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Патент USA US2410378

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lOct. 29, 1946.
O. H. GALLAMORE
2,410,378
GRIP FOR HOISTS
' Filed Jan. l, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
@UVE/9j( f'
OCÍ. 2‘9, 1946.
o, H_ GALLAMÓRE
’- 2,410,378-
GRIP FOR HOISTS
Filed Jan. l, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
K
BY
INVENTOR.
Patented Oct. 29, 1946
UNITED STATES
l
_TENT OFFICE
2,410,378
GRIP FOR HOISTS
Oliver H. Gallamore, Indianapolis, Ind., assignor
to Diamond Chain and Manufacturing Com
pany, Indianapolis, Ind., a corporation of
Indiana
Application January 1, 1944, Serial No. 516,625
3 Claims. (Cl. 294-74)
My invention relates to a sling adapted to grip
cylindrical and similar objects and connectible to
a hoisting cable or cables by means of which the
object gripped can be elevated. It is the object of
my invention to produce a sling which can be
used to grip objects of varying diameters, and
more particularly to produce a sling which will
tighten itself upon the object as a result of the
hoisting effort. Another object of my invention
is to produce a sling which will not foul the
hoisting cable or cables and which when released
will quickly clear the object it previously gripped.
Still another object of my invention is to produce
a, sling which, when used to embrace an elongated
object at or near its point of balance, will oppose
any tipping of such object and will be especially
effective to prevent the object from slipping
through the sling. A further object of my inven
tion is to produce a sling of the type described
which can be simply and economically manufac
tured.
2,410,378
‘
2
sling being broken away to illustrate the con
struction more clearly; Fig. 2 is an elevation on
an enlarged'scale showing a hook employed to
connect one of the hoisting cables to an inter
mediate point on the sling; Figs. 3 and 4 are plan
and elevational views respectively showing the
sling-tightening lever; Figs. 5 and 6 are frag-’
mental views similar to Fig. 1 illustrating modi
ñed forms Yof sling-tightening levers; Fig. 7 is a
fragmental View similar to Fig. 1 illustrating an
attachment which may be employed in co-opera
tion with the sling when the object has a shape
such as might tend to prevent application of the
sling at the point of balance; Fig. 8 is a vertical
section on the line 3-8 of Fig. 7;`Figs. 9 to 12 are
views similar to Figs. l and 5- showing slings used
with single-cable hoists; 'and Fig. 13 is a view
similar to Fig. 4 showing the sling-tightening
lever of that ñgure used with a sling comprising
tvvo` independent chain-strands.
The_object which my sling is to grip is indicated
by the reference numeral I0 in all figures of the
chain connected to a hooked lever which is in turn
drawings. The chain Il of which the body of the
connected to a hoisting cable. In the preferred
sling
is formed may take various forms. That
arrangement, the chain comprises a series of v25
shown inthe drawings, which is of a preferred
links interconnected by transverse pivot pins the
type, is made up of alternating bushing links and
axes of which are all parallel to `each other,
pin links, each bushing link comprising a pair of
whereby iiexing of the chain will be confined to
bushings l 2 pressed into holes in the ends of side
the single plane perpendicular to the pin-axes.
In carrying out my objects, I employ a ñexible
plates i3, and each pin link comprising pins I4
The body of the chain passes around the object to 30 pressed into holes in the ends of side plates I5.
be raised by the hoisting cable and is engaged by
As is shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4, the chain Il is a
the hook of the lever,_the hook and the points of
attachment of the lever to the chain-end and the
hoisting cable being so disposed that the forces
involved will tend to tighten the chain upon the
object it embraces when tension is applied to
the hoisting cable. When the sling is used with
a two-cable hoist, the hooked lever secured to
one of the cables is disposed at one side of the
object to be elevated, the chain passes downwardly
beneath such object and then over it to be en
gaged by the hook on the lever, and the second
cable is provided with a hook which engages the
chain on the opposite side of theobject from
the hooked lever. When the hook of the lever
unitary, double-strand chain, the pins Ul being
long enough to extend through' longitudinally co
extensive bushing links of the two strands. It is
not essential, however, that the chain be a double
strand chain, nor is it essential that two chain
strands, if used, be combined into a single chain.
In the arrangement illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4
inclusive, one end of the chain l I is connected to
an intermediate point on a sling-tightening lever
I'l so arranged that when the sling is tightened
it rwill extend generally radially of the object
which the sling grips. The inner end of the
lever Il is formed to provide for each strandv of
the sling a downwardly opening hook I8, while
is disengaged from the chain after the object
the outer end of the lever is adapted for connec
has been elevated, the free end of the chain
tion
to, ahoisting cable I9. Conveniently, the
passes over the top of the object, the weight of
outer lend' of vtheV lever Il is'bifurcated and re
the chain is distributed between the two cables,
ceives Aa pin or bolt y2l) which passes through a
and the latter may be permitted to descend under 50 thimble 2| about which the end of the cable I9
the influence of gravity.
is secured, as will be clear from Figs. l and 3. `
The accompanying drawings illustrate my in
vention: Fig. 1 is an end elevation of an object
embraced by my sling, the sling being shown as
As previously indicated, the sling shown in Fig.
l is adapted for use in connection with a two
cable hoist. One cable oi such hoist is the cable
attached to two hoisting cables, and parts of the 55 i9, already referred to. The other cable,'indi-
=andere
3
cated at 23 in Fig, 1, has its end secured around
a thimble 24, such thimble being received between
the ends of a U-shaped strap 25 and held in place
by a pin or bolt 26. The strap 25, before being
bent into its U-shaped form is provided with a
longitudinally extending slotl 28 for each strand
of the chain II; and after the strap is bent each
of the slots 28 receives a hook 29. Where a mul
ti-strand, unitary chain is used, or where a plu
rality of independent strands form the sling, the
several hooks 29 are desirably secured together
in spaced relation by a rivet 39 and are jointly
held in place in the strap 25 by means of a com
mon pivot pin 3|. The lower ends of the hooks
29 are formed to engage over alined bushings I2
of the double-strand chain Il, as will be clear
from Fig. l,
ì
that an upward effort applied to the cable I9 will
tighten the sling. The cable 23 (not shown in
Fig. 5) at the opposite side of the object is con
nected to the chain, as by the hook 29, in the
manner shown in Fig. l. After application of the
sling, the object I9 is hoisted and secured in ele
vated position, whereupon the cable I9 is slack
ened and the hook 4I disengaged from the end of
the chain. By further slackening of the cables,
the sling may be permitted to descend, that end
of thev chain previously secured to the hook 4I
passing over the top of the object I0. As in the
arrangement shown in Figs. l to 4, the weight of
the descending` chain is divided between the two
cables.
‘
When a hoist embodying the sling of Fig. 5 is
to be used for successive elevation of objects I0
of the same size, the hook 42 is left permanently
in engagement at the proper place with the chain
In use, the chain I I is wrapped around the ob
ject to be elevated in the manner shown in Fig.
l, the hook I8 of the lever I'I is engaged over 20 II. By properly shaping the exterior of the
hook 42, the possibility that such hook may ac
bushings I2 so that the lever I1 will extend gen
cidentally become dislodged from its proper place
erally horizontally and radially of the object I9,
of engagement with the chain may be reduced;
the hook' 29 isengaged with the chain at the op
but in any situation where the sling is liable to
posite side of the object, and the object is lifted
by the application of tension to the cables I9 25 be used repeatedly to hoist objects of the same
size, it is desirable to provide the lever 4D with
and 23. Whenthe object has been elevated and
some releasable means for holding the hook 42
secured in the desired position, the cables are
in engagement with the chain at the desired
slackened and the hooks I8 disengaged from the
chain. l Under the influence of gravity, the chain
point thereon. The means shown in Fig. 5 com
purpose, the chain illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4 of
sarily be rotated as a bushing enters or leaves
_ the slot of the hook 42, the latching action of the
drops free of the object, the free end of the chain 30 prises a disc 43 rotatably mounted on the body
of the hook 49 in position to engage the ends of
passing over the object from right to left. When
the side plates associated with a bushing I2 en
the chain is free of the object, its weight will be
tering the slot of the hook and thereby interfere
divided between the two cables I9 and 23, which
with movement of such bushing into or out of
then may be permitted to descend under the in
the slot. This disc is relieved at one point, as
35
ñuence of gravity.
indicated at 44, so that when the relieved portion
' lBecause the hooks I8 can be engaged with any
of the disc is in association with the slot of the
ofthe bushings of the chain, the sling is adapted
hook, clearance is provided for the side plates.
to grip objects of Various sizes. However, when
After the hook 42 has been engaged with the
the circumference of the object to be gripped is
less than the Veffective length of the sling, some 40 chain, the disc 43 may be rotated slightly so as
to prevent the hook from' leaving the chain. If
provision must be made for preventing the excess
the relief is provided in a form of an arcuate
length‘of. chain from interfering with proper
notch, Vas indicated, so that the disc will neces
functioning 1 of the hooked lever I1. For this
the drawings is connected tothe hooked lever I'I
through the use of links or straps 3| which are
secured to the end'bushing links of the chain by
disc will be made more effective.
'
, The sling-tightening lever 45 illustrated in Fig. i
6 is substantially the same as that shown in Fig.
5 except `for the fact that'the hook 4I is elimi
outwardly with respect to each other so that the
space between themV will' be great enough to re 5 0 nated and the chain-end permanently secured to
the lever as by a pin or rivet 46. This construc
ceive the free end of the chain, Vshown sectioned
tion has the disadvantage that when the sling is
inFig. 4. The opposite ends of the links 3| are
released from the object after elevation of the
secured to the lever I1 by a pin or rivet 33, spac
latter, either the lever 45 or the full length of the
ing collars 34 being positioned upon such pin to
space the ends'of the linksv 3I from the side of 5 5 chain must pass across the top of the object. In
the former event, clearance for the lever _45 would
thelever.`
'
have to be provided, and the cable I9 would be
"The modi?edsling-tightening lever 40 shown
carried'across the object I9 with the lever 45, thus
in Fig. 5 comprises abody portion adapted to ex
a'pin> 32'and which, beyond such pin, are offset
tend generally radially from the object I0 and
placing it out of position to lift the next succeed
provided at its outer end with holes for the recep 60 ing object. . If the lever 45 and cable I9 descend
without crossing over the top of the object, it
tion of the bolt 20 by means of which it is con
would be necessary to disconnect the other hook
nected to the associated cable I9.l At its inner
29 from the chain to prevent its associated cable
end, the lever 49 is provided, for each chain
from being carried over the object I0; and with
strand, with two vertically spaced hooks each of
which is adapted to engage transverse elements 6 5 that hook disengaged, there would be no weight
on the cable 23 to cause it to descend.
,
of the chain. Il, The upper one of such hooks,
AAny of the hooks 29 and levers IT, 49, and 45
indicated at 4l, opens obliquely inwardly and
can be made of solid, one-piece construction; but
downwardly, while the lower hook 42 opens out
it may be desirable in certain instances to form
wardly.
In using the lever 40 shown in Fig. 5, the upper »m the hooks and levers of laminated sheet-metal
stampings, as clearly shown'. in Figs. 2, 3, and 4.
hook 4I is engaged with one end of the chain, and
In the case of the lever Il, I employ two sets -of
the latter passes upwardly over and around the
laminations 59 which extendvfor the ‘Vfull length
object I0, the lower hook 42 engaging the chain
of the lever`- and which _are *formed* with lthe
at Such a point that the lever will extend gener
ally horizontally at one side of the object I0 so 7 5 heOkS. I8 .et one en@ and with h'oles'ferthe 1îe-,
2,410,378
5
6
ception of the pin 2D at the other. Between the
lever by the chain are necessarily efiual and since
their resultant must be vertical’to oppose cable~
tension, the two chain-stretches ,extendingv away
two sets of laminations 53, there is a third and
shorter set 5I which serves to space the- two -sets
>5!! the proper distance »apartv so .that the hooks
from the lever are -disposed at equal angles to the
I8 thereon may engage alined bushings> of the
.double-strand chain. The pin or rivet 33 passes
through all three .sets of laminations, and serves
tohold them together; but -i-f desired; one or more
additional rivets 5,2 passing through all three -sets
Vertical and tensionin the chain will equal one
half the load multiplied by the secant vof one->
half the anglebetween such two .chainestretches
Ifhthe Apoint atv which‘the lever is connected to
the cable vis spaced from the perpendicularbisec-J
of laminations may be used.
~ »
; .
10 tor of the line joining the two-points at which the
ì vIn the case of the hooks 29, each hook may
lever is vconnected to the chain,'the latter :line
be built up of identical laminations, >the two sets
will be displaced‘angularly from the position it
being held in properly spaced relation Aby the use
occupies when the effectivelength of .the sling is a
of the kpin orfrivet 3i?. The pivot pin 3|, which
maximum. In other words, as a result 'of the dis-1
desirably Yhas a press -fit within the hooks, serves
placement referred to the effective length of the
to prevent any independent rotation of the indi
sling is reduced, thusincreasing the angle between
vidual laminations `about the axis of the rivet 3,0.
the two change-stretches and increasing chain
. As will be apparent from Figs. 1 to 4, the vari
ous «laminations all lie in vplanes parallel
forces imposed on each element (hook or
built up from such Vlaminations. As a
each laminated element is substantially as
tension.
.
.
to the
In Fig. 13, I have illustrated a sling-tightening
lever)l 20 lever Iï »similar to that _embodied in the sling'of
result,
Figs. 1 to 4. Inïthis instance however `the sling
strong
comprises two >independent, single-'strand chains
as 'if made in one piece of the same material.
6I) lwhich are respectively connected, through the
Practically no relative movement of the sling
parts occurs when the `sling is under load, so that
any tendency to wear is extremely slight. More
over, since the sling is self-tightening when under
load, any wear that does occur is unimportant.
For all these reasons, hooks and levers built up
of laminated sheet-metal stampings are as satis
factory for practical purposes as if made of one
piece construction and possess the distinct present
advantage that they can be manufactured without
using machine-tool equipment of types in which
medium of straps 5I , to the ends of aboltor pivot
pin 62 passing through /the‘lever ITI. Collars 53,
disposed on the pin ,'62 on opposite sides `of the
lever il space the »ends of' the chains 6il~far
enough apart to permit the bodies of the chains
to be engaged by the hooks I8 and to pass down
y wardly between the two chain-ends after em
bracing the object which is to be lifted. Where
the width and pitch of the chains 60 are small
compared to the diameter of the object to be
lifted, it is possible to distort the chain from a
serious shortages now exist.
single plane to an extent sufficient to produce
the result indicated in Fig. 13.
Wholly apart from the form of chain-tighten
ing lever used, slings of the type illustrated possess
several advantages. Since the pins Ill are always
in or near the transverse plane of the center of 40 held in substantially parallel arrangement no
gravity may be employed. Where an irregularity,
matter to what extent the chain is flexed in a
such as the lug 55 shown in Fig. 7, would interfere
plane perpendicular to the pin-axes, the rela
with the application of the sling at the trans
tively narrow edges of the side plates I3 or I Ei are
verse plane containing the center of gravity, I
presented to and engage the surface of the ob
may employ on the sling a bridge 55 adapted to
ject I 0. Because of this, the gripping effort of
straddle the lug 55 and bear at its ends against
the chain is concentrated at points each of very
the sides of the object I0. As shown, the bridge
small area; and at those points the sling tends
56 is tubular in cross section and the chain Ií
to “bite” into the surface of the object being lifted,
passes through it.
thus effectively opposing any tendency of such
Slings embodying my invention are not limited
object to slip through the sling. The fact that
to use in association with two-cable hoists where
the chain is relatively rigid against deiiection
the sling-tightening lever will project generally
other than deflection in the plane perpendicular
horizontally from one side of the object being
to the pin-axes facilitates positioning the sling
lifted. Thus, as indicated in Figs. 9 to 12, such
longitudinally of the object to be lifted, and also
a sling may be used with a single-cable hoist
tends to oppose tipping of that object should the
55
where the lever will be disposed above the lifted
sling not be accurately positioned at its balance.
object. If the sling is to be used with a single
Further, even if the sling is accurately located at
cable hoist, it is desirable to so proportion the
the balance of the object being lifted, the rigidity
lever that its point of attachment to the cable
of the sling-chains against sideways bending op
is displaced from the perpendicular bisector ofthe
poses
any tendency of 'such object to oscillate or ,f
line joining its points of attachment to the chain, 60 rock. The short and uniform spacing of the
Any number of the slings described may be used
at points distributed along the length of the
object II! to be hoisted; but where that object is
not of excessive length, a single sling disposed
as is the case in all the levers indicated.
hook-receiving openings in the sling chain facili
When the sling is used with a single-cable
tate engagement of the hook or hooks on the
hoist the lever may operate in either of two dif
chain
tightening lever and adjustment of the sling
ferent ways depending upon whether the effective
to grip objects of different size.
65
length of the sling -is small enough to maintain
It will be noted that in each of the chain-en
the lever in contact with the object being lifted
gaging
hooks shown the outer surface of the hook,
(as in Figs. 9 and 11) or great enough to permit
the lever to move away from such object as in
- for a considerable angular extent, is substantially
Figs. 10 and 12. In the former event, the lever
fulcrums about its point of contact with the ob
ject being lifted and tension in the cable tightens
hook engages and that its radius of curvature is
concentric with the chain-bushing I2 which the
such that the hook-body substantially iills the
space between adjacent chain-bushings I2. As
the sling in much the same manner as when the
sling is used with a double-cable hoist.
In the
latter event, since the two forces applied to the
'75
a result, each chain-tightening lever must be
brought into a particular angular relationship
with the chain-link which is to receive the hook
2,410,378
7
before the latter can be inserted or removed.` 'The
opening of each hook is sopresented that when
the sling is under load the chain-tightening lever
and the link which receives the hook. will be so
angularly disposed thatJ disengagement of the
8
ject,` a hoisting member connected t0 said lever
near the outer end thereof, said hook and the
points of connection of said lever to said chain
end and hoisting member being so arranged that
lifting eiîort applied to the hoisting member will
tend to rotate the lever and tighten the chain on
the object it embraces, a second hoisting mem
hook from the chain is impossible. Thus, for
example, with the hook I1 under load, as shown
ber and a hook on said second member, said last
in Fig. 1, the hook I8 cannot become disengaged
named hook engaging said chain at a point ap
from the chain bushing I2 it receives because of
_
engagement of the upper surface of the hook 10 proximately opposite said lever.
2. A sling, said sling comprising a flexible chain
with -the next bushing I2 immediately above it.
having a series of spaced transverse elements, and
Moreover, the tension in the cable I9 tends to
a lever for tightening said sling on an object lo
swing the lever Il in a direction opposite to that
cated Within it, said lever extending outwardly
in which it must move before disengagement of
the hook I8 from the chain can be effected. This 15 fromfsaid sling and having at its inner end two
hooks for engagement respectively with trans
makes for security in that it insures that the lever
verse chain elements, one of said hooks opening
cannot become disengaged from the chain when
inwardly of the sling and the other opening out
the sling is under load.
wardly, said lever being adapted at a point near
I claim as my invention:
Y
1. A hoisting device, comprising a iiexible chain 20 its outer end for connection to a hoisting member.
3. The invention set forth in claim 2 with the
having a series of longitudinally spaced trans
addition that the point at which said lever is
verse elements, a lever, one end of said chain
adapted for connection to the hoisting member
being connected to said lever, said lever being
is nearer to the base of said outwardly opening
provided with a hook engageable with any of said
transverse elements to retain the chain in posi 25 hook than to the base of said inwardly opening
hook.
tion embracing an object to be hoisted with the
OLIVER H. GALLAMORE.
lever projecting generally radially from such ob
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