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Патент USA US2410333

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6st. 29, 19%.
v 2,41,333
Filed_April 29, 1940 ‘
6 Sheets-Sheet 1
@ct. 2,19%.
Filed April- 29, 1940
s Sheets-Sheet 2
Get 29, 3946.
Filed April 29, 1940
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
0m. 29, 1946.
Filed April 29, 1940
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
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06L 29, 1946.
‘ 2,410,333
' Filed April 29, 1940
6 Sheets-Sheet 6 .
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1575- _/42
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
Jean A. H. Barkeij, Altadena, ‘Calif.
Application April 29, 1940, Serial No. 332,522
35 Claims.
(Cl. ‘ill-189.5)
My invention relates primarily to hydraulic
shows Fig. 10 on the section line 'I‘I-II thereof.
Fig. '11 shows further ‘mechanism or means to
control the conversion of the converter into a
coupling and conversely, by the driver at will
and preferably in connection with the fuel con
power transmission and more particularly with
that kind of transmission which is called the
Foettinger type of hydraulic coupling or hydro
‘kinetic‘torque converter.
vMy ?rst object is to arrange hydraulic mecha
"trol element‘ of the prime mover.
nism in such a way with other mechanism or
The same idle ‘runner, however, may be used,
planetary gearing in general so as to reduce the
‘to drive the runner slightly in opposite direction
relative speeds of the impeller and runner of the
as we will explain hereinafter.
hydraulic mechanism ‘to a minimum thereby in 10
Fig. 12 show a modi?cation of Fig. 11, in which
creasing the emciency of a hydraulic mechanism,
the driver controls the device of Figs. 10 and 11
My second object is to combine a planetary
by ‘means of a single solenoid, instead of two.
gearing with a hydrokinetic coupling or converter
Fig. 13 shows that ‘the planetary gearing may
in such a way that the usual creeping tendency
be soarranged that the two intermediate side
exerted on the ‘vehicle by such couplings, and/or
gears (4a and 'I) may be connected with the im
converters, is entirely eliminated. With creeping
peller and runner of the hydrokineticx mecha
‘tendency is meant the tendency of such a drive
nism and the planetary carrier may be connected
to move the vehicle forwards with the engine
vwith the propeller shaft for instance by means of
an intermediate gearing I5 and Hi to the driven
My third object is to associate said second ob 20 mechanism, as for instance a vehicle.
ject with a free-wheel mechanism tending to
Fig. 14 shOWs how a pawl Ila can release the
prevent the exertion of backward drive to vthe
freewheel of Fig. 6 for reverse drive.
vehicle, said freewheel allowing only a forward
Fig. 15 shows a centrifugal governor control
motion but no backward motion, unless elimi
ling a valve to release the pressure in anoil-pres
sure pump, in ‘order to release the brake mecha..
Other objects will appear hereinafter during
nism to vstop the vanes of the rotor III shown in
the discussion of the various ?gures.
‘Figs. 10 and 11.
Figs. 1 to '7 are diagrammatical drawings to
Fig. 16 shows the combination of the Figs. 8,
explain the principle of my invention.
"11 and 15. The brake II'I operates on'theplane
Fig. 8 shows the combination of a prime mover 30 tary carrier and the impeller connected there
with a hydrokinetic torque converter, the prime
with. The brake I35 operates on the idle runner
mover being connected to one driving shaft of a
III of Fig. 11. The meaning of the separation
planetary gearing, the planetary carrier of said
lines ‘S1, S2, S3 ‘are explained ‘hereinafter. The
gearing and the other, driven, shaft being in driv
accelerator ‘I38 operates either on the brake H1,
ing connection with each other through said con 35 or on the brake I35. The governor I41 operates
verter, and said other shaft being in driving re
only on the brake I35.
lation to a vehicle carrying said combination,
Fig. 1'7 shows a combination of the features of
preferably through a gear reduction drive.
Figs."3, 7 or ‘9 with 11, and 15. The brake I34
‘Fig. 9 shows the combination of a hydrokinetic
operates on the planetary carrier or differential
coupling and a prime mover, said motor being 40 housing and the runner connected therewith.
connected to the impeller of said coupling and
'The brake #35 operates on the idle runner III of
the runner thereof being connected to an over
Fig. 11. The accelerator controls either the brake
IM or the brake 935. The governor I41 controls
drive between said runner and the housing or
carrier of a planetary gearing, having two shafts
extending therefrom, one being connected to said
motor and said impeller, and the other shaft be
ing geared to the pinion gears rotatably arranged
on said planetary carrier, and in driving con
nection with the gear drive of a vehicle carrying
Figs. 10 and 11 show the combination of a
torque converter and ?uid clutch in one, and
mechanism to change one into the other during
the rotation thereof.
Fig. 10 shows Fig. 11 on
only the brake I35. The ‘meaning of the separa
45 tion lines is the same as that of Fig. 16.
Fig. 13 shows a combination of the Figs. 1, 11
and 15. The brake I34 does not operate on the
planetary carrier, but only on the runner of a ?uid
drive. The brake I35 controls the brake on the
50, idle runner .I H of Fig. 11. The accelerator con
trols either the brake I314, or the brake I35. The
governor con-trols only the brake I35. The mean
ing of the separation lines S1, S2, S3 are the-same
the section line I0—Iil of Fig. 11, .and Fig. 11 55
as before.
Fig. 19 shows a combination of Figs. 13, 11 and
crankshaft of the engine having to the right an
15. The brake I34 operates or controls again the
planetary carrier of a planetary or di?erential
mechanism, but does not operate directly on the
runner or impeller of the ?uid drive. The ac
celerator controls either the brake I 34 or the
brake I35, and the governor controls only the
brake I35.
impeller with a series of vanes ?xed thereon
and to the left a runner with a similar number
in reverse. The shift may be a handshift or
a mechanical shift as explained in said prior '
of a circle indicated by the letter X, in the direc
tion indicated by the arrows, and this motion of
of vanes, as shown in Fig. 2, which represents
Fig. l on the section line I-I thereof. The run
ner is connected to the driven mechanism 3,
here shown as the rear axle of a vehicle, carrying
this combination.
The meaning of the separation lines S1, S2, S3,
>In=such a coupling the oil rotates with the
is the same asfor the previous ?gures.
In the latter four ?gures, the freewheel I3b 10 vanes around the axis of the coupling, which is
the straight line A connecting the motor with
can be locked out for reverse drive, as explained
the rear axle in Fig. 1, but this motion does not
in my prior application No. 676,646, June 20, 1933
transfer practically any power from the impeller
now Patent No. 2,261,898, independently of the
to the runner.
gearshift. And it can be locked out by the gear
The same oil rotates however around the axis
shift substantially simultaneously with the shift 15
the oil is in fact the power transmitting agent.
The oil entering the impeller at the point a
Likewise, the mechanism to lock out the free
.wheel may look out‘ the control of the accelerator 20 from the runner R, has a certain speed depending
upon the distance R1, which is the distance from
onthe reverse, drive (or gearshift as shown in
point a to the axis A of the coupling. The oil
Fig. 15C of Patent No. 2,261,898), because in the
entering at point b from the runner into the im
combinations of Figs. 16 and 1'7 it is evident
peller has a kinetic energy proportional to the
that the momentum of ‘the car, when the free
radius from point I) to the axis A of the coupling,
wheel is locked out, would tend to drive the
which is R2. The total column of oil is thrown
engine in opposite direction so that it would be
by centrifugal force to the periphery of the im
‘stalled. These old features are omitted here but
peller and leaves the impeller at points I and e,
it is emphasized that they may be combined with
which have a radius of respectively B4 and R5 and
In all ?gures the two motors I31 and I311, 30 an inertia corresponding to said radii. (See Fig.
1 mainly.)
have each their entry line I3'Ia to receive the oil
Considering Fig. 2, which shows diagrammat
pressure, and I have shown their exit line I3'Ib
ically Fig. 1 on the section line 2+2, and shows
connected. The separation lines S1, s2, S3, in
a plurality of vanes 0, which may be constructed
dicate clearly how the valves I42 and III21 can
in various ways. In the present explanation it is
be connected crosswise with either pump.
the present construction.
, In Fig. 16 for instance the single separation
convenient to assume that they are arranged
radially and are formed by thin separating parti
s1 indicates that accelerator I38 and valve
(controlled thereby) control the pump I311
the the brake III, and that the governor
and valve I42 control the motor I31 and 40
The two separation lines S2 and S3 in combina
tion indicate that accelerator I38 and valve I421
control motor I31 and brake I35.
tions indicated by the letter 22.
It appears in
Fig. 2 that the area of the entry into the impeller
of ‘each cell between two separating vanes is
a,—b—c—.d, and the area of exit e—,f—g—-h.
These two areas have to be made approximately
equal and the cells between two adjacent vanes
‘may be further separated by concentric thin
_ ‘The two separation lines S1 and S2 in combina
tion indicate that governor I4‘! and valve I42
control the motor I31 and brake I35. The sepa
, walls indicated by two heavy lines extending from
, ration lines S1, S2, S3, in Figs. 17, 18, 19 have
has to come closer to the outer periphery of the
coupling, than the separating wall b—c from the
f to g and from b to c for one cell.
It is evident
from the Figure 2 that the separating wall f-g
the same meaning.
inner periphery thereof. Therefore in Fig. 1
this wall is indicated by the circle X, which is
In all Figures 16, 17, 18, 19, if the accelerator
I38 and valve I421 control the brake I35 and
the idle runner in the fluid drive, this idle runner
excentric to the circular axis Z around the axis
of the coupling as a whole. The axis of the wall
X is therefore on the outside thereof and placed
for instance at Y. In the following ?gures the
two explained axes Y and Z are placed concentric,
because the Figures 3 to 13 show merely the con
structional features of the combination of a hy
either serves to slow down the drive shaft ex
tending into the gearbox (or to reverse it even
in direction, if preferred) in order to effect a
gearshift therein by means of the overrunning
action of the freewheel associated therewith, or
that this idle runner serves to convert the ?uid
‘ coupling into a ?uid torque converter, depending
drokinetic torque converter and/or hydrokinetic
upon the structure preferred in a given vehicle. 60 coupling together with a differential mechanism
in various ways, and in certain converters, having
These various structures and combinations, will
' a stationary reaction member, the passages be
be discussed hereinafter in detail.
tween the vanes or channels differ substantially
Before describing the Figs. 3 to 19 in detail,
from those in couplings, and in said ?gures the
I prefer to give a little bit of theory on hydraulic
mechanism‘ more particularly that of the 65 general arrangements of the parts involved is
only of prime importance and not so much the
Foettinger type, shown in the ?rst seven ?gures,
special arrangement on the inside of the hy
in order to understand better the meaning of
the Figures 3 to 13.
draulic mechanism, as will be evident later on.
Besides in said arrangements of Figs. 8 to 12
Ihave shown diagrammatically a vertical cross 70 one type may be replacedby the other and said
Figures 8 to ,12 are to a certain extent almost
‘section of a Foettinger ?uid flywheel.
_Re_ferring more particularly to Fig. 1, in which
as diagrammatic in their meaning as the ?rst
I is, the motor, preferably ‘an internal com
' bustion engine reaching its maximum thermal
' seven ?gures.
_ It is evident from Figs. 1 and 2 that the move
> schematically the'outer housing connected to the' 75..ment of the oil around the circular axis Y (around
in the higher speed ‘ranges.
-2 indicates
the axis of the coupling indicated by A in Fig.
,1) is the movement, which mainly transfers the
of ' slip)
the average difference between the
‘speeds between the impeller and runner will be
far less than in the arrangement of Fig.1. There
fore it does prevent loss of power by friction, and
flow of power from the impeller to the runner.
vIf we want to transmit a given amount of power
and we desire to use a given quantity of oil and
does decrease the amount of eddying between the
certain centrifugal speeds proportional to the
impeller and runner, and in the dead space be
tween said parts, and between said parts and the
maximum speed approximately of the motor, we
can compute and we know the different radii
outer housing 2.
indicated and we can compute the all around
Therefore the arrangement of Fig. 3 is highly
sizes of the coupling necessary to transmit a given 10 preferable over that of Fig. l.
- .
Fig. 4 shows that in given circumstances of
light load it would have an advantage to make the
side gears 4a and 1 of di?erent diameter as shown
I Assuming that the motor starts to rotate and
the wheels 3 are stationary the impeller has to
‘reach a certain speed before the oil is capable
diagrammatically in Fig. 4.
of moving .the runner vR connected with the 15
Fig. 5 shows that in given circumstances of a
heavy load it would have an advantage to make
the side gears 4a and ‘I of dilferent diameter in
driven mechanism, which offers, of course, an
initial inertia. The slip that occurs between the
impeller and runner is, when starting of course,
reverse order as that of Fig. 4, as shown diagram
terri?c and as soon as the runner begins to
matically in Fig. 5.
In Fig. 6 is shown a one-Way brake 9—l0 ar
move, and the driven mechanism is started, the 20
less the slip becomes until impeller and runner
ranged between the shaft 8 and the stationary
have approximately the same speed. In that
part II, let us say of the housing of the rear
condition the oil practically has only a uniform
motion around the axis A and little around the
If the load is very heavy the shaft 8 would or
axis Y, and the only loss is the friction of the 25 might have a tendency to rotate in reverse direc
oil on the various surfaces in the hydraulic mech
tion and drive the car backwards. To prevent
this, it is advantageous to insert a freewheel with
When the impeller and runner run at widely
rollers in between said shaft 8 and the differ
different speeds the oil is rotated fast around the
ential housing 3, to prevent the car from going
axis Y and is churned at a terri?c rate, and the
backwards until the motor is capable to move the
friction and the slip causes a great loss in the
driven mechanism in the proper direction. It
transmission of power.
is understood, that it should be possible to drive
To prevent this loss to a great extent I pro
pose to arrange other mechanism between the
impeller and motor to decrease said loss to a
the car backwards through the same mechanism
with a reverse gear drive as shown in Fig. 7-, and
the freewheel is so arranged that a pawl Ila, as
minimum and the following diagrammatic ?g
shown in Fig. 14, operating on the outer element
H of the freewheel will allow shaft 8 to rotate
the inner and outer element of the freewheel in
ures serve to show the general nature of my
In Fig. 3 the motor is I, whose crankshaft is
connected with a shaft 4 to the outer housing 2
of the hydraulic mechanism. The housing 2 has
reverse direction.
Another way of preventing this I have shown in
Fig. 7, in which I place a gearbox 12 with sliding
gears between the differential and the rear axle.
However, a sliding gearbox would not do very well
internal vanes 6, forming the impeller and the
runner has vanes indicated by 5, which’ vanes
'are connected to the hollow shaft 5, in which ro~
‘tates the shaft 4 connected to the housing 2. The
shaft 5 is connected to a differential housing or
planetary carrier 6a, and on said differential
‘housing or carrier are rotatably arranged bevel
gears 6b. On this shaft 4 is ?xed a differential
side gear 4a, geared to said bevel gears 6b.
Geared to said level gears 6b is another differ
ential side gear I ?xed on a shaft 8 leading for
instance to the rear ‘axle 3 of a vehicle carrying
said combination.
This fundamental arrangment has the advan
tage over the arrangement of Fig. 1, that the im
peller and runner can be made to run at speeds
if the motor I and the rear axle 3 are connected
with each other through a hydraulic mechanism
without a two-way clutch to separate them, The
impeller exerts at all times a reaction on the
runner and the runner on the impeller, and to
prevent the complication of a two-way clutch,
anywhere between motor and rear axle, I prefer
to place an overrunning clutch l3 between the
gearbox and the rear axle 3.
If the driver closes the throttle with his ac
celerator, the vehicle (or'driven mechanism in
general) can overrun the hydraulic mechanism
‘and a standard sliding gear between the shafts
8 and 811, on either side of the gearbox 12, would
allow the shifting mechanism, which may in
clude synchromesh means and power-operated
explain next.
60 mechanism in that case to operate ef?ciently and
smoothly between said shafts B and 8a. (See my
If shaft 4 rotates at 1000 R. P. M. (motor I) the
Patent No. 2,261,898.)
gear 411 rotates at the same speed and if shaft
In trucks the arrangement of Fig. 7 has ad
8 does not rotate at all, the housing Ea must ro
vantages on hills, where the load becomes too
tate at half the speed, if the gears 4a and 1 have
‘the same diameter, assuming that they are shown 65 heavy for a Foettinger clutch and the slip in
creases. Although the arrangement of Figs. 3 to
in the ?gure.
7 in general would decrease the slip on hills with
I _ The vanes s will rotate at 1000 R. P. M., the
heavy loads, nevertheless a reduction-gear be
vanes 5 will rotate almost simultaneously there
tween the shaft 8 and the rear axle will decrease
“with at 500 R. P. M. If the kinetic energy of the
oil is su?icient to rotate the vanes 5 at 5001/2 10 the slip some more.
In the following Figures 8 to 12 I have shown
R.‘ P. M., the shaft 8 will make only one revolu
l'tion, and the vehicle starts rolling. Therefore
slightly different arrangements in details, and
' means showing how to seal the hydraulic mecha
from that moment up to the moment that shafts
nism against leakage, and I will describe now
,_4_ and 8 are rotating substantially at the same
speed (there is almost always a certain amount 75 said ?gures in succession and to explain why
which differ substantially from the relative
‘speeds of the same parts in Fig. 1, which I will
these figures, no de?nite hydraulic mechanism
should be indicated. In Fig. 8 is shown a hydro
tates the-least little bit, the housing I01 willrotate
at slightly more than half the speed of the shaft
I04. When the shaft H3 rotates slowly there
kinetic converter, in Fig. 9_ a hydrokinetic cou
pling, and in Figs. 10 and 11 a combination of the
two. The position of the circle X as explained in
Fig. l is kept purposely concentric with Y, but
may be shifted in accordance with the. general
and runner II2, ‘but in this type of torque con
verter-said slip is not a total loss at all, because
it converts the relative great rotation of the im
three parts of said differential mechanism may
pling, except for the slight increase of friction
is, of course, a great slip between, impeller III]
peller I I0 into a great force at slow rotative speed
well known characteristics of the Foettinger
on the shaft II3 to drive the car.
clutch or converter in general as explained in
Agear reduction as shown at I I4. may be placed
Figs. 1 and 2. In these ?gures a two-way clutch 10
between the torque converter and the rear axle
is, shown, but it is understood of course, that the
I I5 to reduce the resistance so that shaft I I3 may
freewheel arrangement of‘ Fig. 'Iv may be applied
pick up. speed readily andv so that shaft II3 ro
on said modi?cations in addition to said two-way
tates quickly with the same speed as shaft I04.
clutch. This freewheel always allows to brake
the driving shaft for a shift in the gearbox.
15 The reaction member does not cause any more
slip than that of an ordinary hydrokinetic cou
(It is understood (as shown in Fig. 13) that the
caused by the vanes or cells of the reaction mem
ber in addition to the friction of the liquid in the
connected with the side gears by two concen
tric shafts and that the planetary carrier may be 20 two rotors. Therefore unless the vehicle is
standing on a very steep grade and starts rolling
geared to the driven mechanism.)
backwards, there is not the slightest tendency to
In Fig. 8, “II is the prime mover. I02, the
drive the car backwards. As a. third safeguard
crankshaft thereof, I03 the clutch, which con
and to insure the possibility of a positive drive for
nects- it with a shaft I04, carrying an interme
be so arranged that the impeller and runner are
diate side-gear I05, geared to intermediate (I06) 25 emergency cases, I apply a brake III on the dif
ferential housing IIl‘i. This brake when applied
pinion gears rotatably arranged on a differen
tial housing I01. Said pinion gears are geared
to another intermediate side gear I08 splined on
a shaft H3, which is connected to a rotor of a
holds the differential housing or planetary gear
ing stationary and also the rotor III], splined to
the differential housing IG'I. In that case the
car is driven backwards to get out of a sudden
abnormal resistance at a reduced gear-reduction
of the gearbox H4. The rotor H2 operates as
an impeller against the stationary rotor H0 and
converter, I09. Between said two rotors is a
a complete slip has to take place, because rotor
torquereaction member I! I, which forms a unit
with the stationary housing I 09 of said torque 35 HE is held stationary by the brake III. In so
far as the distance driven backwards is negli
converter. The shaft I I3 may be connected with
gible in the ordinary use of a car, this appre
an intermediate gearbox containing two forward
ciable loss is practically reduced to a negligible
gears, a direct and low gear and eventually a re
loss. Besides, by using brake I II we do not need
verse gear, although this is not imperative. The
to apply a reverse gear in the gearbox at all, be
gearbox is, in driving arrangement with, the dif
cause for parking purposes, and said emergency
ferential rear-axle H5 and wheels H6 of a-ve
cases, we can apply the brake I I7 by hand or foot
hicle, preferably by means of a freewheel or over“
as desired.
running clutch.
If a reverse drive is incorporated in the gear
Before explaining the mode of operation, I will
box Illl, the brake II‘I becomes largely super
explain in general the mechanical difference be
?uous. In either case the freewheel shownmust
tween a hydrokinetic torque-converter and a hy
be eliminated, see Figs. 16 etc.
drokinetic coupling. The former is somewhat
Another modi?cation of a gear drive resem
equivalent to a transformer in the electrical
bling that of Fig. 8, I have shown in Fig. 9.
world, and the latter is somewhat equivalent to a
The prime mover IIB has a crankshaft II9
mere switch, The former consists of three ele
connected by a two-way clutch I20 to a shaft I2-I,
ments, a runner, a reaction member and an im
splined to a hydrokinetic coupling, I22, although
peller, the latter has only two elements, an im
here, as in the modi?cation of ‘Fig. 8, a hydro
peller and a runner. In both devices the runner
kinetic torque converter of the design of Fig. 5
and impeller has vanes or cells, directing the
could be equally used, if desired. The impeller
?uid (usually light mineral oil in the housing of
I22a, forms a torque tube for they shaft I2I, and
the coupling) in a circle around the circular axis
is connected to a side-gear ‘I29 in a differential
of the cells of the runner and impeller. This
gearing. The runner I23 is connected toa disc
circular axis is in a plane perpendicular to the
with a gear I24, geared to the gears I25, rotat
common longitudinal axis of runner and im
peller. Upon rotation the liquid in‘the coupling 60 ably arranged on a stationary member I26‘in the
present construction, and these latter gears are
is- subjected to a dual motion. One motion is a
geared to a gear I21 forming one part with the
tendency of the ?uid in the. cells of runner and
differential housing or planetary carrier I28, on
impeller to merely rotate in a circle around‘ the
which are rotatably arranged the intermediate
common axis of the two rotors, when they both
rotate in the same direction. The other motion 65 pinion gears I30, which are geared to the inter
mediate side gear I3I, on the driven shaft I32
is a tendency of the ?uid to rotate around the
connected eventually by gear reduction, as in Fig.
circular axis of the two rotors as indicated by the
8, to the rear axle I33 of the vehicle. A hand or
arrows in Figs. 8 and 9.
foot brake I34 maybe again applied on the dif
In Fig. 8, when the motor rotates (let us say
ferential housing. Or a'power brake as shown
clockwise) the driving gear I05, the ?uid in the
in Fig. 17.
converter tends to rotate immediately both rotors
hydrokinetic torque converter. The differential
housing or planetary carrier IB‘I is connected to
the. other rotor IIEI of said hydrokinetic torque
' H2 and II!) in the. same direction. If the shaft
I I3 offers considerable resistance, the housing
IB'I is rotated at half engine speed when the shaft
' II3 is standing still. As'soon as the shaft I I3’ro
The operation of this device is somewhat dif
ferent from that of Fig. 8. When the. motor
rotates the impeller I22a, it immediately tends
75 to rotate the runner I23. in the same direction, so
that the driving gearI29 and the pinion-or plane
tary gears I30 form a-unit-tending torotate at the
thereof. The reaction'member III of Fig. 8 I
have/arranged within the stationary member I09,
same speed in the same direction. Thereaction,
so that a. brake band I35 can be operated from
however, of the shaft I32 and gear I 3I, geared
a stationary point over the reaction member II'I
to the pinion gears I30, tends immediately to re
so that the device becomes -a hydrokinetic con;
tard the runner I23. Here, as in Fig. 6, if the
verter if the brake is applied and a hydrokinetic
rotor I23 rotates at half the speed of the impeller
coupling if the brake is released. In the latter
I22 the motor has a tendency to drive the car
case the member III loses its charactervas a re
backwards. However, the low gear which may
action member and is able to rotate freely so
be applied between rear axle I33 and shaft I32 1.0 that the device becomes a mere fluid coupling, the
prevents such tendency positively, except in ex
member III rotating virtually "at the same speed
treme emergency cases. In saidcases the brake
as the impeller.
I34 should be applied and the'car freed from the
The brake band is contracted by a fluid vmotor
emergency by the positive gear drive obtained
I31, which is under control of the driver. In the '
thereby, as eXplainedfor Fig. 8.
present arrangement it is preferred to control the
It is understood that a hydrokinetic torque con
member III through the fuel control element or
verter may be substituted for the hydrokinetic
accelerator I38. In my arrangement of- Figs. 10
coupling shown, if in certain designs the tend
and '11 I prefer not to connect the reaction mem
ency to a backward drive has to be diminished
ber III with. the'runner, but to let the guide
f. i. for standard use as in trucks.
20 blades of member I-II rotate free of the runner
The application of the overdrive I24 to I21
and free of ‘the impeller.
has the advantage that fuel economy can be at
I only show the preferred arrangement in Fig.
tained under favorable driving conditions down
11. The hydraulic servo-motor receives itsrpres-l
grade and with the wind. If the resistance is
sure at I310; from any source of oil-pressure, for
small, the runner I23 will rotate substantially at 25 instance the lubrication system of the internal
the same speed as the impeller minus the slip, but
combustion engine using the present device. A
the overdrive I24--I21 rotates the housing I28
pipe I311} leads to a valve I42‘to release the pres
faster than the shaft I2 I, and therefore the shaft
sure coming from I3'Ia in the motor I31; The
I32 may rotate at a higher speed than the shaft
valve is controlled by twopsolenoids as desired;
I2I. .If the resistance is great the slip increases 30
The solenoid I45 actuating ‘the valve I42 is in
up to the point where shaft I32 still rotates as
an electrical circuit I43, leading to'a switch I44
fast as shaft Hi. If the resistance becomes still
actuated by the ‘accelerator only when it is
greater, the slip increases still further, and in
pressed beyond its maximum throttle'opening.
such cases either a gear-reduction of a gearbox
This switch I44 closes then the circuit for ener
I4 should be used, or a hydrokinetic torque con 35 gising of the solenoid I445, which opens the valve
verter. The gearbox may use sliding gears, be
I42. The pressure is released in‘ the motor I31
cause it is preferred to use a two-way clutch be
and the brake I35 is released and the torque
tween prime mover and coupling or differential or
converter becomes a hydrokinetic coupling. If
planetary gear set.
the driver Wants to de-energise the solenoid he
Cross combinations of this gear drive as shown
has to bring the accelerator back to' the idling
in Figs. 8 and 9 are further defined in the ap
position. To avoid the 'de-energisln'g of the sole‘
pended claims, and it is supposed that the appli
noid I45 at speeds less than maximum throttle
cation of planetary gearing and of the two-way
opening, it is preferred to use a second circuit I 39
clutch for the sliding gear and clutch, is included
and a second solenoid I45, and secondswitch I40,
45 for the second circuit to close the valve-I42. If
It is also understood that it would not involve
the accelerator is brought back to idling position,
invention to place the two-way clutch I43 in Fig.
as shown, the circuit I39 is closed and'the valve
8 between the hydrokinetic torque converter H2
I42 is closed, the pressure at. I 3111 actuates the
and the gear box II4, if a sliding gear is pre
motor I31 again, the brake I35 is contracted and
50 the device operates as a torque converter, at all
Likewise in Fig. 9, it would not be invention to
place the two-way clutch I 20 between the dif
ferential gearing I3! and the overdrive I24 to
I26, or between this overdrive and the hydro
throttle‘ openings inclusive maximum. This ar
rangement allows the operator to have the great
in. Fig. 8- and Fig. 9.
option of the" driver through the positioni'ofhi‘s
est possible acceleration without loss of e?iciency
through slip, under any road condition. When
kinetic coupling I22.
55 the‘ car is running at fairly high speed it has an
Nor would it be invention over the arrange
advantage to let the device act as a v?uid cou
ment shown in Fig. 9 to place a freewheel f
pling, decreasing the friction of the oil and elim
behind the gearboX'to facilitate“ the gear-shift for
inating the resistance in the oil-circulation pres
a sliding gear and to omit the two-way clutch in
sure to the motor I 31'.
~ ' - ~ ~
either arrangement of Fig. 8» or Fig. 9. Or to 60
It is understood that a number of such reaction
add a freewheel between the rear-axle and the
members I I I could be placed in series and stopped
gearbox in the arrangements as they are shown
or released in accordance to‘ conditions at the
All such modi?cations can
be combined with the fundamental arrangement
The latter modi?cation of the freewheel be
hind the'gearboX-I have shown already in. my Pat
of the accelerator " I38 has‘ two stops on it a and
ent No. 2,261,898;
b‘ apart about the distance the accelerator moves
The two Figures 10 and 11
show a combination of the Figs. 8 and 9 and
show a new- arrangement to convert a converter
intoa ?uid’ coupling and a fluid coupling into a
converter, during the rotation thereof.’
_ In Fig. 1011 have shown in vertical" cross'section
a» torque‘ converter which may be reduced to a
Fig. 12 shows’ a modification of the control of
the device by a single solenoid. The rod |38a
from idling position (in which the accelerator
l38'is' shown) and the maximum gas position. I
When Dressing on the accelerator the solenoid I45
is not energised‘ ‘and the spring I45a places the
valve I42 in open position so that the pressure
in motor I31 is released; When it is desired-to
?uid coupling by the driver during theoperation 75 convertthe ?uid coupling into" a- torque converter.
all the driver‘ has to do is to step on the gas be
yond maximum position so that the switch I44
closes the circuit I43 to energise the solenoid.
ready in my prior Patent No'. 2,261,898. The
same arrangement is applied here where the ac
celerator controls the application of the brake
The valve I42 is then closed, the brake applied
on the reaction member III and the device is a
torque converter. When the driver desires to use
the device as a ?uid coupling‘, he merely releases
suddenly the accelerator so that the stop a re
To decrease the complication of such a brake.
I proposed as an alternative, to control a brake
- I35 on an idle runner III, between the impeller
and runner, having blades in such a direction
that the impeller tends to rotate the runner
leases, or recedes from, the switch. The switch
is caught by any well known ratchet device, so 10 slightly in reverse direction, so that a similar gear
shift can be made at all speeds, and even when
that if the accelerator recedes, the arm I380:
the car is standing still, and doing away with
moves through a hole in the switch arm until
the planetary gearing.
the stop b comes into action releasing the arm
The further advantage is that when the free
from the switch and thereby de-energising the
solenoid so that the spring I45a opens the valve 15 wheel is locked out, the momentum of the car
does not reverse the rotation of the engine, but
I42 releasing the pressure in motor I31 so that
the friction of the motor will brake the car as
the brake is released and the device acts as a
?uid coupling. When the driver steps on the gas,
in any standard ?uid drive.
The valve I42 is then connected not with the
inclusive maximum position, the device continues
to act as a fluid coupling until again the accel 20 motor I311, operating the brake II1, but with the
motor I31, operating the brake I35 on the idle
erator is pressed down beyond maximum posi
runner III, as described in connection with
tion, in which it becomes a torque converter until
Fig. 11.
the accelerator is released again to idling posi
A third variation is that a governor I41 may
It is understood that the valve I42 could be
opened and closed by a centrifugal governor I41,
as shown in Fig. 15. On a driven shaft geared
either to shaft 4 of Fig. 3, shaft 5 of Fig. 4, or shaft
contro1 the motor I31 for the brake I35, but in
that case the idle runner‘ has the function of
converting a ?uid drive into a ?uid torque con
verter. At predetermined speeds it is preferred
to transmit the power of the engine at different
when the vehicle is going at a fairly high speed 30 rates of speeds between impeller and runner.‘
The fourth variation is, that the accelerator
(let us say any speed above 30, 35, or 40 miles an
8 of Fig. 5 by means of gearing M111 and so that
hour) the valve I42 is opened and the brake re
I38 may control again such an idle runner, so
that the characteristics of the torque converter
are available at any speed subject to the will
pling. At such speeds the resistance cannot be
very great and the torque converter characteris 35 of the driver. In the following four Figures 16
to 19, the accelerator I38 controls when released
tics can be released as super?uous to drive the
the operation of the solenoid I45 and thereby
car. The torque converter is only needed if the
the operation of motor I31 on brake I35. This
motor meets a great resistance at a slow speed
leased so that the device operates as a ?uid cou
of the vehicle.
happens when the idle runner is so constructed
Fig. 16 is, as stated before, a combination of 40 that it causes a slight backwards rotation of the
runner connected to the driven mechanism.
Fig. 8, with Fig. 11 or Fig. 15. The accelerator
If said idle runner is so constructed as to
I38 controls the switch I40, which controls the
solenoid I4 I, which controls the valve I42, which
controls the pump I31, which controls the brake
II'I, whichv brakes the impeller III] of the ?uid
drive‘II'IS, as already described in connection with
Fig. 8. Runner H2 is connected to shaft II 3,
which is connected with gearbox I M.
change the ?uid coupling into a fluid converter,
as described before in relation to Figs. 11 and 12,
the accelerator I38 closes the circuit for asole
noid I45 through a switch I44, and actuates valve
I42 to close the passage for the ?uid from motor
The operation of this combination is as fol
lows. In retracted position of the accelerator
I38, the brake I I1 is applied, the differential gears
I06 are slowed up, or held stationary with the
result that the shaft I I3, connected with the
runner I I2, rotates in a direction opposite to that
of the engine, due to the action of the freewheel ‘5
I 317. Thereafter a gearshift can be made whether
the car is moving or standing still. Of course,
when the car is moving relatively faster than the
a reaction member, when said accelerator I38
is pressed beyond wide open position, and to
open said passage when released.
I prefer to have this greater torque available
when the throttle is pushed beyond wide open
position, but in certain cases it would have an
advantage to reverse this, so that the brake I35
on the re-action member would be taken off when
the accelerator is pushed beyond the wide open
position, and applied when released. This can be
motor at any given gear drive, the application
of the brake I I 1 is largely super?uous on account
of overrunning action of thefreewheel, but if the
merely reversed for instance by placing the pas
cartis standing-‘still or moving relatively slower,
it is not. Inthe latter case a gearshift can be
made without declutching a two-way clutch, and ,
I31 to apply a brake on said idle runner I I I, now
sage in valve I42 in a corresponding position so
that the passage for ?uid would be closed when
the accelerator I38 is released and the brake
applied, and said passage opened when the ac
celerator is pushed beyond wide open position.
the well-known creeping action of the ?uid drive
This reversal can be effected in other ways if so
is at the same time eliminated.
I have shown in the drawings of the two elec
If the freewheel is locked" out or will be locked
out for reverse drive or for braking purposes in
forwards gear drives, the control of the accelera
tor I38 on the brake I I1 has to be eliminated,
otherwise the momentum of the car would tend
ultimately to rotate the engine in reverse direc
trical circuits, two cutting lines S4 and S5 for
the switch. These cutting lines mean merely
that if one circuit is out said idle runner is used
as a means to start a backwards rotation of the
tion and stall it. Such an arrangement to lock
driven shaft or runner, and if the other circuit
is cut the fluid coupling is converted into a torque
out the control of the accelerator on the gearshift _
converter in two ways, as described.
Either one
when locking out the freewheel, I have shown al .75 or the other system is applied in a power trans
mission. However, it would‘ be possible to apply
shift .in- reverse and: when. the-freewheel is‘ locked
out; In reverse it must ‘be locked out, and as.
explained.- before, when shifting into reverse, the
both systems.
It is understood that‘ said cutting lines S4 and
65 may merely indicate a switch on the dash
freewheelis locked out, substantially simultane
board for both circuits, and that two runners are CI ously. therewith.
incorporated to cause either one of 'said effects.
In all“ four combinations, the cutting off of. the
fuel‘ or the cutting of the ignition, automatically
If the switch cuts one circuit for one runner,
the accelerator will only operate the circuit to
causes a disengagement of the ?uid drive, which
cause the other circuit to operate for the other
e?ects» the overrunrung action, of the freewheel
10 allowing a manual or power shift.
runner, by the movement of the accelerator.
It is further understood that any obvious mod
Likewise here, in Fig. 18, as in Figs. 16 and
i?cations whereby the same effects can be ob
17, the idle runner I II may act as a torque con
tained would fall within the scope of this inven
verter, controlled either by the accelerator I38
tion and its claims.
or by the centrifugal governor M1. In so, far
Asit would be too cumbersome to show these 15 as the differential mechanism is missing here,
four variations in different drawings, I have
th-etorquelconverter may be. assisted by the vari
shown in Fig. 16, four dividing lines, indicated
ous gears of a‘ gearbox, together with a free
by the letter 8, so that the valve I421 controlled
wheel, to‘ facilitate shifting without de-clutching
by the accelerator I38 may control either the
the two-way clutch I25.
motor I311, operating the brake H1, or the mo 20
If the freewheel is locked out (front or rear
tor I31, operating the brake I35. Or the valve
I42, controlled by the centrifugal governor I 42
may control either motor I311 or I31. However,
only the control of the brake I35, when the idle
runner III may convert the ?uid drive into a
?uid torque converter, is preferably subject to
the-centrifugal governor. The accelerator I33
of course, may control the brake I35, when the
idle runner is constructed so as to effect a slight
reverse rotation of the runner, or when the idle
runner is constructed as a means to convert a
?uid drive into a ?uid torque converter.
_In Fig. 17, substantially the same variations
can‘ be obtained. Here, however, the brake I34
voperates not on the impeller, as in Fig; 16, but
on the runner. As described before, an over
drive is inserted between the runner of the ?uid
driveand the differential mechanism.
The accelerator I38, here controls again either
one)’ the switch I481 may again ‘be locked’ out,
but the momentum or kinetic energy of the car‘
‘does not“ stop the motor, and if the freewheel
. is not locked out the impeller connected: withthe
motor may idle conveniently against the run
ner, held stationary by the brake I34. There
fore the looking out of the accelerator‘ I38 and
switch Mil is in this arrangement not impera
tive, when the car is standing still.
The last modi?cation of Fig. 19., combines the
Fig. 13 with Fig. 11 or Fig; 1.5. The engine I
is connected to an impeller and to av gear 1 in
the differential housing 6a. Theshaftv 4 runs in
the hollow shaft 5, connected to the right with
the runner, and to the left with the gear 4a.
The gears 1' and. do are geared to the gears 6b,
rotatably arranged on the differential housing
Ba, carrying a gear I5, geared in overdrive to a
gear- IB, connected to a clutch I20, gearbox I2,
, the motor I31’1 braking the differential housing 40 freewheel 13b, and Wheels 3 of a vehicle.
or planetary carrier, or it controls the motor I31
Likewise here, when releasing the accelerator,
braking an idle runner, serving either as means
to effect a slight reverse rotation, or serving as
a means to create a torque converter.
switch Mil is closed, solenoid I45 and valve I421
The governor I 41 controls again preferably
only the motor I31 for said two purposes.
Fig. 18 shows, however, an absence-of the'dif
ferential mechanism, but the similar four varia
and motor I311, actuated, brake I34 applied;
Thedifferential housing is stopped, and the gears
" 1‘ and 40,, respectively impeller and runner, are
rotated in opposite direction. The engine is re
tarded, but not stopped, gearshift‘ can. be made
on account of freewheel I31).
tions described can be used in the same way.
If freewheel I3?) is locked out, the accelerator
The brake I34 stops the runner due to the free L 0 control on the brake I34, should be locked out,
wheel I32) before or behind the gearbox.
(as shown in-Fig. 15C of ‘application 676,646) .
When the freewheel is locked out, it cuts out
The other modi?cation is again that the ac
the brake and the momentum of the car, how
celerator I38, or the governor I41, controls a
ever cannot reverse the rotation of the motor
valve I421 and ‘motor I31, controlling respective
because the differential mechanism is omitted. ' 1y either an idle runner III to e?‘ect a gearshift
When the runner is stopped by the brake I34
by means of‘ freewheel Iiib, or an idle runner
and the accelerator I38, when the freewheel is
acting as a torque converter.
T'he'torque con
not locked out, it may slightly impede the ro
verter‘ may be either controlled by the accelera
tation of the impeller and engine but not su?i
tor, or by the governor, but the idle runner III
ciently to stop the motor or stall it.
60 to get a reverse rotation, of course, preferably
Of course, the in?nitely variable geardrive
only by the accelerator.
obtained by using a differential mechanism is
The separating lines s make it obvious that the
lost here.
control of ‘the accelerator I38, or of the governor
In all four combinations, when the freewheel
I'M, can be switched over from motor I311 to v
is locked out, the brake on the planetary car
motor I315 or reversely, depending which con
rier or driven shaft is out out from under the
struction is preferred for any given design of
control of the accelerator, otherwise the release
power transmission in which a sliding gearbox
of :the accelerator would stop and brakethe car
is involved, without the disengagement of a two
in ordinary forward driving.
way clutch in addition tothe release of the ac
In all-four combinations shown in Figs. 16 to
19, I prefer to use a freewheel either behind, or
It is understood, that‘ the various drives may
in front of the gearbox to effect an easy shift at
use a gearbox between the-‘planetary gearing
all times (car moving or standing still).
and the axle of a vehicle or not.
In all four combinations, I use a disengage
It is understood? thatin the mechanism where
able two-way clutch anywhere to effect a gear 75 by- the look-out of thevv freewheel is combined.
shown in the Figures 16, 17, 18, 19, and the rela
with- the look-out of the electrical means asso
ciated with the accelerator to control a brake on
the runner, driven gear or planetary carrier, the
look-out of the electrical means takes place
slightly before the look-out of the freewheel.
In the following claims this is broadly stated
and included by the term “substantially simul
tive claims are based on the description in com
bination of what is shown.
(It would be superfluous to show two sets of
drawings for these two cases instead of describ
ing these two cases, and basing the di?erentia
ticn in claims on the ?gures plus the descrip
taneously therewith.”
tion.) '
When in the latter case, the freewheel is locked
be controlled by a ‘brake under control of the 10 out, the driven mechanism, especially in the case
of a car, would tend also reversely to drive the
accelerator, and said idle runner may be either
impeller in opposite or reverse directions, but
for the purpose of eifecting a, reverse rotation of
this tendency even if the speed of the car is
the driven shaft or the conversion of the ‘?uid
high, can be made so small that it will not kill '
drive or coupling into a torque converter, the
the engine, even when idling or slightly more
control of the accelerator is shown the same for
than idling. Therefore the elimination of con
both types, but it is understood that for the lat
trol of the accelerator would be largely super
ter conversion this control is preferably of the
?uous, or the elimination of said control could
type of Figs. 11 and 12. That means it is oper
be made optionally by means of a control button
ated when the accelerator is pushed beyond wide
open throttle.
20 from the dash. It is understood that any other
motor may be substituted for the hydraulic mo
It would be too great a complication to show
tor I31, and valve 142 shown. Iit may be a pneu
these two variations in another set of drawings
matic or vacuum motor, as shown in my Patent
similar to Figs. 16 to 19, and. showing the control
2,261,898, and the valve M2 would control the
of this idle runner or reaction member in the
speci?c way it is shown in Figs. 11 and 12. In 25 admission of atmospheric pressure to a vacuum
chamber to release a brake under control of the
the following claims the expression “under con
accelerator 638. In my following applicationNo.
trol of said accelerator” includes therefore the
399,556, of June 13, 1941, I show a modi?ed im
speci?c variety shown in- Figs. 11 and 12.
provement whereby this brake is only eliminated
It is understood that‘ any combination of the
when the higher speed ranges are in operation.
controlling means shown in ‘Figs. 16 to 19 under
And itis also understood that the two-way clutch
control of the accelerator, and control of the cen
128 may be operated by a pneumatic motor, ‘as
trifugal governor may be combined in one struc
shown in said Patent No. 2,261,898.
ture as shown in Fig. 18, or as shown in Figs.
It is further understood that the brake appli
16, 1'7, 19 combined with the planetary gearing,
and that any of said combinations may be com 35 cable on the idle runner between impeller and
runner in the Figures 16, 17, 19 would create a
bined with the freewheel as shown in Fig. 6, or
condition vsimilar to that shown in Fig. 8, in
in Fig. '7.
which this runner is held’ constantly or continu
It is further understood that if the accelerator
ously in a stationary position. In this position
controls electrical means controlling a source
it is capable of rotating the planetary carrier
of power to apply a'brake I35 on an idle runner,
I97 connected to the vane member H0 at a'
which causes a slight reverse rotation tendency
> In so far as the idle runner in Figs. 16 to 19 may.
higher speed than the shaft 194 and gear 105,
on the runner connected with the driven mecha
connected to the prime mover. If the runner or
nism, that the means of interrupting the circuit
vane member H2 rotates faster than vane mem
of said electrical means when the freewheel is
locked out by the. separate shift lever (see Fig. 45 ber H0 under a decreasing torque, the member
H2 becomes the impeller and the member H8
15C of Patent No. 2,261,898) are superfluous.
If the car comes to a stop when the accelerator
is released and the freewheel locked out, the
the runner. An overdrive is established.
If this idle runner is freely rotating, as shown
in the Figures 16, 17, 19, it may create this over
slight tendency of the runner to run in reverse
direction, due to the angle of the blades in the 50 drive relation already without being stopped.
It is understood that the idle runner, wherever
idle runner brought to a stop by the release of
placed and in which form, always is located be
the accelerator, is not enough to start the car
tween impeller and runner (pump wheel and tur
rolling backwards. At least not on level ground.
bine wheel). It does matter, however, whether
Therefore it would not be invention to com
this vane member is connected with the plan
bine the brake system of Fig. 11 (a brake on the
etary gearing or not. If stopped it has a tend
planetary carrier) with the said type of idle run
ency in all constructions to increase the torque,
ner, because on a slant backwards the brake I35
especially in those incorporating the planetary
could be applied by power or foot (optionally)
when the freewheel of Fig. 14 is locked in and
The advantage of the construction of Fig. 8
the hydraulic transmission could not drive the 60
is further that the impeller is rotated from
car backwards.
standing start at a speed which is less than that
It is therefore understood that the freewheel
of the prime mover, so that a creeping tendency
‘lock-out of Fig. 14 to prevent reverse drive must
of the car can be eliminated.
be eliminated when positive mechanical reverse
drive is established either in the gearbox or the 65 If the planetary carrier rotates at half engine
speed the impeller exerts only one quarter of the
planetary transmission.
driving power of the prime mover to the driven
" For the reason that the control of the idle
mechanism, because the transmitted hydraulic
runner by a brake I35 should be related to the
power increases with the square of the speed of
lock out of the freewheel in the case the idle
runner is braked , for torque conversion, and 70 the pump wheel, or impeller. If the runner III
should preferably not be related in the case an ~
idle runner is braked‘ for reverse rotation of the
of Fig. 8 can be idle, but can also be braked as
shown in Fig. 16, an advantage is obtained over
the construction of Fig. 8.
It is further understood that the arrangement
runner when the freewheel is locked out, is not 75 of Figs. 11 and 12 whereby the idle runner is
runner, the elimination of the control of the
‘electrical means to control the brake on the idle
braked when the accelerator is pushed beyond
wide open throttle may be reversed, so that the
ciated with a source of power controlled by the
accelerator .of the vengine, said source applying
said brake when the accelerator is reduced sub
brake on the idle runner in the Figures 16 to 19
stantially to idling position.
is applied when the accelerator is released, and
6. An internal combustion engine controlled
the brake released when the accelerator is'pushed
beyond the wide open position of the throttle.
by an accelerator in combination with a ?uid
This choice depends upon design. If one desires
drive, a gearbox and a freewheel, connected to
a great torque for starting, the brake should be
the wheels of a vehicle carrying said combi
applied on the idle runner to provide greater
nation, said ?uid drive having an impeller and
torque, and whenthe car has reached suf?oient 10 a runner which is under control of a brake, a
speed, eventually through a series of gearshifts
source of power for said brake, said source un
as explained, the driver can push the accelerator
way down and the torque converter becomes a
der control of the accelerator, so that upon ap
plication of said brake said freewheel may be
placed in overrunning condition allowing a gear
shift’ in said gearbox, even if said vehicle is stand
slip coupling. If the driver approaches a steep
hill, however, he has to release the throttle mo
mentarily to go back to the torque converter con
This being merely a choice of construction, the
ing still.
'7. An internal combustion engine in combi
following claims include both modi?cations, by
nation with a ?uid drive comprising an impeller
and a runner which is connected to a gearbox,
merely stating that the accelerator controls the
said geanbox in driving relation with the wheels
brake on the idle runner.
of a vehicle by means of a freewheel, an ac
I claim:
1. In a vehicle the combination of an internal
combustion engine connected by means of a two
way clutch to a driving shaft, a hydrokinetic
coupling including a runner on said shaft and
celerator controlling said engine, said accelera
tor controlling means which operate a brake
which effects the retardation of the speed of
rotation of the gears in the gearbox, so that
upon release of said accelerator, said freewheel
is placed in overrunning condition allowing
thereby a gearshift in said gearbox even if ‘the
said shaft extending through said .coupling and
through the runner of said hydrokinetic cou
pling, said shaft connected to an intermediate
sidegear in a, differential gearset, said runner con- i
nected to the housing of said differential gear set
by means of an intermediate overdrive between
said runner and said differential housing, said
side gear geared to intermediate ‘pinion gears
rotatably arranged on said differential housing,
said pinion gears driving another side-gear on a
propeller shaft connected with the wheels ofsaid
vehicle is standing still.
8. The combination of a prime mover and
accelerator with a ?uid drive, a two-way-clutch
and gear transmission connected by means of a
freewheel to a driven mechanism, said clutch and
freewheel being operatively independent of each
other in this sense that engagement or disen
gagement of said clutch does not affect the:free
wheeling action, said ?uid drive comprising an
2. A prime mover, having an accelerator con
nected to a differential mechanism, including a
impeller and a runner, said runner connected
with said transmission, a brake on ‘said ‘runner,
means to control said brake, said means being
‘housing, a ?uid drive including :an‘impeller and
under control of said accelerator.
runner, one gear of said mechanism connected
to the engine, ‘and another :gear thereof con
9. The combination of claim 8, in combination
with means to lock out said freewheel, when shift
ing into reverse.
nected to the runnerof .the ?uid drive, said gears
geared to gears rotatably arranged on a differen
?uid drive, said runner ‘connected, to a gearbox,
a freewheel behind said gearbox, :a brake oper
10. The combination of a'prime mover and ac
celerator with a ?uid drive, a two-way clutch and
gear-transmission connected by means of a free
wheel to a driven mechanism, the ?uid drive
able on said differential housing to stop said hous
comprising an impeller and runner and a ‘reac
ing and to effect operationof said freewheel, said
brake being power'operated :and vcont-rolled by
tion member between the two, said ?uid drive
runner connected to said driven mechanism by
the accelerator of said prime mover.
3. The combination of claim 2, in which said
brake is applied when said accelerator is re
ber, means to control said brake, said means un
tial housing, connected to the impeller of said
leased substantially to idling vposition, effecting
‘thereby the operation of said freewheel and of
said brake.
v4. The combination of claim 2, in which said
means of a shaft, a brake on said reaction mem
Cu Cl
der control of said accelerator.
11. The combination of claim ‘10, in combina
tion with means to lock out said freewheel, when
shifting into reverse.
12. The combination of a prime mover with a
‘?uid drive is provided with a brake for said run
?uid drive, comprising an impeller and ‘a runner
ner, said brake being applied when said accelera 60 and a reaction member between the two, a brake
tor is moved to substantially ‘idling position,
for said reaction member, said ?uid drive runner
means to lockout said freewheel, simultaneously
connected to a driven mechanism by means of
looking out the operation of said brake.
a shaft, a centrifugal governor driven by said
-5. An internal combustion engine controlled by
prime mover and adapted by electrical means to
an accelerator, in combination with a ?uid drive,
" release said brake on said reaction member, when
said ?uid drive having an impeller and a run
said prime mover. reaches a de?nite high speed,
ner which is associated with a ‘gearbox and a
and to apply said brake when a de?nite slower
freewheel behind said gearbox, said freewheel
speed has been reached by said prime mover.
connected with the wheels of a vehicle carry
13. The combination of a ‘prime mover with a
ing said combination, a brake operating on the 70 fluid drive, comprising an impeller connected to
runner of said ?uid drive so as to retard the
said prime mover and a runner connected to a
rotation of gears in said gearbox in relation with
driven mechanism, a reaction member in opera
the speed of said vehicle so that said freewheel
tive association with said impeller and runner,
is placed in operation‘and so that a gearshift
a brake for said reaction member, a source of
-may be effected in said gearbox, said zbrake asso
power to actuate said brake, electrical-means to
control said source, and said electrical means
engine and accelerator with a ?uid drive, com
vbeing controlled by a centrifugal governor asso
prising an impeller and runner, and a driven
mechanism, a reaction member between said im
peller and runner, power means to operate a
brake on said reaction member, means to control
ciated with said mechanism and operating said
brake at predetermined speeds.
14. The combination of a prime mover and ac
celerator with a ?uid drive, comprising an im
peller and a runner in driving relation with two
said power means, said latter means under con
trol of said accelerator in such a way that said
members of a planetary gearing respectively a
driving member and a driven member, and the
third member being in driving relation with a
driven mechanism, a brake on the planetary car
rier of said gearing, said brake operated by a
brake is released when said accelerator is pressed
beyond wide open position, and said brake ap~
plied when said accelerator is released to idling
source of power, said source controlled by elec~
trical means, and said electrical means under
tion with controlling means for said power means
under control of a centrifugal governor, said gov
15 ernor associated with said engine.
23. The combination of claim 22, in combina
control of the said accelerator.
15. The combination of claim 14 in combina
24. The combination of claim 22, in combina
tion with a freewheel and gear transmission be
tion with electrical means for control of said
tween said third member of said planetary gear
power means, said electrical means under control
of said accelerator.
ing and said driven mechanism, means to lock
out said freewheel, when shifting into reverse.
g0 ‘ 25. The combination of claim 22, in combina
16. The combination of claim 14 in combina
tion with electrical means partly under control
tion with a reaction-member between said im
of said accelerator and partly under'control of
peller and runner, a brake for said re-action
'a centrifugal governor associated with said com
member, said brake under control of electrical
bination, said electrical means controlling the
means, said electrical means under control of 25 power means for said brake on said re-action
said accelerator.
17. The combination of claim 14 in combina
peller and'runner, a brake for said re-action
member, said brake under control of electrical
26. The combination of a prime mover and
accelerator with a ?uid drive between said prime
mover and a driven mechanism, said ?uid drive
comprising an impeller connected to said prime
means, said electrical means under control of a
centrifugal governor associated with said com
mover and a runner connected to said driven
mechanism, an idle runner in said ?uid drive
tion with a reaction member between said. im
in operative association with said impeller and
18.'The combination of claim 14 in combina
runner, a brake on said idle runner, power means
tion with an idle runner between said impeller 35 to apply said brake, said power means under con
and runner, said idle runner when stopped tend
trol of the accelerator in such a way that said
ing to drive said runner in reverse direction, a
brake is applied when said accelerator is pressed
freewheel and gear transmission between said
beyond wide open position, and released when
planetary gearing and driven mechanism, a brake
said accelerator is released.
for said idle runner, electrical means operating 40
27. The ‘combination of claim 26 in combina
said brake, said electrical means under control
tion with a gear transmission between said run
of said accelerator.
ner and said driven mechanism and a freewheel
‘ 19. The combination of an internal combustion
engine, accelerator, ?uid drive comprising an im
peller and runner, and friction clutch and a slid
ing gear transmission beyond said clutch, said
transmission including at least two speeds for
ward and a reverse gear drive, an overrunning
clutch between said transmission and a driven
between said transmission and said driven mech
anism,'means to lock out said freewheel.
45 28. The combination of claim 26, in combina
tion with a gear transmission between said run
ner and said driven mechanism, and a freewheel
between said transmission and said driven mech
anism, said brake when applied on said idle run
mechanism, means to lock out said overrunning 50 her tending to drive said runner in reverse direc
clutch simultaneously with a shift of shifting
tion, means to lock out said freewheel so that said
means in said transmission into reverse, a brake
brake creates aslight reverse drive on said driven
mechanism on said runner, said brake mecha
mechanism through said gear transmission.
nism adapted to be applied when said accelerator
29.’ The combination of claim 26, in combina
is pushed beyond wide open position, and re 55'tion with a, gear transmission between said run
leased when said accelerator is released to idling
ner and said driven mechanism, and a freewheel
position, said brake being independent of any
between said transmission and said driven mech
mechanism operating said friction clutch between
anism,’said brake when applied converting said
engine and transmission.
fluid drive into a torque converter, ‘means to
20. The combination of claim 19, in combina 30 lock out said freewheel, said means when locking
tion with an idle runner between said impeller
out said freewheel eliminating substantially si
and runner of said?uid drive, power means to
multaneously therewith the control of said accel
operate a brake for said idle runner, said run
erator over said brake,
ner when braked effecting a slight reverse rota
30. The combination of an internal combustion
tion of said runner, electrical means to operate 65 engine and accelerator with a ?uid drive, com
said power means, said electrical means under
prising an impeller and runner, in combination
control of said accelerator.
with a planetary gearing composed of three parts,
21. The combination of claim 19, in combina
the driving member, the driven member and the
tion with a re-action member between said im
planetary carrier, said impeller in driving con,
peller and runner of said fluid drive, power means 70 nection respectivelyv with said driving member
to'operate a‘brake on said re-acticn member,
and said runner connected to said driven mem
means to control said power means for said
her to e?ect thereby temporarily a, reverse'hy
brake, said latter means under control of said
draulic drive through said planetary carrier when
stopped, an overrunning brake between said driv
22. The combination of an internal combustion 75 en member" and a stationary member whereby
said reverse drive is checked before it reaches the
driven mechanism, and means to eliminate said
overrunning brake, so that said driven mecha
33. The combination of claim 32, said ‘control
of said accelerator being such that said brake is
applied when said accelerator is pushed beyond
Wide open position, and released, when said accel
nism can be driven in reverse direction.
31. The combination of a prime mover and
accelerator and gear transmission with a ?uid
drive, said prime mover connected to the impeller
thereof and said runner being connected with a
driven mechanism, an idle runner in operative
association with said impeller and runner, said
idle runner when stopped tending to drive said
runner in reverse direction, an overrunning
brake between said runner and said driven mech
anism, and means to eliminate said overrunning
brake when a mechanical reverse drive is effected
by means of said gear transmission between said
runner and driven mechanism, said overrunning
brake operating between said runner and a sta
erator is released.
34. In a vehicle on wheels, the combination
of an engine and accelerator and a ?uid drive
of the constant liquid content, said ?uid drive
having an impeller and a runner, a reduction
10 gearing between said engine and impeller so
tionary part.
32. The combination of a prime mover and -'
accelerator with a hydraulic power transmission
of the Fiittinger type comprising an impeller and
runner connected to two parts of a planetary
gearing, comprising three parts, a driving gear, a
planetary carrier and a driven gear, said third
part being connected to a driven mechanism, an
idle runner positioned in operative association
with said impeller and runner, said idle runner
capable of imparting a variable speed to said
that said impeller is driven at part of the engine
speed, an idle runner in said ?uid drive tending
to vary the speed of rotation of the driven mech
anism when held stationary, said idle runner
having a, tendency to vary the pressure of said
impeller on said runner, when said idle runner is
held stationary by means of a brake under con
trol of the accelerator of said engine.
35. In a vehicle the combination of an engine
and ?uid drive of the constant liquid content
with a planetary gearing composed of three
gears, a driving member, a planetary carrier and
a driven member connected to a driven mecha
nism, said ?uid drive comprising an impeller and
a runner, said engine being connected to the
driving member of said planetary gearing, said
impeller to the planetary carrier, and said run
ner to the driven mechanism, an idle runner in
said ?uid drive, said idle runner haw'ng a tend
planetary carrier associated with said planetary 30 ency to vary the rotational speed of said plane
gearing, and thereby a variable speed to said
tary carrier and thereby the speed of rotation of
driven mechanism, a brake for said idle runner,
said driven mechanism, and means to hold and
said brake being under control of said accelerator
keep said idle runner stationary at will.
of said prime mover connected to said impeller.
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