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Патент USA US2410387

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.Oct- 29, 1946-‘
4 2,410,387
Filed Feb. 14, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
0d. 29,1946.
2,410,387 1,
Filed Feb. 14, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
BY .%A
Patented 0a. .29, 1946
'William P. Mueller, Emporium, Pal, assignor to I
Sylvania Electric Products Ilnc., a corporation of
Application February 14, 1942, Serial No. 430,863 ’
, , 7 17 Claims.
This invention relatesto frequency converter
‘ desirable feedback ‘from the signal input line into
circuits and in particular to circuits for heter
the local oscillator circuit.
odyne reception of ultra high-frequency signals of
Another object of the invention is to provide
the order of 600 megacycles.v
At frequencies of this order tuned transmis
means for feeding the grids of a tunedIfull-wave
sion lines are preferably used as resonance cir-‘
odyning frequencies, whereby interlocking of the
double triode detector in push pull by both heter
cuits, and they are applied widelyv for ‘oscilla
tion generators, measuring devices, and anten
nas. They have advantages for matching im
pedances with associated circuit elements, can be
simply adjusted, and can be easily balanced with
local oscillator with the signal frequency is sub}
A further feature of the invention relates to a
respect to neighboring conductors or ground.
simpli?ed signal frequency tuned input circuit
for a full-Wave tuned detector tube circuit, which
consists of a- quarter-wave line composed of four
Their absolute physical dimensions are small at
frequencies of about-600 megacycles, as e. g., the
correspondingquarter wave length ‘for this fre
quency is only about ?ve inches. In all prac
tical cases, the absolute dimensions ‘are still
smaller, because the capacities and inductances
parallel wires or rods ortubings, which are shorte
circuited at one end and each of which is at-_
tached to the two ends of one of the two input
electrodes ofthe tunedI'Ifull-wave- detector tube. ‘
A feature of the invention relates tova converter
circuit using‘ a double triode in which the two
of the associated tube electrodes and their leads . cathodes of the two triode sections are short-"cirf
have the same effect as an increase in length of 20 cuited inside thevv envelope of the tube whereby
a tuned transmission line without these .>acci—
undesirable. loadingv of the input circuits of the
dental lumped reactances.
tubeis reduced to a minimum.
' .
U ItIis a principal object of the invention toproj
vide tunable heterodyne converter circuits which
can be operated at frequencies of the order of
600 megacycles, that is, at higher frequencies
than is; possiblewith known circuits. This “ob
use of a special, construction double‘ triode in a
full-wave beat detector circuit, which materially
simpli?es the attainment of the foregoing'objects
I‘a'ndfeatures of the invention.
, g
‘ 'Itis a‘further object of the invention to provide
double triode detector, ampli?er circuit incorpor
and mount structure of the; tube which is prefer
; F'Referring toFig; 1,_the_re isshown a therm
ionic» vacuum- tube of the ‘double diode type
wherein numeral I represents the ‘enclosing evac
uatedv bulb or envelope: 2 ‘and 3 represent re
I IA feature of the invention relates to the design
push-pull relation.
ably usedinthe circuit shownin Fig. 4.
Y Another feature of'the invention provides the
, Figs.g5 and 6,-give views of the lead, connections
inject the signal frequency and the local oscillator
of a tuned full-wave triode detector ampli?er cir
cuit, in which the back coupling at signal and
local frequencies from output to input electrodes
is completely eliminated because the plates are
‘connected in parallelwhile the grids are" fed- in
diode full-wave detector ‘circuit incorporating
ating'the invention;
. ing With the impedances of the‘elements which
Figs-2 vand 3 are views of a diode of Fig.’ 1.‘v I
.' Fig._p4= isa schematic diagram of the fullgwave
II,-IIt is another principal objectof theinvention to
provide two sets of tuned transmission linesfor
feeding two high-frequency oscillations into the
input IoIfIIa tuned double diode converter circuit,
which; allows separate; and independent match
i Fig. llisaschematic'diagram of ‘a tuned double
the invention.
size orIspIacing of the elements.;.used_ in the con,
nection with thedrawings, inIwhich
jective is attained without any reduction in the
vThe inventionwillnow obedescribed in 'con
spectively the diode anodes or plates; and 4, 5,
represent .the cathodes for the respective plates
.2 and 3. ‘It will be understood that the showing
ofqthe» electrode arrangements in Fig. 1 is purely
schematic and that preferably each- plate ‘has its
own cathode so that the electron stream between
one cathode; and its; anode is ‘not interfered
with by, the electron stream “between the'other
cathode and,itsanodes-v Such a structural ar
rangement is'shown and described in‘ connection
with Figs‘. 2;and 3'ofithe drawings.
InvFig‘. 11', ‘each ‘of the“ ‘cathodes is of the indi
rectlyheated'type comprising a metal sleeve with
a coating. of emissive material on its outer surface
‘means for feeding'the two heterodyning or input
oscillations in push pull to the platesof two diode
"and with a’ ?lament‘Ior heaterv wire insulatingly
tubesin such'a way that there is nearlyno un
55 are directly-connected ‘by a short metal jumper 6. '
I'supported-within the sleeve. "The cathodesleeves
use of a special construction of double diode tube,
which is provided with two plate leads for each
diode plate, the leads being arranged symmetri
cally with respect to each other and to the oath
odes and with all the connections‘ extending in
the‘sarne direction from the tube.
The common
_cathodelead-in from the two cathodes enables
complete cancellation of the ultra high-fre
quency signal component as stated above.
condenser I3. The other side of this'tank circuitv
7 The circuit of Fig. 1 can be utilized with known
is connected to ground through resistor 14 andg'ab '
types of double diode tubes by providing a sepa
large capacity condenser 15. Tuned transmission
line IS, IT, and tuned transmission» line If8,‘19v,'arer
ration of the two-tuned quarter-wave lines for
the signal frequency outside the tube as above
described." However, with such conventional
connected respectively to the lead-ins 8; Hljandv '
9, ‘I, and are in the form of parallel rigid wires
tube. designs,v there would be introduced addi
tional undesired lumped reactances by reason of
the‘ele'ctrode arrangement and the unsymmet
rical connections of the various electrodes to
or metal tubes or rods whichcan be-adj'usted as
a unit in length and are maintained parallel at
equal distances from one another by‘ suitable‘
means (not shown).
The simpli?cation of the matching adjustment
above described is substantially improved by the
For simplicity, the heater wires for the cathodes
and their lead-ins are omitted from the drawing.
Each plate or anode is provided with two sepa
rate lead-ins sealed through the bulb 1, thus ‘I
and 8 are the lead-ins for plate 2; 9 and 10 are
the lead-ins for plate 3; and It is the’ lead-in for
the cathodes. The common cathode lead-in III is
connected directly to one side of the interme~
diate frequency tank circuit consisting of the
high frequency inductance I 2 and its shunt tuning .10.
The four-line conductors
areequal- in length andare short-circuitedlbyra
metal plate or jumper ZGI‘at the; points 21;, 22,; 23
and 24;,7soas to form a-double‘quarter wave trans
their respective tube prongs. ( These lumpedl-re
spacing arrangement for theqline's'» 15;! 9; refer
bleediodetubelfor achieving the best results<with
ence may be had to application- Serial No.
41?;068; ?led; October 30y1941i
theci'rcuits of Fig. l. -
actances-haveithe e?e‘ct ofireducing- the-‘upper
frequency limit: at-1 which the full‘ wave double
diode circuit of Fig. lt'c'ahl behused with-‘satis
mission; line- with? iall‘? the - conductors extending in
factoryefficiency. Accordingly, there-is shown
thesame-direction from tube I. For a detailed 25
inFi’gsH-Zand 3; a preferred- construction- or dou
description of atypical; supporting; adjusting and
Incoming" ultra lugh-frequency signal~_ energy
from-I source v3.?l'~1‘is applied1 at points 25,» 26-; to
the right-hand sectionof- the-tuned quarter-wave
For rpurposesroi simplicitythe- bulb of‘ the tube
is- omittedi‘from Fig’: 1; which merely shows the
base or header 33rofth'e'tube; this headerprefer
ably being. of glass lathe fcrm~of~a button- or
disc as distinguished‘ fronrthe conventional single
line spas to be in push-pull relation to the two
diodeiplatesli, 3, over lead-ins 8 and Ill}? Local
at points‘ 2-? and '28‘ to they left-hand section of
planepress'and whicheis sealedto'the usual glass
bulb as disclosed for example in» said application
Serial No. 417,068; ?ledlOct'ober 30; 1941. Sealed
the; quarter-wave line; also in? push-pull rela
in a vacuum-type manner» through the base- 33
heterodyningyirequency‘from-source 32 is applied
of the bulb, and preferably equally spaced
arounda circle are the various lead-in pins or
tion to the-plates 2e and 3 over lead-ins l and 9.
The‘ resultant intermediate frequency-in the
nature‘ of; aheter'odyne‘between; the ultra ‘high
frequency signals vfrom source—3;|' and ‘the local
frequency irom source 32; istaken-o? at points
{Shnd‘?d} that‘ is between- the cathode side» of
prongs ‘L, 8; 9,‘ Hi,’ H,- 34 and-335; Supported on
the base 33 by means‘ of the rectangular; mica
disc spacers 35,31, are'tworsets- of‘diodes; one
diode comprising the-indirectlyheated cathode
sleeve 4' with 'its- cylindrical anode ZIandth'e
the intermedi ' e"frequencyftunedicircuit; l2‘, l3
and - ground. ‘Ijjh'ave found that *with1 this > ar
other’ diode’ comprising’ the indirectly heated
sleeve: cathode 51 and ‘its surrounding cylindrical
anode 3. The ?lamentary heaters for the two
'c'athodei sleeves» are connected'in parallel‘ by
megacycles ‘_with- 1 greatf stability and» " efficiency.
wires 38, 39, which are connectedto the contact
Furthermore; -‘ thee reaotances~~ in; the; common
cathode‘leadI I- ll‘ have; no detrimental; effe ctr-upon 50 prongs 34, 35.” It willgbe understood‘ oficourse,
rangement, it is possible to-rece'ive’and; convert
ultra high-frequency signals of the-order or 600
the ultra high-frequency preform'ance 'si‘n’ce‘yithe
that the electrodes» of' each diode‘ are suitably
two halves} of} the tuned‘ tank ‘-‘circui-'t{and-¢ oscil
' fastened or'a'nchored between the mica discs 36
latoryé- system; can?‘ be: balanced (with respect-re
ground so-‘th'a-t the two signal; currents in the
common cathode lead: i. _e., the currents- of-the
frequency-soil source s3l~ and ofTsource 32-; cancel
and 331 in any manner'well-known- in the art so
as to preserve‘the proper'spaced relation between
each» cathode and its l associated; anode-‘and'like-f
wise ‘to- preserve- a ?xedl'space relation between
each?‘ other 5 out. ~- >>This»arrangem‘ent>also obviates
the employment ‘ of‘ ’ special-?ltering; elements in
thetwo'diode sections. .
the intermediate frequency circuit‘ for elimina
tion of_the~‘ ultra‘ high-frequency components‘.
' Thus the adjustment-of location of theicou
pling-pcintsi25 and 26 -~can- be- carried out on one
branch; of» the‘tuned's signal ~ frequency" line’. t6;
- '
The two cathode sleeves Ii and 5 are electri
cally and directly‘ connected by the shortmetal
'jumper-?‘vwhich in; turn is connected to the prong
H. One‘ end‘ of plate 215 connected by jumper
40‘ to prong land the, opposite end ‘of; ‘thissame
VI 1,- -leadin'g-lto 'd-io'de plates~24,- 3~,~ quite» independ
plate is' connected. by. jumper 4! toprong 8.
I83; l9; In- particulari thehconnecting-lines~from
platej3' is’ connectedby jumper‘43‘to prong 10.
‘The variousljumpers'in addition to providing
symmetrical connections to the plate ends,‘v may
ently~ of the-adjustment o-fithe locationeof the ‘ Ci Likewise, one end" of' plate 3‘ is- connected" by
jumper 42 to prong 9 and, the opposite‘ end of
signaL-inputpoints21} 28, on- the other branch
‘the > two ~ high @frequency ‘ sources-3i , .32, ' to; the
diode plates'can; always befkept at adistanceat
least asilarge as the distance'of thetw'o branches
l?g-l'lyandila‘p l9; from each other. 'Iihisg ren
derseit possible. to, adjust ' the: feeding;- points, 2 5;,
2.4.5.}: for I the signal: irequeney injection without ~
0 also serve to‘ anchor the. entire double diode
assembly against movement'witlrrespect to’ the
bulblbase 33.. It will be understood ‘or course,
that after ‘the electrode‘. mount. has been assem
inéchemal:interference with the-corresponding
and. 'connectedlin'place, and the bulb’ has
fed-irstmentetthe feedingseoihts 11 285 for the 75 bled
ensure the base 33, the tube is subjected
local‘ oscillations.
to high evacuationand an exhaust schedule such
as is well-known in the radio tube art.
. Fig. 4 shows the invention embodied in con
nection-with a full-wave tuned double triode
mixer tube. This arrangement has the advantage
of. combining ampli?cation with the advantages
of‘ the full-wave diode mixer arrangements of
Fig.1. The tube 45 is shown schematicallyv and
means'of the members 80 and 81., The plates
50, .52, are connected together at their adjacent
opposite ends by short metal straps 83, 84. One
of thejumpers, for example jumper 83, is con
nected to the lead-in pin or prong 85. The two
cathode sleeves 46, 41, are likewise connected to.-_
gether by a short metal jumper slifwhich is con
nected by va jumper, (not shown) to thecommon
includesav pair of electron-emitting cathodes .45,
lead-in .pinx?'i. .Preferably, the glass base 88
41, connected by a short metal strap 48. Asso 10 of the bulb has eight pins sealed therethrough
ciated with cathode 46 is a control grid 49.and
and equally spaced‘ around a circle, and the duplex
apl'ate anode 55. Likewise, associated with cath
triode unit is positioned symmetrically with re,
ode'4l is a control grid 5| and plate anode 52.
spect thereto; One end of grid 49 is connected
Thegrids .49‘ and 5! are fedin push-pull rela
by jumper 89 to pin 95 and the other end is
tionin the same manner as are the diode plates
2, '3, of Fig. .1.v Thus the line 55, 54 and line
55, 56, are short-circuited at their corresponding
ends-by the metal plate 5'! to form a double
quarter-wave transmission" line. Each of the
grids is provided with apairvof lead-ins 58', 59,
and 65,161, which are sealed through the glass
base of ‘the tube 45 and symmetrically arranged
connected by jumper 9| to pin 92. Likewise, one
end of grid 5| is connected by jumper '93 to .pin
54 and the otherend is connected by jumper
55 to'pin 95. ‘The remaining pins 91,,98',"are
connected to the cathode heater ?laments (not
shown). With the foregoing arrangement, it is:
possible to effect the symmetrical connections
to‘ the two tuned‘ transmission lines 53, 54, and
55, 56. The tube may be plugged in to a. socket
with-respect to the anodes-and cathodes. ‘The
ultra high-frequency signal from the source 62
is applied at the points 53, 64, to the lines 53 and
such as shown in said application Serial No.
54, while the local heterodyning frequency from
length of the tuned transmission lines may be
the source 65 is applied at the points 55, 61, to
the lines 55 and 55.
417,068, ?led October- 30, 1941, and the effective
varied as described in said application.
While certain speci?c structures and_embodi
_ The plates 55 and 52 are connected together
by a metal strap 58 and are connected to one >
ments have been disclosed, it will be understood
end of the tuned tank circuit comprising the
made therein without departing from the spirit
high-frequency inductance 59 and condenser '55.
The steady positive operating potential for the
plates 55 and 52 is supplied from the terminal
‘H vof a suitable power'supply source through
the resistor 12 and inductance'59. The interme
diate frequency resulting from'the heterodyne
of-waves from sources- 52 and 55 is, taken off
between the points ‘l3, 14, of the intermediate
frequency circuit 59,15. The condenser, 15 in
conjunction with the resistor 72 separates the
A; ‘C. component of the plate‘ voltage from the
D. 0-. component thereof. A grid leak resistor
15 and parallel connected grid leak ‘condenser
115 are connected between the short-circuiting
plate 51 and ground. By this arrangement, the
various circuit elements can be easily balanced
with respect to neighboring conductors or ground '
and» thev ultra highefrequency component of the
input signal 'is cancelled out across the points
13,14: '1
' vReferring to Figs. 5 and‘ 6, there is shown in
more detailed form, a preferred form of tube
mountvfor use in the system of 'Fig. 4._ The
mount comprises two separate triode units con
s'isl't'ing of the electron-emitting cathode sleeves
46,141. ‘Surrounding cathode’ 46 is the helically
that various changes and modi?cations maybe
and scope of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. A high frequency wave converting system,
comprising a-‘double diode tube having the oath
odes connected‘ together with a common single
lead-in, a tuned tank circuit connected between
said lead-in and ground, a pair of tuned double
transmission lines, one-line being connected in
push-pull relation to corresponding points of re-‘
spective diode‘ plates, the‘ other'line being con-v‘
nected in push-pull relation to other correspond‘-‘
ing points of said plates, means to connect high
frequency signals across the ?rst line, means to
connect a source'of local oscillations across said
other line, and means to lead ‘off ‘aresult'ant vin
termediate frequency from ‘across said tank cir-'
2.,A .highjfrequencyv wave converting system
according to claiml, in which the high‘ frequency
signal'fsource and the source of ‘the local oscilla
tions'are adjustably connected'to their tuned
transmission lines so that the impedances of said
sources are matched with respect to the_termij-'
natinglimpedance of said lines.v "
13. A' high frequency wave converting system
according ,to claim 1, inrwhich one end of said
wound grid 49 which, in the well-known manner,
tank circuit‘is connected to said common cathode
is‘Tc'arried by a pair of metal side rods ‘18, ‘I9.
Su'r'rounding'the grid is the rectangular box-‘like 60 lead-in, and the'opposite end of said tank circuit
is connected through a non-resonant impedance
platé’anode 55. Likewise, surrounding the oath
in parallel to all the ends of said transmission
ode 4'! is the helical control grid 5| -and the sur
lines'remote' from said diodes.’
rounding plate‘ anode 52. For ‘purposes of sim
plicity,~t'he ?lamentary heaters for the cathodes
.74’. A‘ high' frequency wave converting system
; Each trio'deunit is assembled'between a pair
sion lines also extend in the same direction from
46 and 4‘! are omitted, it being understood that 65 according to claim 1,]in which all the lead-ins of
the double diode ‘tube extend in the same‘direc
they are insulatingly mounted within the cath
tion therefrom and said pairs of tuned transmis4
odes many well-known manner‘.
said tube.
of “end imica spacers 84,18! ,which are provided
with. openings in the ‘well-known manner ,to 70 ' 5V.~--A high frequency wave converting system
comprising a double diode tube having-thecath-l
receive-the ends of the;cathodes, the ends of‘
odes connected together, a pair of tu'nedti‘a'nse ’
the gridside'rods and the gturnedgover ears 82
mission lines‘ extending in the same direction
of the plate electrodes. Thus both triodesform
from'the electrodesof the diodepone' line'being
a: rigid .unitary construction with~ the various
push pull. by high frequency signals
electrodes, accuratelyland. permanently. spaced by 75 andiconnected. to corresponding pointson I‘GSPEO-i
2,141.0, as‘?
transmission line conductors'connected at their
corresponding- ends tov spaced vpoints on the grid
- tiive diode plates,.the other line being excited in
push pull by- local oscillations‘. ‘and. connected to
other corresponding ipointsonsaid plates, a tuned
intermediate frequency tank: circuit connecting
of. the other triode said other pair of conductors
being short-circuited at their opposite ends and‘
formingmith thesaid grid of said othertriode
said cathodes to ground, and‘ anon-resonant im
pedance network connecting‘to ground all the
ends of said lines remote from said diodes where
by. intermediate frequencywaves across the ter
minalsiof vsaid tank circuit: are effectivelyvcan
a substantially complete inductive loop, a tuned
intermediate frequency tank circuit connected at
one: end in parallel to the plates of both triodes
and at the other end to the short-circuited. ends
of said transmission line conductors, a'source of
high frequency signal energy connected across
predetermined points of one pair of said lines‘
feedingthe grids of the two triodes in push-pull
61A high frequency wavezconverting ‘system
according toclainrl'l in which said’ tube is a
doubleidiode having the anodes'fed in push pull
relation, and a local source of heterodyning
respectively by said high frequency signal waves
15 oscillations‘ connected at predetermined points to
and said heterodyne waves.
the other .pair of lines and also feeding the grids
: .7. A high frequency wave converting system
of said triodes inpush-pull relation.
according to claim 17 in which said tube is of the
12. A double diode tube for ultra high-fre
double triode type‘withv the control’ grids fed in
quency conversion, comprising a pair of cathodes
push pull respectively by saidhigh frequency sig
n'ali waves and by said‘ heter'odyne waves, and in 20’ eachhaving a corresponding anode, a pair of
separate lead-ins'for one anode‘ and connected to
which thetuned ‘intermediate frequency circuit is
spaced points on said anode, another pair of sep
excited in parallel by the plate currents of the
arate lead-ins for the other anode and connected
to corresponding spaced points on said other an
ode, and a common lead-in connected to‘ both
8; In a high frequency wave converting sysé
tem; a double diode electrontube having a pair of
electron-emitting cathodes and a’ cooperating
pair of anodes, a pair of lead-ins‘ for each anode
said cathodes, all said ‘lead-ins‘ extending insub
stantially the same direction frornsaid tube.
13. A double diode tube according to claim 12,
connected‘vv symmetrically to different points
in which the two sets or diode electrodes are
thereof, ‘a common lead-in for both‘ cathodes, a
tuned intermediate‘ frequency tank circuit hav 30 interlocked as a rigid unit by insulating spacers
at'opposite ends.
ing‘one end connectedto. said-common lead-in,
14. A double diode tube for ultra high-fre
and the other end connectedthroughanon-res
quency wave conversion comprisingg pair of
onant impedance network andin parallel to’ all
diodes rigidly interconnected as: a mechanical
the lead-ins connected’ to said anodes.
unit, means to support, said unit one tube header,
9;"A- highl'frequency wave» converting system
said header having a- plurality of pairs‘of lead‘-~
according to claim 8, in which thetank- circuit is
ins sealed therein and symmetrically positioned
connected to all said anode lead-ins through a
withrespect to said unit, gllesaid lead-ins extend
pair of " tuned quarter-wave transmission lines,
ingrinisubstantially the same direction'from the
anda source oflhigh frequency signal waves is
connected acrossonetuned. line and a local oscil 40 electrodes of the diodes, one pair of- said lead-ins
being‘ connected'to opposite ends‘ of onev diode
plate,-- another pair of lead-ins being- connected
to opposite?ends- of the-other diode‘ plate,- means;
connecting the cathodes-‘of the diodes directly
lationsource is connected: across the other tuned
10. In a-high frequency wave-converting. sys
tem, adoubleidiodereach diode having a linear.
cathode andan-anodeextending. along the cath
together, and a commoneconn'ection from-said‘
’ last-mentioned means stoanother of said pins."
' l5-.-,A; duplex triode. tube- for ultra high-fre
- quencywave conversion-comprising aypair of tri
odera pair of transmission line conductors con.
‘nected at- their corresponding ends to Espaced
points of one anode the other endsv of‘ said con
odesrri'gidlyi interconnected-as va~m'echa2ri-ica1:unit;
ductors beingush'ort-circuited and forming. with
'rneans tovsupportsaidunit‘on a. tube header,-said
said anode‘; a substantially" complete‘ inductive
lohp,;an'other‘pair.of transmission line conductors
header having a plurality of pairs of leadeins'
conn‘ejctediat their corresponding en'd‘s'to spaced
sealed therein and all extending in substantially
points'lon 'theotheranode said‘ other‘ pair ‘of, con;
ductors jfb‘eing‘shortkcircuited at their opposite
the same direction from the electrodes of the tri
odes, one‘ pair of lead-ins being connected to
opposite‘ ends of the grid- of one triode and
another pair of lead?nsbeing- connected to the
plete inductive loop; a'tuned intermediate ire‘
opposite ends of they grid ofithe other triode;
quencyi circuit connected at one‘en'd 13013118‘ cath
means connecting the plates’ of- the triodes
odespof said diodes; and'at the otherfendto the‘
directly together, aiconnection from the last
short-circuited ends' oi said" transmission line
confdu‘ctors'a source of‘ high frequencyisignal en 60 mentioned means toanother lead-in» member;
said triode units, being supported symmetrically
ergy‘ ' connected? ‘across ‘predetermined’ .points of;
ends ‘and forming‘ with said other ' anode ‘a ‘come.
a'pair‘ofi'said lines to. excitej'said‘ anodes‘ in push,‘
~ with respect to 'all {the saidlead-insand means to
pull trelationhand a source of local: frequency het
eijodyn'e joscill'ationsv 'qoonnec't'ed. , across‘ the L other
tube ‘whereby undesirable loading. of the input
pal offlii‘ifesgtoiv excit'egsaid. anodes in push-pull
' '.
connect the-cathodes» directly, together within the
circuits to the-triodes'isreduced to a minimum;
16.~.A~double* triode-for‘ high-‘frequency wave
Iii-a high. frequency‘ wave-converting sys—.
conversion comprising an ' envelope' enclosing "a
item; a double triode, each triode havinga linear
pair of triode ' mounts;..means° within; the‘ envelope
directly short-circuiting the platestoffthetriodes,
cathoderananode, and a grid‘substantially coex- '
tensiye-_ with-the anode;,a@pair of‘. transmission. 70
and" means also‘ within the envelope‘ directly"
linegconductors econnectedratg their: corresponding
short-circuit’ing-l the cathodes, and‘ ‘symmetrical
' endsito‘ spaced points on the grid of’ one : triode,‘
thegotherii ends . of>said“conductors‘iibeing short
leadléinconnectionslfor the opposite ien'ds’of each‘
circuited and ‘ formingsiwith the grid- at - substan'e
tiallyzcompl'ete: inductive‘ loop; another; 1 pair 10f
grid electrode.
17.1 In a. high ‘frequency ‘wave converting'z‘sys-"
‘ ter'xg-anelec'tron tube'havingiati least‘- one.I pair of.
push-pull input electrodes and a pair of output
electrodes, a pair of tuned transmission lines, one
line having its conductors connected to one set of
input electrodes, means to apply a local hetero
dyne frequency signal to the other line also in
push-pull relation to said input electrodes, and a
tuned intermediate frequency circuit connected
end points of the two input electrodes, the other
line having its conductors connected to the other 5 to‘ a common terminal of the two output elec
end points of each of the same input electrodes,
means to apply a high frequency signal across
one of the lines in push-pull relation to said
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