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Oct. 29, 1946.,
w. H. BASELT ETAL
2,410,195
ROTOR AND METHOD OF MAKING
Filed July 8, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Oct. 29,1946.
W,v g, BASEITT ETAL
2,410,195
‘ ROTOR AND METHOD OF MAKING
Filed July 8, 1942 ,
4 Sheets-Shed 2
Oct. 29, 1946. . '
w. H. BASELT ETAL.
'
r
2,410,195
ROTOR AND METHOD OF MAKING"
Filed July 8, 1942 '
, Z”
151?: '1"
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTORS.
o'ff?ewe?t ~
Oct.‘ 29,- 1946.
_w. HEBASELT ET'AL
2,410,195
ROTOR AND METHODVOF MAKING
Filed July 8, 1942
I-l‘i
NAN.
-4 Sheets—Sheet 4
Patented 0d. 29, i§4é
" 2,410,195
I 1 UNITED» STATES PATENT orifice."
ROTOR AND ‘METHOD OF MAKING
Walter H. Baselt, Tucson, Ariz., and Carl E. Tack,
. Chicago, 111., assignors to American Steel
Foundries, Chicago,v 111., a corporation of New
Jersey
Application July 8, 1942, Serial No. 450,136
(Cl. 188-218)
19 Claims.
'1
2
plates, said plates a?‘ording support for annular
Our invention relates to brake equipment and
particularly to a novel form of rotor designed ,to'
be- associatedswith other braking means com
iron brake rings cast thereon as above described.~
:monly called stators Whose engagement with said
rotor formed and arranged as- described in the
co-pending application Serial No. 409,999, ?led
September 8, 1941, in the name of Carl E. Tack'
Our invention comprehends a double :blower
rotor is commonly utilized as a means of stopping
a wheel or other rotating-member.’
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' Our novel rotor is particularly adapted for use
and which has issued as Patent No. 2,350,970,'
with railway rolling stock' and is so illustrated,
dated June 6, 1944.
although it will be understood that such a rotor
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Another object of our invention is to devise'f
maybe utilized for any equivalent purpose for 10' a fabricated double blower rotor as above de
which it may be readily adapted. I '
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scribed in which the hub member or support‘ disc
In the present development of off-wheel brakes
is cast integral with the iron brake rings and
comprises radial ribs extending betweenv the
for railway rolling stock, it has been found nec
essary to develop. alparticularly rigid rotor ca
backing members at spaced points, said ribs ex
p'able of dissipating a tremendous amount of heat 15 tending through openings ‘in the backing-mem
(energy. in order .toia?or-d stopping means for
bers to merge with the brake rings and each of
;present day high speed trains. .
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said ribs being reinforced by webs on the hub:
Theigeneral object‘ of our invention is to de
member merging at right angles with said rib.
“vise a rotor which will be eminently satisfactory
Another object of our invention is to devise a
fabricated double blower rotor of the above dee
:for such a: purpose and wherein the’ required
scribed type in which the hublmember or sup=
:strength as well as vthe heat dissipating qualities
port dis-c is welded between radial bladeswhich
'will be a?orded and’ which at the same time‘ will
are in turn welded to the respective backing mem= '
readily meet practical requirements ofmanufac
bers, said members affording support for the iron
An'object of- our invention is to devise such a 25 brake rings cast on the outer surfaces‘ thereof?
:ture-as Well as necessary operating conditions,
rotor comprising'a disc-like support which may
be readily fastenedto theihub of_~a Wheel or’other
as previously described.
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I
Still another object of our invention is to de
vise a single blower rotor in which spaced back
rotating member and may 'serve'as ‘carrying
ing plates ‘a?ord a supportfor iron brake’ rings
means- for a brake ring, said‘brake ring de?ning
in certain of the disclosed modi?cations ‘a double 30 cast thereon, said plates also a?ording a sup
port for radial blades welded therebetween, one
blower 'in'which air is drawn. between the brake
of the backing plates being formed as a hubv
surfaces thereon from'opposite sides of, thefdisc
member and having an annular reinforcing ring
welded thereto at its point of securement' to an '’
associated Wheel or other rotating member-,1 1
likesupport member andvsaid brake‘ ring ‘in'an;
other modi?cation de?ning a single blower rotor
in which air; is drawn b’etweenethe frictionv sur
A further» object ofv our invention is to' devise
iacesfrom only. one side‘ of the disc-like support
member;
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a novel method of manufacturing a rotor such as
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aA'speci?rc object or bur invention is to design.’
a fabricated, rotor of the above described type in
which spaced annular,“ backing members‘ afford
supportdfor‘ iron brake rings ‘cast on the’ outer
surfaces thereof, said‘backing members; also at
fording‘ support for radial blades: welded there
between'f 'In' certain of) the ,modi?cations dis
.above'described.
40
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In the drawings, Figure 1 is aside elevation of;
a'ifabr-icated double blower rotor embodying our»
invention. Figure 2 is ‘an edge elevation taken
from the right of Figure 1, the-lower, half of Fig- ’
ure 2'being asectional view'in the’ radial plane ‘
indicated by theline 2—2 of Figure 1; and Figure
45 31s a further sectional view taken in theradial .
closed 2 the backing members 7 are lannularpplates >
flanged respectively» at > the outer, perimeters _
thereof and in another modi?cation the backing
plane'indicated by the line 3—3 of vFigure 1,.’
members are annular pieces of metallicmesh.
view in elevation, the. upper rightvquarterbeing '
Figure 4 is a side view of another modi?cation‘:
of our novel rotor,_the lefthalfith'ereof' beingfa -
In certain of the modi?cations disclosed the 50 va sectionalviewtaken in the plane indicated by
supporter hub member for the rotor is disposed
intermediate the ,brakingmembers, thus forming
aldouble blower rotoras above described and in
the line 4_—‘4 of Figure"5,:.a'nd.~ the lowerright 1
quarter. being a' sectional-‘view taken ,in the. plane
indicated by the line 4A-..-4A of Figure 5. a Figure ~
5 is an edge view taken froml;the‘right‘as:seen
formed as an integral. parti'of vone of. the backing 55 {in Figure 4, the lower half" thereof being a view in
one modi?cation. the support or hub member'is ‘
2,410,195
3
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fabricated rotor disclosed is formed by spot weld
ing the flanges 8, 8 of the blades 6, 6 to the
elevation and the upper half thereof being a sec
tional view taken in the plane indicated by the
backing plates 2, 2. The backing plates and the
line 5—5 of Figure 4, and Figure 6 is a sectional
blades welded thereto are then inserted into a
view taken in the plane indicated by the line
6-—6 of Figure 4.
Ca mold and the brake rings I6, I6 and the hub 20
are cast thereon, the openings II], II] in the back
Figure '7 is a side view of another modi?cation
ing plates permitting the cast‘iron to flow into
of our invention, and Figure 8 is an edge view
said openings, thus forming the lugs I2, I2 on
taken from the right as seen in Figure '7, the
the brake rings I6, I6, said lugs serving to make
upper half thereof being a view in elevation and
the lower half thereof being a sectional view 10 secure the connection between the rings I6, I6
and the backing plates 2, 2 as will be clearly
taken in the plane indicated by the line 6—-8 of
apparent to those skilled in the art.
Figure 7.
Another modi?cation of our invention is shown
in Figures 4 to 6 inclusive. In this modi?cation
‘a pair of spaced annular members 52, 52, formed
of metal mesh, are welded to the spaced radially
arranged steel blades 54, 54, said backing mem
bers 52, 52 affording a support for the iron brake
rings 56, 56 cast on the outer sides thereof, said
Figure 9 is a fragmentary side View of still an
other modi?cation of our invention, only the up
per half of the rotor being shown inasmuch as
said rotor is symmetrical in design as in the
previous modi?cations. Figure 10 is a sectional
view taken in the radial plane indicated by the
_ line ID—I0 of Figure 9 and Figure 11 is a further
sectional view taken in the radial plane indi
20
cated by the line I I--II of Figure 9. Figure 12 is
a fragmentary edge elevation taken from the top
as seen in Figure 9.
Describing our invention in detail and refer
ring ?rst to the modi?cation shown in Figures
1 to ,3 inclusive, the rotor comprises a pair of
spaced annular backing plates 2, 2, each of said
plates being ?anged at 4 about the outer perim
eter thereof. The spaced radially arranged
blades 6, 6 extend between the backing plates 2, 2 .
and each blade 6 comprises the oppositely di
rected ?anges 8, 8 at opposite edges thereof in
order to facilitate welding or said blade to the
backing plates 4, 4 as hereinafter more fully de
scribed. Each backing plate 2 comprises a plu
rality of, round openings I0, I0 therethrough for
the reception of complementary lugs I2, I2 on
the brake ring I6 cast thereon as hereinafter
morefully described. The braking rings I6, I6
present outwardly directed annular friction sur 40
faces at opposite sides of the rotor, and said sur
faces are formed and arranged for engagement
with stationary brake shoes or other nonrotat'ing
friction members, whereby the rotor and‘ the ro
tating member to which it is attached may be
conveniently decelerated aswill be clearly appar
ent to those skilled in the art.
‘
The brake rings I6, I6 are integral with the
rings being integral with the disc-like support
or hub member 58 comprising the spaced radi
ally arranged ribs 60, 60 extending between the
backing members 52, 52 and integral with the
brake rings ‘56, 56. At opposite sides of each rib
66 are the webs 62, 62 merging at right angles
therewith, said webs being integral with the sup
port or hub member ‘58. It will be noted from
a comparison of Figures 4 and 6 that the steel
blades 54, 54 at opposite sides of each radial rib
60 are relieved as at 64, 64 respectively in order
to accommodate the reinforcing webs 62, 62 as
sociated with the rib 60.
The support or hub member 58 comprises the
annular flange 66 at the inner perimeter thereof
and said hub member also comprises the spaced
bosses 68, 68 therearound, each of said bosses com
prising an opening ‘I0 therethrough. vIt will be
readily apparent that, as in the previous modi
?cation, the flange 66 will be received within a
complementary bore on an associated wheel or
other rotating member. The hub portion will
seat as at ‘I2 against said rotating member, the
rotor being secured to said member by any con
venient means extending through the openings
10, ‘I0 and secured to the associated member.
In the modi?cation shown in Figures 4 to 6
the fabricated rotor disclosed is manufactured by
spot welding the radial steel blades 54, 54 to the
mesh backing members 52, 52, said blades and
disc-like support or hub member 20 cast on the
backing plates as hereinafter more fully described, 50 said mesh members being then inserted in a mold ‘
and the brake rings 56, 56 as well as the hub or
and integral radial ribs 22, 22 are formed on the
hub 26, and extend between the brake rings I6,
I6 through the associated openings I0, I0 in the
support member 56 being cast thereon as will be
backingplates, as best seen in the lower half of
Figure 2, and at opposite sides of each rib 22 are
Still another modi?cation of our invention is
clearly apparent.
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disclosed in Figures '7 and 8 wherein the spaced
annular backing plates I 62, I02 are welded to
formed webs 24,24 merging at right angles with
the rib 22, said webs 24, 24 being integral with
the substantially V-shaped radially arranged
the hub 20 as will be best understood from a
blades I64, I64 at opposite sides of the rotor.
Extending between the blades I64, I 04 at each
consideration of Figures 1 and .3'. The hub 261s
formed with an annular flange 26 at the inner 60 side of the rotor is a bell-shaped support or hub
member I66 welded as at I68, I68 to said blades.
perimeter thereof and with a series of spaced
The backing plates I62, I02 are ?anged as at
bosses 28, 28 adjacent said perimeter, said bosses
having respective openings 36, 36 therethrough.
III], III] respectively for the accommodation of
the iron brake rings I I2, I I2 cast on the respec
To those skilled in the art it will be clearly ap
parentthat the ?ange 26 will be received within 65 tive backing plates, said brake rings extending
through openings I I4, I I4 on the respective plates
a complementary bore on an associated rotating
as in the modi?cation shown in Figures 1 to 3
member, said hub portion being seated at 32
inclusive.
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(Figures 2. and 3) against said member and be
The inner perimeter of the hub member I66
ing secured thereto by any convenient means
comprises the annular flange I I6, said ?ange be—
such as bolts or rivets extending through the
ing receivable within a complementary bore on
openings 30, 36 and through aligned openings on
an associated rotating member as described for
the associated rotating member, the openings 30,
the corresponding ?anges disclosed in the previ
30 in the rotor being reinforced by the bosses28,
ous modi?cations. On the inner surface of the
28 as will be clearly apparent.
‘
In the modi?cation shown in Figures 1 to 3 the 75 hub‘member I96 and adjacent the inner perimeter
2,410,195,
6
ble blower rotor was. formed which, tdu'ringeopera-? .
tion thereof, was adapted todraw; air between.
thereoian annular. ring I;I_8~.is weldedlasat .120, ,,
I20. . (Figure. ,8) ,. said....ring andrsaid. hubvv member .
comprising the alignedopenings I22, I 2.2 there-W
the backing members from opposite sidesot the. _,
throughnlItwillvbe apparent that therotor. shown .
support_member..
.
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in Figures .7 and. Smaybesecuredto. an associated 5 inclusive,
In. themodi?cation
the blades disclosed
I56, "I 56,, in
and
Figures
vI 63,;..l,68..- are... .
rotating memberrthrough the openings J22, I22 7,
welded
between
the
backing
plates
I52 and I53,”
substantially asdescribedior the previoussmodimg
and. the structure thus formed isplacedina mold
?cations, the. annular ring,_ ,I I8, serving as. rein.
forcing means , as ,will'. b,e_,clearly.apparent.“ .
and the iron brakerinss. -.|.-l5, Illi are,cas_t..onithe...;
. . i, . ,.
. In, the. modi?cation.shownjnFigures ,7, ,andgB, 10 Outer. surfacesv of. the. backing... plates . I52... and .
I53, said, brake rings extending throughthe, opem, ;
thecenter member formed ofa pressed steel plate H
ings I15, I14 in the respective backing plates sub: _‘
stantiallxas in the. .nreviouspmodi?cations- . The... ,
I94, I04, said blades thenbeingspot welded at ,
I 24, , 1.2.4,; to the respective annular backing plates.
annular rings‘ I 62,, ,I 62maybewelded to the back; _
I02, J02. , The structure?thus f_o_rmed_is_ then, 15 ing_plate 15s “ancLto the bladesI56, I56 either
beforeorafter the casting operation but pref_er.- ,_
placed in amold and the annular iron brake rings
ably beforesaid operation in order ,_ to form a
H2, IIZLare castto. the respective ~.backine plates
rigid structure upon which to cast the iron brake
I02, I02 as described for theprevious modi?ca: _,
tions,. the cast. iron .Qomprisins the rings 7.! I2, .112
extending ‘through. the openings II4, [I4
the
20
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closed-in Figures 9 to. 12 inclusive. andipthis
_ modi?cation the spaced annular backing plates
I 52 and 153 are Welded’ at 154,1] Mthmugh round.
posed between. thehladesiand. in still another
modi?cation one of the backing platesbeing___ 4
formed. and arranged as?» hub member, .rrhereby
m'r' is. drawn between the backing plates from one,‘
within ,‘a complementary yboreeon an associated
/35
adjacent its inner; perimet'erhand “welded, to said
plate are the spaced annularjrings I62,‘ I_52__comv
openings I64 beingalignedvvith the openings I60
on’ thebacking plate‘ I573: in order to‘ afford pas
sage for associated securing means, said means
Serving to. secure the .FQtQIT to. the associated m
tating memberas in the modi?cations previously
side oi‘ithe hub member only.
It is tobe. understqvd that. We do not wish-to..,
be limited bythe‘exactembodiments of the de; ,
vice $120M? which are merely by. Way of. illustra: ,
tionand not limitation as various and other forms ’ ‘
of, the device will, of course, be apparent to, those ,_ U
prising "the‘olpenings'lt‘d, I54 therethrough, the
.
rings cast thereon, in certain of the ‘Vmodi?eations
the brake rings being integral twithadiscylike?
hub member extending“ between the, backing__
plates, in another rmodiiieationnithe;steelblades,
being welded to. adisuc-like backing plate inter? -
openings therein. to. the "radial steeliblades. I56,
I56, thebackins plate I53 cornbrisirlgthe annular
?ange I53. at the, innerrerimeterrthereqitp said
?ange being formedand‘ arranged for reception
described.
._
backing members affording support for iron brake _ '
~25
.A fourthmodi?cation of?our inventionis . dis.
rotating member. as will be swarmed- lThe
backing plate I53>;comprisestheopenings I60, I60
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rotor'in which. radial. steel. blades areiwelded p.911”
tween. Spaced annular backing members, said.
cient securement thereto.
may be welded. to. the supporter bub member. I 06.
either before or after the, ~_casti-nggof,_v the brake,
rings II2, [I2 as desired‘; v
rings.
Thus. it will be seenthat
-. in each
,.
of theqmqdi?z
-._
cations disclosed,_ we havedesigned a fabricated ,
40
skilled in the art ‘without departing from the
spirit of the invention or the scope or the ,elaims.
we‘clairrir ,
, 1. ‘The method of fabricating a rotorcomprisa '
ing the steps Qtwelding a plurality of spaced '
radial blades at opposite/edges thereofvto apair _
v
.The was its"; late ajtt'wadeiaiegw ‘
ofspaced perforated annular backinginembers, _
and then‘casting brake rings on the remote sur
the eadiacent annals ring; lites; best- seen in
Figure ~10>_._'a_nd\ between; each blade: I56nand the
faces of said members and simultaneously ecast-v ,
adjacent blade l56'area pair of, radial steel, ing asupport hub with ‘radial ribs extending be-/
blades I68,HI 6Y8, saidblades being reversely flanged 50 tween said members and into certain of the per- _.
forations therethrough.
at;opposite edges thereoi as at I10; _I'I0,i_n order
2. In a rotor, spaced annular friction members, ;
to - facilitate thewwelding ‘or’: said: blades . to the
radial blades extending‘thereb'etween,and a hub
backing plates, Island I5K3Y,"said blades being ‘spot
welded to saidplates as in the case of the corre
sponding blades ‘disclosed in theuprevious modi
?cations.
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55
a
having radial ribs extending. between said mem-vv
.bers and ‘connected thereto,.said hub comprising
spaced webs extending between said members at
opposite sides ofvrleach rib and joining-the sam
Each backing plate iISZVjand I53 comprises an, .
annular flange I‘I2- on the outerpperimeterf there
at'substantially right angles thereto.
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3. In a rotor, spaced annular friction members,
tending therethrough. Gaston the outer surface 60 radial blades extending therebetween, and a hub
having radial ribs extending between said mem
of each of the'backing'plates;l52, and I53 is an
bers andv connected thereto,‘ said hub comprising
iron brake ring 116, saidvbrake. ring- extending
of'and the spaced circular; openings I14, I14 ex- ‘
spaced webs extending between said members at» 1
through ‘the openings ,I'III, , H4 in the associated
opposite sides of each riband joining the 'same'at
backing plate and abutting the’ ?angej'nthere
on as will be clearlyapparent from a considera
tion oiFiguresQand 1,1.
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It will be readily apparent that the modi?ca
tion- shown in Figures 9 to 12 inclusive differs
from the previous modi?cations in that one of
65
‘substantially right angles thereto, eachof‘said
Webs extending ‘‘through a radialv slot in the ad
jacent blade.
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4.'In a fabricated brake rotor,spac_ed backing ‘
members, brake ringsv cast-on‘ the remote sur
the backing plates I53 isjf‘ormed and arranged 70 facesrthereo?qa support "hub, having portions as a support or hub member and comprises the
means "for Isecuringxlthe'irotor to an associated
extending‘between said members‘, and cast there
rotating member, .Whe'rfeaskin the previous modi
at"5.opposite
In a fabricated
edges thereoftoisaidjmembers.
brake rotor, spaced backing
V
?cations the hub member was connected to the
rotor between the backing plates, whereby a dou
on, and blades extending between and welded '
75 members, brake rings cast on the remote sur
2,410,195
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perforated backing plates, a hub member having
spaced portions extending therebetween and east
faces thereof, a support hub having portions ex- ’
tending between said members and cast thereon,
through the perforations in said'plate's to merge
and blades extending between and welded at
with brake rings cast on the remote sides there
opposite edges thereof to said members, said
backing members being formed with annular in of, blades connected between said plates, and
?anges on their outer perimeters con?ning said
annular ?anges on the outer perimeters of said
rings.
plates con?ning the associated rings.
6. In a fabricated brake rotor, spaced annular
14. In a fabricated brake rotor, spaced annular
perforated backing members, )metallic brake
backing members, a plurality of spaced radial
10 blades welded between said members, metallic
rings cast on the remote surfaces of said mem
bers,'and'a hub member comprising radial ribs
extending between said backing members, said
brake rings cast on the remote surfaces of said
members, and a hub member comprising radial
ribs being cast through the perforations in said
ribs extending between said backing members
members and merging with said rings.
and cast ‘thereon, said hub member comprising
'7. Ina fabricated brake rotor, spaced annular 15 a plurality of webs merging at opposite sides of
each rib at substantially right angles thereto,
perforated backing ‘members, metallic brake
each of said webs extending through a radial slot
rings cast on the remote surfaces of said mem~
in the adjacent blade. 7
bers, a hub member comprising radial ribs ex
15. A fabricated rotor comprising spaced back
tending between said backing members, said ribs
being cast through the perforations in said mem
ing members with openings therethrough, blades
bers and merging with said rings, and a plu
welded between said members, and a structure
cast on said members comprising brake rings on '
rality of webs on said hub member merging with
opposite sides of each rib at substantially right
the remote sides of said members and a support
member including spaced portions merging with
angles thereto.
8. vIn a fabricated brake rotor, spaced annular 25 said rings through said openings.
16. A method of fabricating a rotor comprising
backing members, a plurality of spaced radial
the steps 'of inserting into a mold a structure
blades welded between said members, metallic
comprising spaced perforated backing members,
brake rings cast on the remote surfaces of said
members, and a hub member comprising radial
at least one of which is provided with a central
ribs extending between said backing members and 4
cast thereon.
9. In a fabricated brake rotor, spaced annular
backing members, a plurality of spaced radial
blades welded between said members, metallic
brake rings cast on the remote surfaces of said
members, and a hub member comprising radial
ribs extending between said backing members and
cast thereon, said hub member comprising a p1u~
rality'of webs merging at opposite sides of each
rib at substantially right angles thereto.
10. The method of fabricating a rotor compris
ing the steps of inserting into a mold a structure
consisting of spaced annular perforated backing
members and substantially radial blades con
nected therebetween, and then casting on said
structure brake rings abutting the- remote sides
of said members and simultaneously casting a
support hub with substantially radial ribs extend
ing between said members and merging with said
rings through said perforations.
11. In a fabricated brake rotor, spaced backing
members, a plurality of blades connected there
opening, and substantially radial blades con
nected between said members, and then casting
on said structure brake rings abutting the remote
sides of said members and simultaneously casting
a support hub extending through said opening
with a plurality of spaced columns extending be
tween said members and through certain of said
perforations to merge with said rings.
17. A method of fabricating a rotor gomprising
‘the steps of inserting into a mold a structure
41 comprising spaced backing members, at least one
of which comprises a central opening there
through, ,and substantially radial blades con
nected between said members, and then casting
‘on said structure brake plates abutting the re
:mote sidesof said members and simultaneously
.casting a support hub extending through said
{openings with spaced portions extending between
said members and into passages therethrough to
merge with respective plates.
18. A method of fabricating a rotor comprising
the steps of welding a plurality of radial blades
at opposite edges thereof to a pair of spaced per
forated backing members, at least one of which
between, metallic brake members cast on the re-‘
is provided with a central opening, and then
,mote sides of said backing members, and a hub.
memberwith spaced portions extending betweert 55 casting friction elements on the remote surfaces
said backing members and cast through openings
of said members and simultaneously casting a
support hubextending through said opening with
therein to merge with said brake members, at
a plurality of spaced columns extending between
least one of said backing members and'its 'asso»
ciated brake member being provided with fluid.
said members and through certain of the per
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inlet means communicating with the space be- (B6 forations therethrough.
tween said backing members.
19. A method of- fabricating a brake rotor com—
prising the steps of welding a plurality of blades
12. In ‘a fabricated brake rotor, spaced back
ing members each being formed of metallic mesh,
to a pair of spaced backing members, at least
one of which comprises a central opening, and
a plurality of blades connected therebetween,
metallic brake members cast on the remote sur» 65 then "casting friction plates on the remotesides
of said members and'simultaneously casting a
faces of said backing members, and a hub with
support hub extending through said opening with
spaced ribs extending between said ‘backing:
spaced integral portions extending between said
members and cast therethrough to merge with.
members and into passages therethrough to.
said brake members, at least one‘ of said backing
members and its associated brake member being 70 merge with respective plates.
provided with a ?uid inlet communicating with.
WALTER. I-I. 'BASELT.
the space between said backing members;
13, A fabricated brake rotor comprising spaced '
CARL E. TACK;
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