to 116° F. and maintaining
said coffee more water-absorbent, grinding said
said extract at temperatures within said tem
coffee, mixing a quantity of cold water with a
perature range to cause the lighter waxy sub
quantity of said grounds, and then varying the
stances to form at the surface of said extract,
temperature of said grounds and mixture be
and then removing the lighter waxy substances
tween the temperature of greatest density of said
from the surface of said extract.
_
water and a lower non-freezing temperature to
18. The method of extracting the volatile oils
expand and contract the water in said grounds
and soluble ingredients of coffee which comprises
14. The method of removing the waxy sub
stances of varying densities from a liquid coffee 60 mixing a quantity of 'cold water with a quantity
of coffee and then varying the temperature of
extract which comprises the steps of subjecting
said mixture between a low non-freezing tem
the extract to a period of quiescence in a cooling
perature and a higher temperature of greater
zone at a low non-freezing degree of temperature
density of water to expand and contract the mix
to permit the relatively heavier waxy substances
ture.
to settle to the bottom of the extract, separat
WALTER S. FREDRICKSON.
ing the liquid extract from the heavier waxy sub
stances, heating the liquid extract to cause the
in a pressure chamber to a temperature within
a range of 275° to 300° F. and then separating
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