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0d. 29, 1946. c_ T_ PERKINS - 2,410,180 - NONCONGEALING OIL COOLER CONSTRUCTION. Filed Oct. 1, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVEN TOR. ’ cizbzrleaff’e'rbm BY 2Q ' t @996 Oct. 29, 1946. c. ‘T. PERKINS - ' 2,410,180 'NONCONGEALING OIL COOLER CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct. 1, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 w" INVEN TOR. 26 C/lzézrlea fiverh'na, Patented Oct. 29, 1946 ' "it 2,410,180 NONCONGEALING on. COOLER CONSTRUCTION - Charles T. Perkins, Racine, Wis, assignor to‘v ' Modine Manufacturing Company, Racine, Wis'.,' a corporation of Wisconsin " ' Application Gctober 1, 1942, Serial No. 460,334. 4 Claims. (El. 257-4130) 1 2 .The present invention relates to a new and novel arrangement of tubes and fins and more outer or less efiicient tubes from the standpoint of receiving heat to thaw out the oil may never be come warm enough to allow the oil to ?nally speci?cally is directed to the introduction of ad ditional thermal members in combination with the tubes and ?ns which will aid in conducting heat from tub-e to tube for the prime purpose of inducing the flow of fluid that may be congealed in the tubes. The device of the present inven tio'nfisparticularly devised for the purpose of break through and?ow in themanner required in oil coolers particularly when subjected to a continuous streamof low temperaturedair. Brie?y then, as has been proven by practical ?eld tests, oil coolers of the present day construc tion are not of su?icient capacity and of suitable design to readily operate in their full capacity ‘quickly and eiliciently causing a flowage of oil in ' a core member of an oil cooler wherein the oil whenever such oil coolers ‘are, called into use ‘has become congealed due to low temperatures whenever such core or cooler has been standing from freezing to approximately 20° below zero. idle. ' Many of the, practical units of present day after remaining idle in temperatures ranging If the ?ns are of ferrous or low conductivity metal an insufficient amount of heat will be radiated from steel, Monel metal, Cupro nickel, and other or thermally conducted through the ?ns between the tubes to cause a breaking down of the con low thermal conductivity metal to withstand gealed oil in many of the high capacity cooling construction of oil coolers are being fabricated pressures, but such oil coolers present the fur ther. problem of limited heat conductivity be tween the various tubes carrying oil and wherein certain of the tubes might become thawed out while certain of the outer or the more exposed tubes. Even in the event that copper ?ns are employed, while the heat conductivity is relative ly high, the surfaces are also designed and ar ranged so as to give ahigh rate of heat transfer for the cooling function and consequently the same troubles prevail in copper ?n cores wherein tubes may never fully reach a temperature for the oil to break through so as to allow the proper 25 su?icient heat cannot be conducted from tube to tube while a cold air blast is ?owing over the and efficient functioning of an oil cooler in its designed capacity. It has been found that most of the existing oil coolers will function properly and efficiently at temperatures ranging from 32° Fahrenheit to between 200° and 300° Fahrenheit. ?ns, and therefore the oil cannot be broken through to bring the tube into service to sub sequently function as a cooling instrumentality In these devices, in order to obtain an e?icient heat transfer it has been the practice to use Vari ous devices in obtaining exceptional heat trans One of the main objects of the present inven tion is, therefore, to overcome the de?ciencies fervability in moderate or high temperatures. unit which will function below freezing tempera tures and possibly to approximately 20° below in the oil cooler core. _ _ _ , above mentioned and to create a core or oil cooler Such devices may encompass an assortment of methods which are well known in the practice zero and which also remains ef?cient and prac and by those skilled in the art, many of such tical for higher temperatures. One of the other objects of the present inven items incorporating exceptionally thin, ?at tion is to employ a core or oil cooler unit which tubes, various spacers or agitators located inside of the tubes, or other means such as exceptional 40 is made of ?ns that are of ferrous or low con ;ly high velocities of the ?uid created by virtue of ,certain arrangement of serpentine flow. All of .such devices are intended to create a higher rate of heat transfer. However, most of such de ductivity metal but which are provided with efli cient heat conducting and direct heat transfer members that will act to readily break down congealed oil in the tubes whenever the oil cooler vices are actually only e?icient at moderate tem has been standing idle in abnormally low tem peratures from approximately 32° Fahrenheit " peratures of freezing to zero and below. and upward, but are extremely inefficient when ‘All other advantages and novel features shall hereinafter appear in the following detailed de subjected to act in their created capacity when scription having reference to'the accompanying the same are exposed to freezing temperatures ‘ ‘ that drop‘ 32° below Fahrenheit. Such units have 50 drawings. been found to congeal the oil at the low'tem peratures referred to and it takes an excessive amount of pressure to ?nally break loose and 'al-. low the congealed oil to flow. This may only oc cur in certain of thetubeswhile many of the ‘In the drawings: . Fig. 1 isa front elevational view of a section of core of 'an oil cooler illustrating a preferred form and arrangement of the oil cooler and ther mal members of the. present invention. ‘ 2,410,180 3 4 ring and dissipating heat between the tubes in the manner mentioned. Furthermore the heat tion illustrated in Fig. 1 taken substantially along conducting wires are exposed to the cooling me the line 2—2 in Fig. 1. dium passing over the ?ns. Fig. 3 is another plan section simulating Fig. 2 Obviously, the wires I 4 may be of any other but illustrating another arrangement of the heat G1 relatively high heat conductivity metal and may conducting thermal members in contrast with or may not be in the form of wires. The thermal that illustrated in Fig. 2. conductivity members can also be made, if pre Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan sectional view also ierred, as metal bars or bands or in any other illustrating another arrangement of heat con ducting members such as may be employed in fol 10 form or shape applicable to the particular situa tion and arrangement of elements. lowing the teachings of the present invention. In Fig. 3, the general core construction re Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of another mains substantially the same as in Figs. 1 and 2 modi?ed form of core section. with the exception that the wires I4 are now Fig. 6 is a plan sectional view taken substan tially along the line 6-6 of Fig. 5. 15 supplanted by a modi?ed arrangement and grouping of wires such as at I5 which are adapted Fig. '7 is a plan sectional view of the same core to act and function for the same purpose as here section shown in Fig. 5 but illustrating a modi?ed inbefore stated. In Fig. 3, the wires I 5 radiate or arrangement of the heat conducting thermal expand in pairs from the central enlarged tube members as applied thereto. Fig. 8 is still another form of core section as 20 I I to the peripherally grouped tubes ID. A mod i?cation of this arrangement is illustrated in viewed in front elevation; and Fig. 4 wherein wires I6 are employed, and where Fig. 9 is a plan sectional view taken substan in the ends of two wires extend laterally from the tially along the line 9-—9 in Fig. 8. center enlarged tube to the laterally disposed side Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, a preferred form of tubes Iii in the same manner as in Fig. 3 but core section is indicated with a plurality of tubes wherein the other ends of the wires I6 are ?rst IE! which may be interspersed with one or more directed to the outermost corner tubes for the tubes I I arranged at intervals between the tubes sake of better conductivity and a greater amount II). In this form of construction, the tubes I53 of heat transfer to such tubes, and wherein the may be of the usual size and cross-sectional area or of any standard size while tubes such as I I 30 ends I? of the wires it are then turned inwardly to meet the intermediate tubes Iii at opposite are over-sized with respect to the former for the purpose of reducing friction and to permit the sides thereof. In this manner the wire ends free ?ow of ?uid such as oil therethrough and terminate on each side of one remote tube in under abnormally cold conditions and under the stead of having one wire terminate on one tube usual range of pressures normally employed in alone as in Fig. 3. This would a?ord a better oil coolers. controlled and guided heat distribution for the All of the tubes in Figs. 1 and 2 are suitably purpose of thawing out the corner tubes or such connected and disposed in spaced relation by other tubes that are more remotely located with conventional ?ns of any well known form or con respect to the central region of the core. struction and in the present case such ?ns are By arranging the wires I6 in the manner shown straight as shown and designated by the refer in Fig. 4, a certain shielded or dead air space is ence numeral I2. As hereinbefore referred to the theoretically formed upon the ?n I2 that may be ?ns may be constructed of steel, Monel metal or designated generally as I8 in Fig. 4. This area Cupro nickel or of any other ferrous material simulates the shielded areas 49 and 26 which are of low thermal conductivity metal for the pur so created by the looped wires I4 in Fig. 2. This pose of strengthening the core structure of the affords the additional advantage of having a seg oil cooler; and the tubes I0 and II may or may regated portion of certain ?ns shielded more or not be of such metal and are preferably of cop less by encompassing wires or wire. This shielded per. The ?ns can also be made of copper when ?n area, for all practical purposes, will receive ever conditions permit. somewhat less cooling air and will therefore act In addition to the tubes It and I I and the ?ns to become a more ef?cient and better heat con I2, the present invention proposes and very effi ducting pathway or surface to further aid the ciently incorporates the use of copper wire con thermal members in thawing out the outlying nectors such as I I! that act as heat conducting members which are so incorporated in the core 55 tubes with respect to the other and over-sized free ?owing tubes such as I I. as to substantially offer no additional resistances In Figs. 5 to 7 inclusive, the core structures are to the free flow of the air therethrough. These primarily such as to be directed to the use of copper wires I4 are conveniently connected be tubes such as Ii] that may all be of a standard tween the free ?owing oil tubes I I of larger cross Fig. 2 is a plan sectional view of the core sec also then act as a collateral instrumentality as a size but which are divided into smaller heat con 60 ducting passages by means of thin longitudinal members such as the vanes or dividers 22 best illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7. The vanes or di viders 22 are associated with certain tubes 23 that 65 actually are of the same cross-sectional area and outline as tubes Ill. By the addition of the vanes we have arrived at the same results that pre vail in the use of over-sized tubes II in combina tion with the smaller size tubes I0. The only 70 difference in Figs. 5 to '7 inclusive is that all of the tubes are of the same external size with the exception that tubes IE} remain free and open and are equivalent to the over-sized tube II of Figs. 2 to 4, while the tubes 23 carrying the vanes or further convenient and efficient way of transfer 75 dividers 22, simulate the tubes Ii] in the sense sectional area which will naturally receive a con siderable amount of heat from the oil as the lat ter starts to flow therethrough, and the wires extend to the other tubes of lesser cross-sectional area and in which the oil would normally be congealed during the early warm-up stage of the oil cooler. The wires I4 may be brazed or sol dered or secured in any manner desirable and are also secured to the ?ns I2 thereby to further expedite the transfer of heat between the large warm or hot tube II and the smaller tubes I 0. Inasmuch as the wire forms a shielding means or a small wind break for a limited portion of the ?n, the latter shielded section of said ?n will 2,410,180 5 6 , that they contain more restricted and narrower plicable to produce the same‘ fundamental results passageways. and to carry out the purpose herein related. For this reason the present invention is not to be limited to the exact description or identical dis closures excepting insofar as shall be determined by the breadth and scope of the appended claims. What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. A core for liquid coolers comprising a plu ' In Figs. 5 and 6, the heat transfer elements are composed of relatively short wires 24 that transgress the lateral space between the sets or rows of tubes to form the conducting members for transferring the heat from the open tubes to the divided tubes 23. In Fig. 7, the wires 24 have been supplanted by means of the straight wires 25 to function in 10 rality of liquid cooling tubes, some with relatively the same capacity, namely, as solid thermal con small liquid passageways and certain others have ducting members. The Wires 25 are disposed to ing comparatively large liquid passageways, cool . ?ank the tubes Ill and 23 so as to extend in the ing ?ns traversing said tubes, and heat conduct— line of the normal ?ow of air through the core ing members for thermally connecting a tube section. having a large liquid passageway with a plurality The oil cooling core structure shown in Figs. 8 of tubes having smaller liquid passageways to and 9 is essentially an outcrop of several of the provide heat transfer and equalizing heat dissi foregoing forms and includes a plurality of tubes pation units, said heat conducting members com 23 having the dividers 22 inserted therein, which prising wires of comparatively large cross-sec tubes are interspersed with one or more over tional areas with relatively small exposed surface sized tubes such as H. In this core as in the areas and having a greater coe?icient of heat cores of Figs. 1 and 5, the usual and conventional conductivity than the ?ns. type of ?ns l2 are employed for cooling the tubes. 2. A core for liquid coolers comprising a plu However, certain of the ?ns l2 are supplanted rality of liquid cooling tubes, some with rela by means of the heavier and. more ef?cient heat 25 tively small liquid passageways and certain others conducting ?ns 26 for the purpose of functioning having comparatively large liquid passageways, as the thermal conducting members for trans cooling ?ns traversing‘ said tubes, and heat con ferring and dissipating a more generous amount ducting members bonded to the tubes and adapt of heat from the enlarged and oversized tubes ! l ed for thermally connecting a tube having a to the smaller and more restricted tubes 23 during 30 comparatively large liquid passageway with a the warm-up stages at the beginning of the op plurality of tubes having relatively small passage eration of the oil cooler. The ?ns 2B in Figs. 8 ways to provide heat transfer and equalizing heat and 9 are preferably of heavy copper or of other dissipation wires, said heat conducting members high heat conductivity metal. comprising solid wires composed of a material of From the foregoing description relating to the 35 higher heat conductivity characteristics com various forms and modi?cations of means for pared to said cooling ?ns. creating an e?icient equalization of heat dissipa 3. A heating conducting means in a core of a tion during the early stages of the warm-up liquid cooler having tubes and ?ns, comprising a period of the oil cooler, it should be noted that solid heat conducting member exposed to a cool the main principle predominant in the descrip 40 ing medium passing over said ?ns, said heat con tion and'disclosure relates to the use of a wire or any other formed piece of metal of compara tively large cross-sectional area and which wire or formed piece of metal possesses a low or ducting member being of relatively large cross sectional area and relatively small surface area and carried between and bonded to certain tubes and secured contiguous with a ?n, said member reasonably small exposed surface that is not read 45 being of higher heat conductivity than said ?n ily a?ected by the air ?ow through the oil cooler and providing a de?nite pathway for directed core. The sole function of this wire or formed heat dissipation between tubes, said portion of piece of metal or heavy ?n as in the case of Figs. said ?n immediately adjacent said heat conduct 8 and 9 is to transmit heat from the large tubes ing member also coacting with said member to to the small high cooling capacity tubes for the 50 increase said heat dissipation along the direction purpose of breaking down the congealed oil and of said member. to quickly place these tubes into service for the 4. A core for a liquid cooler comprising a tube purpose ._'of subsequently cooling said oil. The having a large passageway, a plurality of tubes same wire or formed piece of metal also acts in having relatively smaller passageways, cooling the dual capacity of subsequently preventing the 55 ?ns connecting all of said tubes, and a heat con congealing of oil in the small high cooling ca ducting copper wire bonded to the tube having pacity tubes whenever said core is subjected to the large passageway and to the plurality of continual cold air blasts of abnormally low tem tubes having the relatively small passageways peratures. ' and serving to conduct heat from the ?rst named As is obvious from the description and the dis 60 tube to the others during the warming up stage, closures in the drawings, the principal features and the ?ns serving to prevent overheating of of the present invention may be adapted to the tubes. numerous modi?cations which are ultimately ap CHARLES T. PERKINS.