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Патент USA US2410342

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Oct; 29, 1946.
Filed‘ Nov. V16, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Alfred 6. Gross
Oct. 29, 1946. '
Filed Nov. 16, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Alfred 6. Gross
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
Alfred G. Gross, Wilmette, Ill., assignor to The
Hoover Company, North Canton, Ohio, a cor
poration of Ohio
Application November 16, 1942, Serial No. 465,686
8 Claims. (01. 62—5)
This invention relates to the art of refriger
ation and more particularly to an air cooled
ure 4.
absorption refrigerating apparatus of the dual
intermittent type.
orator structure taken on the line 2—2 of Fig
Figure 3 is a rear elevational view showing the
apparatus of the present invention assembled
Heretofore considerable difficulty has been ex
with a cabinet structure.
perienced in the design and operation of inter
' ’
Figure 4 is a side elevational view partly in
section showing the apparatus assembled with a
mittent absorption refrigerating apparatuses of
the type utilizing a dry salt absorbent because
cabinet structure.
Referring now to the drawings in detail and
of the fact that the absorbing salt is destroyed
or poisoned if contacted by refrigerant in the 10 ?rst to Figure 1 thereof, it will be. seen that the
liquid state. Further difficulties have been en
invention comprises two distinct intermittent re
frigerating systems which are integrated through
countered in providing an adequate cooling sys
tem for the absorber generators and arrange
ment of the apparatus with respect to a conven
a control mechanism and a cooling'system for
the absorber generator. Since the refrigerating
systems are identical the reference characters
tional domestic refrigerator cabinet because the
cooling system for the absorber-generators has
applied to the left hand system, as viewed in
had a heat rejecting element at an elevation
Figure 1, are distinguished'by a prime when ap
plied to the right hand. Only one refrigerating
above the absorber-generators.
It is accordingly a principal object of the pres
system will be described in detail as the systems
ent invention to provide an intermittent absorp 20 are exact duplicates.
‘ H V
The refrigerating system per se, comprises an
tion refrigerating apparatus in which the ab
absorber-generator A, a tubular air cooled con
sorber-generator may be positioned at an eleva
denser C, and an evaporator E which are serially
tion such that refrigerant vapor path to and from
the absorber-generators to the evaporator is en
connectedin the order named; ' that is, the upper
portion of the absorber-generator is connected to
tirely below the level of the vapor connection
the upper end of the condenserC by a down
to the absorber generator.
wardly sloping conduit 10 and the bottom of
It is a further object of. the invention to pro
the condenser C is connected by a conduit H to
vide an intermittent absorption refrigerating ap
a reservoir 42 which forms part of the evapora
paratus having a cooling system for the absorber
generators in which the heat rejecting element 30 tor. The evaporator also includes the sinuous
conduit l3 connected at its, ends to thereser
of the cooling system is positioned at an eleva
voir [2, one end of the conduit being connected
tion below the elevation of the absorber gener
to the lower portion of the reservoir and the
other end to the upper portion of the reservoir.
It is a further object of the invention to pro
The absorber-generator per se may be "of a
vide an absorption refrigerating apparatus of
known type, for example such as that illus
the intermittent type so constructed and arranged
trated in British Patent No. 530,061, complete >
that the entire refrigerating mechanism may
speci?cation accepted December 4, 1940.
be assembled and tested in conjunction with a
window opening ?lling panel of the cabinet be
fore ?nal assembly with the cabinet.
The absorber-generator per se comprises an
.10 outer chamber or casing M housing the absorbent
material which is preferably a dry salt such as
It is a further object of the present invention
strontium chloride, strontium bromide, calcium
to provide an absorption refrigerating apparatus
chloride, magnesium chloride or a similar mate
of the intermittent type having a cooling system
rial. The casing M is traversed by a jacket 15
for the absorber-generator in which the location 45
for a cooling medium which serves to remove the
of the heat rejecting elements is substantially
heat of absorption from the absorber-genera
independent of the location of the absorber-gen
tor during the absorbing cycle- A heating duct
or ?ue it extends through the central portion
Other objects and advantages of the invention
of-the jacket I5.
will become apparent as the description proceeds 50 The absorber-generator will be charged with
when taken in ‘connection with the accompany
salt and a suitable refrigerant, such as ammonia,
ing drawings, in which:
which the absorbent salt will absorb. In, oper
Figure 1 is a schematic view- of a system
ation of the‘device the absorber-generator will
embodying the present invention.
be heated which will cause the salt to release
Figure 2 iswa fragmentary view of an evap
absorbed refrigerant.v The refrigerant vapor will
then flow through conduit l0 into the condenser
will close a circuit between the left hand contacts
4! and in its opposite position will close the cir
cuit between the contacts 42. The upper con
tacts 4| and 42 are connected by wires 133 and
C where the same will be condensed into the
liquid state by heat exchange by atmospheric
air. The liquid formed in the condenser C will
then drain by gravity into the vessel [2. After
the salt has been discharged the supply of heat
44, respectively, to heating elements, not shown,
positioned in the heating ducts l6 and it’, re
to the absorber generator will. be. discontinued V
and the same will then be cooled by a cooling
system to be described hereinafter. Cooling of
sorber generators A and A’ are connected to the
The heating elements for the ab
line wire 45 by conduits 46 and M, respectively.
the salt will cause the same to reabsorb ammonia 10 The line wire 48 is connected to a thermostatic
switch 49 which in turn is connected by the con
which will result in the evaporation of liquid
refrigerant in the evaporator E and the result
ductor 53 to the lower ones of the contacts Al
and 42. Current is applied to the thermostatic
ing vapor will be absorbed in the salt after which
the above cycle may be repeated to produce a
valve 25 by a conductor 5| which is connected to
continuous refrigerating effect.
15 the conductor 50. The valve 25 is also connected
to the line wire 45 by a conductor 52.
In the evaporator E the refrigerant liquid will
The thermostatic switch mechanism £29 is of a
flow into the lower portion of the sinuous conduit
13 from the vessel [2 where the same will be par- . known type and is provided with a thermostat
bulb 53 which will be positioned on the evaporator
tially vaporized and the resulting vapor will flow
upwardly through conduit l3 and discharge into 20 casing as illustrated in Figure 2.
The control actuating element 36 is arranged
the upper portion of vessel I2; This action will
to be operated by a pair of thermostatic bellows
produce a continuous circulation of liquid re
elements 55 and 56. 'The bellows elements 55 and
frigerant through the conduit it‘ due to vapor lift
56 are each provided with capillary conduits 51
action. The continual circulation of refrigerant
liquid in the evaporator by vapor lift action main 25 and 58, respectively, which terminate in thermo
static bulbs 59 and 80, respectively. The bulb 59
tains the inner walls‘ of the conduit [3 substan
is in contact with the absorber-generator A and
tially continuously wet with refrigerant liquid
the bulb 68 is in contact with the‘absorber-gen
and increases the heat absorptive capacity of the
erator A’. Thus, when either absorber-generator
The absorber-generator of each system con 30 is on the absorption cycle its temperature will be
tains a cooling ?uid jacket [5, l5’, A heat reject
lower and its associated bellows element will be
collapsed, as is indicated for the bellows element
ing element 20 of thetubular air cooled type is provided for rejecting heat from both absorber
55 in Figure 1. However, when the temperature
of the absorber-generator reaches a certain pre
generators. The upper portion of the heat re
.iecting element 2!! is connected by a conduit 25 35 determined value, the associated bellows element
to the‘ upper gas containing space of a cooling
will expand as is indicated by the bellows element
?uid reservoir 22 which is positioned at an ele~
58 in Figure 1 and wil1 actuate the arm 35 which
vation considerably above the elevation of the
in turn will actuate the switch 39 and the valve
heat rejecting element 20. The‘ lower portion of
mechanism 26.
the vessel 22 is drained by a‘conduit 24 contain 40 When the apparatus is initially charged and
placed in operation both absorber generators
ing avalve 25 to be described hereinafter. The
conduit 25 discharges into a valve chamber 23
will be cold and both bellows will be contracted.
which encloses a snap-acting two-way‘ valve
Under these conditions the snap acting mecha
‘mechanism 21. Pipes 28 and 29 connect the valve
nism will be in either one of its two possible po
chamber 26' with the lower end of the cooling -'-' sitions. Heat will be applied to one generator
jackets l5 and I5’, respectively. Vapor formed
and will discharge the same of absorbed refrig
in the cooling jacket l5 by heat of absorption is
erant. There will be no cooling of the other
removed from the upper portion thereof by means ’
absorber-generator as the same will have all the
of a conduit 39 which joins the lower portion of
a vapor lift conduit 31. The lower end of the
conduit 3| is connected to the lower end of the
charge in its system absorbed.
heat rejecting element 20 by a U-shaped liquid
When the heated
absorber-generator is substantially discharged its
temperature will begin to rise rapidly and will
quickly reach the temperature for which the
associated thermostat is set. When this tem
opens into the upper gas containing space of the _
perature is reached the thermostat will expand
vessel 22. The upper portion of the heating 55 and contact the actuating arm 36 and actuate
jacket I5’ is provided with a vapor and liquid re
the snap acting valve and switch mechanism. It
moval pipe 33 which connects to the conduit 33
will be noted from Figure I that the valve and
adjacent its lower portion.
switch mechanisms are so coordinated with each
Vapor formed in either cooling jacket passes
other that the cooling ?uid system is open to one
through the ‘conduits 3D or 33 into the vapor lift
absorber generator while the other absorber gen
conduit 3| and serves to elevate condensate sup
erator is energized for heating operation. Now
plied to the conduit 3|‘ from the heat rejecting
when the thermostat actuates the switch-over
7 element 20 upwardly into the vessel 22. The sepa
devices cooling ?uid will ?ow quickly throughthe
rating baffle 34 insures precipitation of the liquid
conduits 24 and 28 vand 29 from the vessel 22 and
and the resulting vapor then ?ows through the 65 will quickly cool down the absorber-generator
conduit 2! into the heat rejecting element 2a
to which it is admitted. This will cause the salt
within the cooled absorber-generator to begin
where the same is condensed in the liquid phase.
The snap-acting two-way valve mechanism 2'!
immediate absorption of refrigerant vapor with
is provided with an actuating arm 36 which ex
consequent immediate production of refrigera
tends through a flexible seal 31 in one wall of 70 tion in its associated evaporator element. The
vapor produced in the cooling jacket by the, heat
the valve chest 26. The‘ actuating element 36
is positioned to' engage the actuating element 38
of absorption will then pass out of the cooling
of a snap-acting switch mechanism 39. The
jacket and will lift previously condensed vapor
‘switch mechanism 39 includes a movable two
to the ‘cooling medium collection vessel in. ‘a
point contact 40 which in'the position shown 7.5 manner heretofore described. This operation
seal trap 32 and the upper end of the conduit 3|
willcontinue with each absorber-generator alter
nately operating on the generating and absorp
tion cycles until the demand for‘refrigeration is
met, at which time the thermostatic switchAB
will be open circuited’and will de-energize the
Referring now to Figure 2 the manner in which
the evaporators are associated with a freezing
compartment is illustrated. It will be there seen
that the freezing compartment comprises a me
tallic, shell 6| provided with ice tray supporting
that the same ‘may operate independently and
to beico'ole‘d by independent streams of cooling
airs This arrangement cf'the condensers is pre
ferred but they may be extended entirely
across the mechanism chamber in the manner in
which, the element 20 extends thereacross.‘ In
the event that the condensers are extended en
tirely across th back wall of th cabinet the ab
sorber generators maybe arranged horizontall
above’ the level of the condenser.
, “ ; In the illustrated embodiment of the invention
the heat rejecting element 20 is positioned im
mediately below the casing housing the control
mechanism. However, it may be positioned at a
opposite side walls of the casing 6i :whereby they
‘serve to cool the same. If desired, the lower 15 lower level and beneath the refrigerated com
partment if desire‘d,'though thisis a less com‘;
portion of the casing just above the thermostatic
pact? arrangement.
4 '
element 53_may contain a quantity of heat ab
It is characteristic of the present invention that
sorptive material which also has an appreciable
the quantity of liquid in the reservoir 22 is suffi
heat conductivity so as to transfer cold from
the'operative evaporator element. The thermo 20 cient to cool the absorber-generator with extreme
rapidity when the valve 26 is actuated to admit
static switch ‘19, which is of the ‘adjustable type,
cooling ?uid to either absorber generator atthe
will be positioned on the top wall of the evapo
end'of a generating period. This action causes
rator chamber 6| in order that the same may be
shelves‘ 63. The evaporators E and E’ are placed
upon and are in heat exchange relationship with
readily accessible for adjustment by the house
Referring now to Figures 3 and 4 the manner
in which the above described mechanism is asso
ciated with a cabinet structure is illustrated.
The insulated cabinet ‘in is provided with van in
sulated vrefrigerating chamber ‘H and a rear air
immediate absorption of =‘refrigerant vapor byithe
absorber-‘generator and prevents a period‘of no
refrigeration production at the switch-over
The apparatus has been illustrated and‘ de
scribed for use with electrical heating; however,
it is within the scope of the invention to use com
bustible ‘fuel, such as gas, to heat the absorber
cooling and machinery receiving‘ chamber 12.
generators. In this eventthe arm 36 would oper
The rear wall of the cabinet ‘H3 is provided with
ate a1 snap acting gas valve’ similar in structure
an, opening 13 which is closed by a suitable in
to the valve mechanism 26 and the control mech
sulatedpanel ‘Hi. A gasket 15 is provided to seal
the joint'between the cabinet structure and the 35 anism would operate on a gas valve'positioned in
panel 14.
The refrigerating apparatus is associated with
the supply line ahead of the snap acting mech
the panel 113 as is illustrated in Figures 3 and 4;
that is, with the evaporator on the forward side
be found in U, S. Letters‘Patent 2,228,343, dated
An example of such a construction will
January 14, 1941. Of course in the event such a
of the panel and the remaining apparatus on the
construction‘ were embodied in the present‘ ap
rear side- so that the evaporator structure may
paratus the electrical connections disclosed in the
aforementioned patent would be unnecessary and
extend into the refrigerating chamber ‘H and
the ‘remaining apparatus will be positioned in
the‘ vertically extending mechanism chamber
and air ?ue 12. The panel 14 and the associated
refrigerating apparatus may be assembled with
the refrigerating cabinet in any desired manner
as by directly securing the panel 14 and refrig
erating apparatus to the framework of the cab
inet. The refrigerating apparatus per se is su?i
cie'ntly rigid so that the same does not require
could be eliminated.-
' '
I While the invention has'been illustrated-and
described herein in considerable detail, various
changes may be made in the form, construction
and arrangement of parts without departing
frorhthe spirit of the invention or the scopesof
the appended claims.
the provision of an auxiliary supporting frame
1_. Refrigerating apparatus including a pair of
intermittent refrigerating systems each'including
The absorber generators and condensers are
an absorber-generator, ‘a condenser and an evap
positioned above the evaporators and the con
densers’ discharge directly into the reservoirs l2,
l2’ which are embedded in the insulation of the
panel element ‘M as are the vertically down
orator connected in circuit, said condensers and
said evaporators being arranged with respect to
eachlother and to‘ said'absorber-generators to
prevent gravity flow of liquid refrigerant into
said absorber-generators, a' cooling system for
wardly extending conduits which connect the
said absorber-generators including‘a heat reject; ,
reservoirs to the lower ends of the coils I3, I32
ing part,'a heat absorbing part in heat exchange
By this’ arrangement circulation of refrigerant
downwardly from the reservoir if‘ and upwardly
with each:absorberégenérator, a gas and ‘liquid
separating chamber, means for conveying con
densate from said‘ separating chamber-to each
through ‘the conduit [3, I3’ is assured due to the
fact that heat will be supplied to the conduit l3
absorber-generator, a vapor lif-t pump for convey
erating apparatus per se so that the same re
ing condensate from said heat rejecting part to
said ‘separating chamben'means for conveying
vapor from said separating chamber to said heat
rejecting part, means for'conveying ‘vapor from
each ‘of said heat absorbing parts to said vapor-lift
ceives the coolest air available for cooling pur- ‘
pump,‘ means for heating said absorber-genera
poses andver'y e?icientl'y cools its associated ab
at an elevation
The condensers
C and co-ex
tensive withthe absorber generators and‘ are
laterally spaced from each other in'the flue so 75
tors, and controlmeans arranged to govern said
heating means and said cooling system to apply
heat to one absorber-generator to cool the other
and will not be supplied to the connection’ there
to which is embedded in the insulation of 'the
panel element.
The element 29 is positioned below the refrig
‘absorber-generator.v i
> -~2.- In a refrigerator, a cabinet structure includ
ing an :insulated refrigerating chamber and a
mechanism chamber and cooling air passageway
extending along “a vertical‘wall of said refrigerat
ca-lly extending mechanism chamber and-air-duct
extending along a vwall 'of said refrigerating
chamber, a removable panel in said wall of said
ing chamber, an intermittent absorption refrig
erating apparatus associated with said cabinet
structure including an evaporator in said refriger
ating chamber, an absorber-generator in said
associated With said cabinet'structure including
a pair of intermittent absorption refrigerating
systems each including an absorber-generator, a
mechanism chamber, a tubular air cooled con
tubular air cooled condenser and an evaporator
refrigerating chamber; refrigerating apparatus
denser‘ in said mechanism chamber, conduit
connected in circuit; said absorber-generators
means having a downward slope ‘for conducting 10 being positioned in said mechanism chamber,
refrigerant vapor from said absorber-generator to‘
said evaporators being positioned in said refrig
said condenser, conduit means for conducting re
erating chamber in front of said panel and below
frigerant liquid from said condenser to said
the upper portion of said absorber-generators,
evaporator, means for heating said absorber
generator, and agvaporization-condensation cool- ,
ing system forcooling said absorber-generator in
cluding a vaporizing part in heat-exchange rela
said condensers, being positioned in said mecha
nism chamber and extending from a point below
the upper portions of ‘said absorber-generators to
said evaporators, means for heating said absorb
tion with said absorber-generator and a tubular
er-generators, a cooling system for said absorber
air cooled condensing element positioned in said
generators including heat absorbing parts in heat
mechanism chamber below said absorber 20 exchange relation with each absorber-generator
generator. ~
and a tubular air cooled condensing element posi
‘3. ‘In .a refrigerator, a cabinet structure in
tioned below said absorber-generators in said
cluding an insulated refrigerating chamber anda
mechanism chamber, vapor lift means for;elevat-_- ,
mechanism chamber and cooling air passageway
ing vcondensate from said condensing element to
extending along a vertical wall of said refriger 25 said heat absorbing parts, means for introducing
ati-ng chamber, an intermittent absorption re
vapor produced in said heat absorbing parts into
frigerating apparatus associated with said cabinet
said vapor lift means, and means for conducting
structure including an evaporator in said refrig
vapor from said vapor lift means to said condens
ing element.
erating chamber, an absorber-generator insaid
6. In an intermittent absorption refrigerating
mechanism chamber, a tubular air cooled con
apparatus having a pair of absorber-generators
denser in said mechanism chamber, conduit
means having a downward slope for conducting
which are alternately heated and cooled; a cool
refrigerant vapor from said absorber-generator
ing system for said absorber-generators including
to said'condenser, conduit meansfor conducting
heat absorbing parts in’ heat exchange relation
refrigerant liquid from said condenser to said 35 with said absorber-generators, an air cooled heat
rejecting part positioned below said absorber
evaporator, means for heating said absorber
generators, a reservoir for a cooling medium po
generatonrmeans for cooling said absorber
sitioned above said absorber-generators, means
generator including a tubular air cooled condens-_
for conveying cooling ‘medium from said reservoir
i-ng-element ‘positioned in said mechanism cham
to ‘said heat absorbing parts, a vapor lift pump
ber below said absorber-generator, and a circu
for elevating cooling'medium from'said heat re
lating means for cooling _ medium operated by
vapor of cooling medium produced by rejection of
jecting part to said reservoir, means for introduc
heat from said absorber-generator.
ing vapor from each of said heat absorbing parts
4. In a refrigerator, a cabinet structure having
an insulatedrefrigerating chamber and a verti
cally extending mechanismchamber and air duct
extending along a wall of said refrigerating
chamber, a removable panel in said wall of said
into said vapor lift pump, and means for convey
ing vapor from said reservoir to said heat reject
ing part.
7. Intermittent absorption refrigerating appa
refrigerating chamber; refrigerating apparatus
ratus having a pair of absorber-generators which
are alternately heated and cooled, a cooling sys
associated with said cabinet structure including a
tem'for said absorber-generators including heat
absorbing parts in heat exchange relation with
pair of intermittent absorption refrigerating sys
tems each including an absorber-generator, a tu
said absorber-generators, an air cooled heat re
biilar {air cooled condenser and an evaporator
connected in circuit; said absorber-generators
jecting part positioned below said absorber-gen
being positioned in said mechanism chamber,
said evaporators being positioned in said refrig
erators, a reservoir for a cooling medium posi
tioned above said absorber-generators, means for
conveying cooling medium from said reservoir to
said heat absorbing parts, a vapor li-ft pump for
crating, chamber in front of said panel andbelow
elevating cooling medium from said heat reject
the upper portion, of said absorber-generators,
ing part to said reservoir, means for introducing
said‘vcondensers being positioned in- said mecha
nism chamber and extending from a point below 60 vapor from each of sid heat absorbing parts into
the upper portions of said absorber-generators to
said vapor lift pump, means for conveying vapor
said evaporator, means for heating said absorber
from said reservoir to said heat’ rejecting part,
generators, and a cooling systemifor cooling said
and-thermostatic control means arranged to di
absorber-generators comprising parts in heat
rect the cooling medium discharged from said
exchange, relation with each’ absorbemgenerator,
reservoir into a selected one of said absorber
an'air cooled condensing element positioned be
low ‘said,absorberegenerators, a reservoir above
said‘:absorber-generators, a, Vapor lift pump for
8. In a refrigerator, a cabinet structure having
an insulated refrigerating chamberand a verti
elevating condensate fromsaid condensing ele
cally extending mechanism chamber and air duct
extending along a wall of said refrigerating
chamber, a removable panel in said wall of said
refrigerating chamber of a size suf?cient to allow
an evaporator to be inserted into said refrigerat
ment to said reservoir, means for conducting va
porifrom each of said heatrejecting parts to said
vapor lift'pump, and means for conducting vapor
fromrsaid reservoir to said condensing element.
5. In a refrigerator, a cabinet structure having
ing chamber through the opening receiving said
an insulated. refrigerating chamber and/a verti 75 panel, refrigerating apparatus associated with
said cabinet structure including a pair of inter
ing said absorber-generators; a cooling system
mittent absorption refrigerating systems each in
forsaid absorber-generators comprising a single
heat rejecting element positioned below said ab
cluding an absorber-generator, a tubular air
cooled condenser and an evaporator connected in
sorber-generators, and means for circulating
circuit; said absorber-generators being positioned
cooling medium from said heat rejecting part in
in said mechanism chamber, said evaporators be
heat exchange with said absorber-generators ar
ing positioned in said refrigerating chamber in
ranged to be operated by heat rejected from
either absorber-generator; and control means ar
front of said panel and below the upper portion
ranged to govern said heating means and said
of said absorber-generators, said evaporators in
cluding reservoirs embedded in the insulation of 10 cooling system so that one absorber-generator is
being heated while the other is undergoing cool
said panel, said condensers being positioned in
said mechanism chamber and extending from a
point below the upper portions of said absorber
generators to said evaporators; means for heat
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