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Патент USA US2410369

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Oct. 29, 1946. _
.s.‘ (z. SZIKLAI
_ 2,410,369
POWER SUPPLY CIRCUITS ‘
Filed Sept. 1', _ 1942
Y”.aa’
311m for 6
32
C0.
Gttomeg
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
2,410,369
PATENT QFFICE
‘2,410,369
rowan SUPPLY CIRCUITS
.George_C. :S‘ziklai, Bloomington, Ind., assignor to
Radio ‘Qorporation of America, a corporation
QfPdaWare
Application September 1, 1942, Serial No. 456,865
18 Claims. (01. 315-96)
2
This invention relates to .jpowersupply circuits
-l_1e fact that the ‘resulting heat caused ‘by this
in thermionic amplifier apparatus, ,rnore particu
larly in radio receiving sets energized by' alter
nating ordirect current/power rnains or from a
battery uxpowersourcejlin other words,’ universal
rowereunplvcircuits
'
‘
N
"
‘
‘
jibb'we‘i" los'vsmhal's' pee'ni'a" sdurcje“ pf itroublé.‘ ‘For
example;iit'lhaslshorteneduthe life of the electro
ltit'ic Tcoiidet'i'sf‘ s inthe' réceive'rland has, ‘in gen
eral, iadded.to‘zthe'fproblehilof'getting rid ,Tofl'ieat
'
" "ed-inithe apparatus? 'One' expedient has
object of-thisinventionisto provide anim
proved vLand simpli?ed arrangement for energiz
ing fradiro apparatus‘ imp alternating or direct
' ‘ " lace‘ ‘this {voltage dropping‘ resistor in
‘current power supply means or from .a battery
sunply?oume
'
10
"
A further object 10f this invention is to im
imésgolrssv...
‘ QI? ccordancetwiththis
._.
..
. invention,
,
. the voltage
prove the etdc'iency of operation of universal
15
of “t ‘e 'currentsupplyto the cathode‘ circuit 10f
tl’le .lfadio ' apparatus‘ is reduced to “the ":dfesirjed
valu'eiby resistance means at "111611 performs other
20
ja
R \ferririg .te Fig.
is )shown fa ‘?rst audio
'pqvvér'ambu?er tube 13
:r‘anged'QtO vbe v.ene'rgi'z
,1 ‘or the‘ drawing; ~were
'(arripli?er' tube'fl and ‘a
of ‘a radio reCeiver, jar
by L‘A.¢"C'.‘ or .DJ-C. power
supply ma'irisbhfi'o
atte'ry‘ sources A and B.
powder-‘supply circuits for radio apparatus.
Amorevspeciiic ‘object (of this invention isto
eliminate the usual voltage droppingresistor em
vployedin universal power supplycircuits in radio
ii's‘efulifnnétions than Ii?erely dropping vthe volt
vapparatus} rforjreducing the voltage supplied to
‘the qathode?circuitsfof the apparatus. '
'
A still gfu-rther ‘object ‘ofvithis invention .is to
_>atus-~in.the powerysupplyucircuits' of radio re
prolong the life-of recti?er-tubes andother‘app'a
ceivers.
‘
'
'
'
Eor the‘purpose.ofrectifyingthe current from an
’
‘In accordance With this invention, there is pro
,videdl-a imivergsyal p0we'nsupp1y- for radio appa
Fetus wherein thaappereiilé is?rrang‘éd to Oper
:ate, substantially immediately upon closing of the
powerswitchhasw-trom an auxiliary battery’ sup
A".'.-'C.;power.source§ a. thermionic recti?erii, which
may be ‘ of, the '.evaciiated,.,é1ectron .emissionj type,
bfga's?md ,or; in, wcury.vapor type, is‘ Connected
pepweghi the :biI‘GlJIY/S "of .' thelar‘npli?er tubes and
25
,onethe powerlsource to'fwhi'ch‘ it‘xis con- I
nected lthroii‘gh‘fa plug ‘i. There is provided a
;ply, J-and ; wherein the V_alcjparvatusv is automatically
.inu plepolegahg‘ediswitch (‘9' for switchinathe
causedlto , operate from a power Qmai'n as soon‘. as
utherrnipnictap' ' ratu'sffr‘orn batteryvsupplyopera
it has been. conditioned ;_so;,to operategand auto
tine-bier ‘tbi'A-
lleaiically to: fall <bf<wk<ui19n such-battery Opera
tionwin case’of iailure of the; powersupply mains
iorgiailure of elements, such iasth'e' recti?er,’ of
theyploweri circuit.
'
'
l_-These,,as wellas other objects, will be fully ap
inains circuit and vthe A battery “circuits have
ier‘ bli' (arranged (to. be'i'simultaneoiisly operated. as
beencmse'ci yLmeansloflswitches‘,I l and I3, pref,
35
Sh “Ln W?-émJihQ-IEWW“ ‘
'
are! .a?dlsiiit] h? ‘2 i, and Yea-mes cathode .‘?la
'ments of a'preferred form vof-the inventionjvFig.
2 is a circuit'diagram illustratingla modi?cation
current to be.v ,5 Tpblied‘ ‘in . parallel-‘110i the
mamienarvetn . seam-1:5 bfihe'sam'e-tllbea
of the invention; and Fig. 3_ is a circuit-diagram
‘
"
'
qrn 'a'tteryvéBjto'the , anodes. 'l‘liand
grammatic illustration of the circuitzzvparrange
Hereto-fore, in radio receiving. apparatus ;oper
"
.- “ gtheilpositionsloown [causesdirect ‘current to
'
_ In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia
of anothermodi?cation of the invention.
'
he thermostatic ‘ganged switch _, arrangement
the; speci?cationwhen taken in connection with
'
‘
_
,
7C‘. or"D.-'C.
voperation;fromfthe
‘
power 'ma'ins'f and ‘vice ,versa, ‘after the‘power
parent from ltherfollowing detailed description'of
theiattached~drawiea
cord ‘lead "to: the receiver‘, so that, the
n1 dissipated "into the air outside ‘of
the" apparatus." .ISeé patent to Mason ,. t‘ al.
H
respectively, ih'réuéhswif?i 21- toitqr'itebt‘ 5.8;; in
45 'coopeeetien 'withlehethéf switv'h' '29-‘ a?dlnohtact
ated fromeither ‘ alternating orwdirect current‘, it
has been necessary .to employ- a voltage dropping
resistor between the side of. the line to which the
power recti?er is connected and the 's'eriallvcon
nected ?laments or cathodeiheaters. ,Bywayiof
example, see. patent to Wuei‘fel 1-,9,00§62,9,._Eig.l_2.
This arrangement has reducedvthe". 'e'?icien'cy ‘of
operation. because ,of ‘ the power dissipated ,in the
dropping resistor. SA further‘disadvantageliesiin 55.
iA5§um?lg mania-111s inserted in the, power
mainsLeitherA —C.‘ pr-v~D.-C._ current iscaused to
?ow throu h‘ qwer lead ._3llthrough switch..33,
'
‘ '
hoivrif'tp ‘terminalfgalthe junc
?encathjoue131Tannitsinterria1
.émen a. From this pointihe
time rheatiealelement .39
nus-Winding? 4! of ._ a ‘ibi
l
4
metal element 43, through switch 29 and back
to the other side of the power mains by way of
lead 45. As shown, the radio apparatus is oper
ated by batteries A and B while the cathode 31
of the recti?er tube is being heated by current
from the power mains. After the cathode 31 has
been heated sufficiently to become thermionically
active for normal operation of the recti?er, the
bimetal element 43 has also become heated, and
after a desired time interval this bends in a clock- >
wise direction about its base, at M, and causes
switches 21, 29, 2| and 33 to move overto the
other contacts shown at 53, 55, 54 and?l?. It is
preferred that this thermionic'switch be of the
snap action type, so that the movement of the
contacts for both closing and opening is rapid
and positive in action, although the particular
39, this value of resistance is substantially in
creased and can be made to give the desired 2500
ohms total resistance drop, assuming a ?lament
current of 10 milli-amperes. To increase the
heating current in element 39, a bleeder resistor
59 has been connected from the heater to terminal
64 of switch 29 so that, when in the power mains
position of switch 29, additional current to that
drawn by ?laments 25 and 23 flows in heater 39.
This additional current in 59 is also used to help
to heat the thermostatic relay, in case additional
heat is desired to hold the switch in the power
mains position, there being less current in 4|
when connected in series with the ?laments 25
and 23 than when across the power line with
heater 39. However, it ordinarily takes less cur
rent to hold the relay than it does to initially
operate it.
details of construction form no part of the pres
ent invention, being well known in the art.
In an earlier arrangement, the bimetallic relay
was connected in series in the lead 3|, as shown
in Fig. 2. It was found that the recti?er heater
. With switch 33 in the position shown, on con
tact 49, the recti?er anode 5| is short-circuited
current was approximately 50 % greater than that
required by the ampli?er tubes, due to the insu?i
cient amount of resistance in heater element 39,
directly to its cathode 31 so that there is no dif
ference of potential between the two electrodes.
In other words, recti?er tube 5 is by-passed and
the heater 39 is connected ahead of the tube di
and it was therefore found necessary to use a
shunting resistor 59 to divert current from the
‘?laments of the ampli?er tubes and to draw the
proper amount of current for operating heater 39.
rectly to one side 3| of the mains for starting the
tube. However, with switch 33 on contact 53, the
cathode 31 is disconnected from this short circuit
While it would be more ei?cient to have a recti
and is in normal operating series relation with
?er tube with a heater employing the same heat
vrespect to anode 5| and the power supply source, 30 ing current as the ampli?er tube ?laments,
and with the anode circuit load of tubes | and 3
thereby avoiding the necessity of using resistor 59
by way of switch 2| which is now contacting
in Fig. 2, this disadvantage is partially overcome
terminal 55. Although the voltage reducing
by connecting the heater of the thermostatic re
means or heater element 39 has been disconnected
from the direct connection to thelside of the
lay in series with the recti?er cathode heater, as
shown at 4| in Fig. 1. Adisadvantage of con
power line at 3|, the recti?er cathode 31 continues
necting the thermostatic element 4| as shown in
to operate by reason of the fact that recti?ed cur
Fig. 2 is that there is a loss of voltage ahead of
rent, passing normally through the recti?er,
flows from point 35 through the heater 39,
through the relay resistance winding 4|, and
thence through the ?lamentary cathodes 25 and
23 of tubes 3 and |, respectively, back to the other
side of the power line via lead 45. In this con
nection, it is noted that switches 29 and 21 are
now open circuited for the ?laments 25 and 23, '
which are thereby connected in series, with the
battery A removed from circuit. It will be ob
served. that in the above operation the cathode 31
of recti?er 5 becomes thermionically active before
the power voltage is ~applied between the anode
5| and the cathode 31. For well known reasons
this lengthens the life of a recti?er tube and is
quite necessary in the case of a mercury type rec
ti?er tube. While not the prime object of the
invention, this is a desirable advantage that‘ oc
ours in connection withrthe present invention.
In ‘the event that the power from the mains
the recti?er and less voltage available for the
ampli?er, The circuit of Fig. 1 overcomes this
disadvantage. In Fig. 2, and also in Fig. 3, the
ampli?er circuit is not shown, but is the same as
in Fig. 1, connected to terminals 2, 4, 6 and 8.
When plug 1 is connected to D.-C. mains the
,
same operation takes place as above outlined, so
long as the correct polarity is obtained, that is,
when lead 3| is connected to the positive side
of the line. To inform the operator whether the
set is operating on power mains or battery, there
has been connected to the switch an indicator 69
and 6 l, the moving element 60 of which is ganged
with the switch arms as shown by the dash line
62, operatively connected to the thermostatic ele
ment at 49.
In case of failure of the recti?er
tube, this indicator will give a warning by showing
“ ” operation at all times. Ampli?er tube | has
its grid electrode connected to input terminals as
shown and its anode H is coupled to the control
‘should fail, the current, through heaters 39 and
electrode of tube 3 in the plate circuit of which
4| stops and the bimetal element returns to its
there is coupled a loudspeaker or other output
‘?rst or cold position as shown, and the radio ap 60
device 65.
.
paratus is again connected to battery operation.
While the above arrangements are intended
Upon restoration, of the voltage in the power
primarily to operate from power mains, they will
‘mains, the set is again switched over to power
readily operate from the batteries A and B by
main operation in the manner above outlined,
closing switch l3 when the power plug 1 is not
thereby avoiding any discontinuity in service.
plugged into power mains. It can therefore be
The recti?er tube 5 which was used in connec
considered as a battery operated portable receiver
tion with the present invention was known as the
which can be operated from power mains by sim
RCA-type l1‘7Z6, but any recti?er tube can be
ply plugging into the same and without the neces
used so long as it has a higher plate current than
sity of throwing any additional switches or mak
heater current rating. In this particular tube
ing any special connections. If it is operating in
the resistance of the heater is around 1400 ohms
this manner from batteries, and the plug 1 is in,
as compared with 2500 ohms resistance which
serted into power mains, the receiving set will
would normally be used for a ?lament voltage
automatically be changed over to power line op
dropping resistor," By placing the heating wind-7
eration in the manner'above described. In some
ing 4| of the bimetallic relay in series with heater
2,410,369
6
circuits‘ heretofore used, it has been necessary
the part of the user. Those skilled in the art will
readily appreciate that the principles involved in
the construction and operation may be. embodied
in various forms. of practical circuits. without. de
parting from the spirit and scope of this inven
to use a ‘complicated system of switching to con
vert over to battery operation from power line
operation, although in an improved arrangement
it has been customary to remove the power plug
from the mains receptacle and plug it into a re
tion; and I do not, therefore, desire to be limited
ceptacle on'the' receiver chassis as part of the
switching operation, as disclosed, for example, in
to the disclosure as given for purposes of illus
tration, but rather to the scope. of the appended
Wuérfel 1,975,4c41.
1 Various modi?cations will occur to those skilled 10
claims.
‘
What I'claimas my invention is:v
.
'
in the art. By way of example, I'have shown in
1'..
In
thermionic
apparatus,
an
ampli?er
in
Fig. 3 :a modi?cation wherein other preheating
cluding a plurality of vacuum tubes. each having a
means, such as an auxiliary heater element 40,
cathode and an anode, a thermionic recti?er hav
is. provided Within the cathode 3;? solely for the
ing an anode and a. cathode, heating means for
purpose of initiating thermionic emission from
energizing said'recti?er cathode, a power supply
the» cathode. Heater 39, corresponding to that
circuit including said recti?er for energizing said
in Fig. 1, is here arranged to be heated only by
ampli?er cathodes and anodes from. alternating
recti?ed current after the recti?er is caused to
or direct current power mains, swi-tch'means for
operate, and subsequently is connected in series
with the cathodes of the ampli?er tube, as shown 20 initially connecting at least a portion of said
heating means across: said means. to operatively
in Fig. 1. One terminal of the auxiliary heater
heat. said recti?er cathode, and; means responsive
is connected to one side of the power line at 45,
to current. flow in said supply circuit for subse
while the other terminal is connected to the other
quently disconnecting‘ said portion and connect
side of the line at 3!, through switch 33', in the
ing
at least. a portion of said heating means in
position shown for preheating. As soon as the
series circuit: relation with said ampli?er cath
cathode 31 reaches normal operating condition,
odes and said. recti?er for deriving direct. current
current will flow from the line through recti?er
5., through heater element 39, and through switch
from said- mains..
‘
I .
anode of the recti?er.
mentfor heating ‘said cathode, a direct current
2-. In. thermionic apparatus, a source or alter
29. back to the other side of the line. In this re
spect the circuit of Fig. 3 di?ers from the others, 30 nating: current,‘ a power supply circuit compris
ing. a. recti?er tube connected thereto, said- tube
and by way of further modi?cation. I have shown .
having an anode and7 a cathode including an ele
an electromagnetic relay 10 in circuit with the
As soon as the recti?ed
thermionic, load‘ circuit, means for connecting
current through 10 reaches a desired amount, the
armature H is actuated and the switches 33, 2!, ,
29. and 2iv are thrown, as before, to the other con
tacts for operation of the ampli?er from the
said element across‘ said alternating current
source to. cause thermionic emission from said
cathode while maintaining substantially no dif
ference of potential-between said cathode and
said anode, and time delay means responsive to
current ?ow in said supply circuit for establish
ing subsequently a difference of potential be
power mains. When the switch isthrown. as. de
scribed, the circuit. to the auxiliary heater is
broken by switch 33. In this arrangement, I have
shown no bleeder resistor shunting the ?lament
circuit. of the ampli?er tubes, since here I prefer
tween said‘anodev and? said cathode- wh-ile con
necting said element in series circuit relation with
said. load circuit and said recti?er, whereby rec‘
ti?ed; alternating current is caused to ?ow
througlr sai'd element andv said load‘ circuit.
3; In combination with radio apparatus, a
to provide a heater 39 operating on the, same
amount of current as the ?laments of the. ampli~ '
?ers tubes, and having the desired voltage drop
for operating the ampli?er tubes. Various other
modi?cations might be made without departing
from the spirit of my invention. For example, the
main source. of power supply for said apparatus,
a thermionic ampli?er included in said apparatus
batteries A and B can be dispensedwith, and my
inventionstill possesses the main advantagev of
and.» having an anode and a cathode, a power
supply circuit comprising a recti?er tube con
nected between said source and said‘ ampli?er
for. supplying direct’ current at low voltage to-said
elimination of the voltage dropping resistor, above
described. While I have shown ?lamentarytypes
of tubes for the ampli?er tubes, mainly for the
purposeof quick heating and ‘operation on bat
teries, the same could be used with. power line
operation only and the auxiliary heater can. be
ampli?er'cathode and direct current at relatively
high- voltage to said- ampli?er anode, said recti
‘ ?er tube having anode ‘and cathode electrodes
designed‘ to heat the‘recti?er cathodequickly.
and a heating element, means» for'connecting one
‘While I have shown the heater or voltage re
terminal of said- element: to a' point in said supply
ducing element in the recti?er tube as being sup
plied with recti?ed current from its own recti?er
ing. current from said mains and: for subsequently
electrodes, it is obvious that this element may, be
supplied with recti?ed current by other means.
In; other words, while the voltage reducing ele
ment is connected to one side of the main through
therecti?er, it can be connected directly there .65
to, as it is in the preheating position, with an
other rectifying means in circuit. to cause ‘it to
circuit'ahead of said'recti?er for receiving heat~
disconnecting: said terminal'from said point‘ and
connecting at least a portion of‘ said element
iny'series'relation with said recti?er electrodes for
supplying direct current serially through said ele-‘
ment portion to said ampli?er cathode. '
'
I 4*. In combination with radio apparatus in
cluding a plurality of thermionic ampli?er tubes
incascade, each of said ampli?er tubes including
a cathodeand an anodaapower supply circuit
From the foregoing disclosure, it will be appar‘-'
ent that the present invention provides not only 70 for energizing-said‘ ampli?er cathodes with recti
?'ed'current and "said ampli?er anodes with oper
a'more e?icient power circuit than heretofore
ating direct: current potentials from an alternat
known, but also provides a highly simpli?ed and
supply recti?ed heating current.
_'
, '
ing current source of‘powe'rfa recti?er tube con-v
foolproof arrangement that can readily be used
nected between said source and said ampli?ers,
witheither- batteries or A. C.‘/D~. C. power opera
tion with- theexercise of no- conscious-effort on 75 said. recti?er tube having an anode connected: to
one; side of" said source and, a. cathodev including
2,410,369
8
initially across said source to preheat said cath
av heater element with, at leasttwo terminals
one terminal being connected directly to said
cathode, means for substantially short-eircuiting
said recti?er cathode to said recti?er anode and
ode and cause same to become thermionically ac
tive, and time delay means responsive to the ?ow
of load current for disconnecting said element
from said source and connecting said element in
series between said cathode and said load circuit.
for connecting another terminal of said heater
element to the other side oiJsaid source to'opera
9. rThe invention as set forth in claim 7 charac
tively preheat said recti?er cathode, time- delay
terized in that said load circuit includes high and
means operatively connected with said heater
element and said ampli?er cathodes for removing
said short circuit aiter'said recti?er cathode has
become operative in response to current ?ow in
said supply circuit and for connecting said cath
ode directly in-circuit with said ampli?er .anodes
low voltage operatind sections, andsaid cathode
is connected to said high voltage section and said
heater element is connected to said low voltage
section.
'
10. The invention as set forth in claim 7 char
aoterized in that said cathode is initially started
by connecting at least a portion of said heating
time delay means ‘also disconnecting said heating
element across said mains and subsequently dis
element from said other side of said source and
connecting said portion from said mains.
for connecting said element in series relation with
11. In radio apparatus, a multi-stage vacuum
said ampli?er cathodes and said recti?enwhereby
tube ampli?er, each tube thereof having a ?la
said recti?ed current is supplied to said cathodes.
mentary cathode and an anode, a thermionic rec
5. In thermionic apparatus, an ampli?er in 20 ti?er tube having an anode cathode and heating
cluding a plurality of vacuum tubes each having
structure, supply circuits including said recti?er
a cathode and an anode, a thermionic recti?er
for energizing said cathodes and said ampli?er
tube having an anode and a cathode with a heat
anodes with recti?ed current from an alternating
er element, power supply circuits for energizing
current source, switch means for initially con
said ampli?er cathodes and anodes from alter 25 necting said recti?er cathode heating structure
natingor direct current power mains or from a
to said source to initiate thermionic emission
battery source, switch means for initially con
therefrom and for subsequently connecting said
necting'said heater element across said mains to
rectifier cathode heating structure in series cir
operatively heat said recti?er cathode and for
cuit relationwith said ampli?er cathodes and
connecting said ampli?er anodes and cathodes to 30 said recti?er for heating said cathodes by recti
a battery source of supply current, and time delay
?ed current.
means responsive to current ?ow in one of said
12. In thermionic apparatus, an ampli?er in
circuits for subsequently disconnecting said am
cluding an anode and a ?lamentary cathode, a
pli?er cathodes from said battery source and for
recti?er tube having an anode and a cathode
connecting same in series with said heater ele 35 with a heating element, a power supply circuit
ment while disconnecting said heater element
including said recti?er tube for energizing said
from said mains and connecting said element in
ampli?er from an alternating or direct current
series relation with said recti?er for supplying
power mains, said recti?er anode being connected
recti?ed current to heat said cathodes.
to one side of said mains and said recti?er cath
40
6. In thermionic apparatus, a source or alter
ode being connected in direct current relation
nating current, a recti?er tube connected thereto,
with said ampli?er anode for supplying high volt
to‘ supply'said operating potentials thereto, said
said tube having an anode and a cathode includ
age operating potential thereto, said heating
ing an element for heating said cathode, a direct
element having one terminal connected to said
current thermionic load circuit; a battery source _ l recti?er cathode and another terminal connected
of current for said load circuit, switch means
to one terminal of said ampli?er cathode in series
connecting said load circuit to said battery source
relation therewith for supplying low voltage rec
for energizing said circuit, switch means for ini
ti?ed current thereto, the other terminal of said
tially heating said element from said alternating
ampli?er cathode being connected to the other
current source to cause said cathode to become
thermionically active, and time delay means re
sponsive to said heating current for disconnect
ing said load circuit from said ‘battery source and
side of ‘said mains.
connecting said circuit to said recti?er cathode
and for connecting said recti?er in series between
recti?er connected between said source and said
13. In thermionic apparatus, a thermionic‘am
pli?er having anode and directly heated cathode
electrodes, at source of alternating current, a
said source and said load circuit, said element be- ' -
ing connected in series between said cathode and
said load circuit whereby recti?ed direct current
is supplied to said load circuit through said ele
ment for heating same and e?ecting a substan
tial, drop in potential between said cathode and
said load circuit.v
-
»
ampli?er anode electrode for supplying recti?ed
current thereto, resistance, means connected in
series between said source and said ampli?er
cathode electrode for supplying heating current
thereto at a voltage substantially lower than that
supplied to said ampli?er anode electrode, and
means whereby said resistance means is connected
with said recti?er 'for rendering said recti?er
Y‘
7. In thermionic apparatus, a thermionicload
operative and subsequently maintaining said rec
circuit, a powersupply circuit for supplying oper
ti?erin operative condition.‘
‘
‘
ating current from alternating current mains to
14;;Tne invention as set forth in claim‘? where
said apparatus, a recti?er tube‘ Connected in said 65
in an‘ auxiliary sourceoi power isyprovided for
supply‘ circuit and havingtherein an anode, a
cathode and a, heating element, means for ini
energizing said load circuit while saidrrecti?er
tially rendering‘ said recti?er operative,- said ele
is in an inoperative condition. '
r
,_
ment being connected in; series‘ with said" recti?er
.. 15. The. invention asset-‘forth in claim .13
in said supply, circuitpforvmaintaining said ,recti_
wherein an auxiliary source of power is provided
?ergoperative and supplying recti?ed currenttat
forv energizing said ampli?er electrodes while
reduced voltage to at least a section of said load
said recti?er is inan inoperative condition.
circuit.
.
‘
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1
"
_,
~'
,,
I.
;
.8.‘ The invention as set iorthiin'iclaim '7 char
acterized by meansfor connecting'said element
,16. The invention ,as set forth in, claim 12
75 wherein‘ means, is ,provided, for preheating said
2,410,869
recti?er cathode to initiate thermionic emission
within said recti?er.
17. The invention as set forth in claim 12
wherein means is provided for preheating said
recti?er‘ cathode to initiate thermionic emission
therefrom, said means being responsive to current
?ow of a desired amount through said recti?er 5
for rendering inactive said means.
10
18. The invention as set forth in claim '12
wherein means separate from said heating ele
ment is provided for initiating thermionic emis
~ sion Within said recti?er.
'
GEORGE C. SZIKLAI.
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