Патент USA US2410392код для вставки
Patented Oct. 29, 1946 2,419,392 UNITEDSTATES PATENT OFFICE 2,410,392 p WRENCH clayton L. nien, Los Angeles, Calif. Application February 26, 1945, Serial No. 579,698 4 Claims. i (Cl. 192-44) My invention relates to a device for imparting components, thereby permitting reduction of the a rotary motion to an article, such as a nut, required strength of any one component. An important object of my invention is to pro vide a wrench of extreme simplicity which can bolt, etc., and, more specifically, to a wrench which incorporates a novel means for elîecting intermittent, uni-directional rotary motion of the article when a reciprocating rotary motion is imparted to the wrench. , be manufactured and assembled easily and inex pensively, close control of manufacturing toler ’ ances being unnecessary. An additional object of my invention is to pro videa wrench incorporating a reversible trans gagement by eiïecting relative rotation thereof 10 mitting means whereby the direction of the for with a wrench adapted to engage one of the arti ward stroke may be reversed readily by the sim cles, are frequently so inaccessibly located that ple expedient of slidably transposing the drive interfering members restrict the amplitude of member and inverting the wrench. motion of the wrench to a small angle. Under Still another object of my invention is to pro such conditions, when a forward stroke, impart vide a wrench of the reversible type which is ing relative motion to the articles in the desired adapted for use with the conventional sockets, direction, has been completed, it is necessary extension bars, etc. that the wrench be disengaged from the article I prefer to attain these and other objects of being rotated whereby a rearward stroke may be my invention by providing a wrench which in effected to return the wrench to its initial posi 20 cludes a square drive member slidably disposed tion while the article being rotated remains sta within and partially enclosed by a housing ele Complementarily-threaded articles, such as a nut and a bolt, which are to be urged into en tionary. Obviously, it is often extremely incon ment, rotary motion being selectively transmit venient to eiîect an actual physical disengage ted therebetween by rollers disposed within the ment of the wrench from the article being ro housing element, one adjacent each face of the tated uponcompletion of each forward stroke. 25 'drive member. The rollers are urged into en and prior to b-eginning each rearward stroke. gagement with the housing element and the It is a general object of my invention, therefore, drive member during a forward stroke by fric to provide a wrench incorporating a novel means tional Contact with the housing element, and for transmitting a rotary motion to an article in a desired direction when a reciprocating mo tion is imparted to the wrench, whereby the arti cle is rotated in the desired direction during a forward stroke of the wrench and automatically remains stationary during a rearward stroke engagement is prevented during a rearward 30 stroke by stationary restraining members which are ñxed with respect to the drive member by end plates. The preferred embodiment of my invention will be discussed in speciñc detail in without disengaging thewrench from the article. the following disclosure and the various advan upon beginning the forward stroke and which has a negligible drag during the rearward stroke. Another object is to' provide a wrench which wrench illustrating the disposition of the vari ous components-of the transmitting means dur tages of my invention will be made apparent Another object is to provide a wrench of the therein. character referred to which has a transmitting Referring to the drawing: means devoid of spring elements. Fig. 1 is a perspective View of my invention and Another object is to provide a wrench incorpo illustrates its application to a conventional hex rating a means for transmitting a rotary motion 40 agonal socket (shown in phantom) ; ` which engages substantially instantaneously Fig, 2 is a transverse sectional View of the I Y includes a minimum number of moving elements 45 ing a return stroke; Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but illustrat and one in which the transmitting means is sub ing the >arrangement of the several parts of the transmitting means during a forward stroke; A further object of my invention is to provide Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view taken a wrench which is smaller, more compact, lighter, and yet stronger than the wrenches of the con 50 along the line 4_4 of Fig. 2; ventional type. Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view taken .Another object of my invention is to provide along the line 5_5 of Fig. 2; , a wrench which, unlike the yconventional single Fig. 6 is a longitudinal sectional view taken stantially self-lubricating. pawl ratchet wrench, has a transmitting means along the line 6_6 of Fig. 2; and v that distributes the transmitted forces to several 55 Fig. '7 is a perspective view of a restraining 2,4103@ 3 member and an end plate forming components of the wrench. Referring particularly to Fig. 1, I show a wrench le, which, in this illustration, is adapted to co operate with a conventional hexagonal socket H (shown in phantom), and is rotatable forwardly ¿i faces 4I and the peripheral wall 22 simultane ously. The drive member ¿lll remains stationary, therefore, vwhen a restraining moment, suñicient to overcome thesmall frictional moment devel oped within the wrench by contact of the hous ing element 20 with the rollers 3l and end plates in the direction of the arrow F about an axis A--A 5e, is applied thereto, the restraining moment housing element 26, Serves to enclose and position the transmitting assembly 33. 'The housing element 29 preferably comprises the peripheral wall 22 will be displaced circum a rearward force R to a handle 2li attached there rollers 3i, the only'moving parts in the entire transmitting means, are urged into engagement with the drive member ¿til and the housing ele'-, offered by even very loosely engaged complemen to drive the socket il in that direction and is tarily-threaded articles being ample for this pur rotatable in an opposite or rearward direction, indicated by the arrow R, about the axis A-A 10 pose. As iilustrated in Fig. 3, when the housing ele while the socket remains stationary, as will here ment 2G is rotated forwardly with respect to the inafter be described in detail. The forward direc drive member All, as indicated by the arrow F, tion is taken as the direction of motion to be irn the rollers 3! are displaced circumferentially in parted to the socket l l and may be either clock wise or counterclockwise, as will be shown here 15 the direction of rotation F by frictional contact with the peripheral wall 22 until they reach the inafter. points 311 of equal cho-rd and clearance to engage The wrench le inciudes a housing element 29 and become wedged between the faces 4l and the which contains a transmitting assembly 3B adapt peripheral wall 22, thereby locking the housing ed to engage and prevent relative rotation of the housing element 2b and a centrally located drive 20 element 20 and the drive member ¿iii together. it will be understood that since the housing member ¿d during forward rotation of the hous element 26 floats on the rollers 3l, one or more ing element 2G, and which is further adapted to of the rollers 3! will always contact the periph permit relative rotation thereof during rearward eral wall 22. As the housing element 20 is rotated rotation of the housing element 2S. A pair of end plates E39, one adjacent either end of the 25 forwardly, the roller or rollers 3l in contact with ferentially by frictional contact until they engage the drive member 4Q whereupon lateral displace ment of the drive member ¿13, restraining mem, a right circular cylinder provided with a concen tric bore 2l therethrough defining a peripheral 30 bers 35, and end plates 5G will occur until one or more of the remaining rollers 3| engage the wall 22, which can be rotated about its longitudi faces si and the peripheral wallV 22. Thus the’ nal axis A-A by applying a forward force F or to and extending transversely therefrom. A por tion of the handle 2&5 is preferably knurled or roughened, as indicated at 25, to provide a con venient gripping surface for the hand of a user. As best shown in Figs. 2 and 8, the transmitting ment 2i? lby friction alone without the use of any Spring devices. ` v The engaging action delay occurring at the beginning of each forward stroke is equal to the assembly Sil comprises four bearings 3l, each preferably in the form of a cylindrical roller, and 40 circumferential travel of the rollers 3l between the engaging edges 35 of the restraining mem.-V four restraining members 35, each bearing being bers 35 and the points 34 of equal intercepted disposed between a face M of the drive member chord and clearance and can be minimized by itil and the peripheral wall 22 and the restraining reducing the travel to a very small distance. members 35 being fixed with respect to the drive This may be accomplished either by increasing member ¿iii by the end plates 55, as will herein the diameter of the rollers 3l, or by locating the after beY described in detail. The diameters of restraining members 35 nearer the maximum theybearings 3iV are greater than the minimum clearance points 33, or by decreasing _the diams clearances between each face ¿il of the drive eter of the bore 2|, or otherwise as will.' be un-member ¿lll and the peripheral wall 22, as indi derstood by those skilled in the art. . cated by the dimensions 32, and are less than The drive member 40, preferably of square the maximum clearances therebetween, as indi cross section as illustrated to permit application` cated by the dimensions 33. Intermediate the thereof to the conventional socket, is longitudi minimum clearance points 32 and the maximum nally slidable within the bore 2l through'a cen clearance points 33 Vare points where the chords trally located complementaryV hole 5I in4 each of the bearings 3| intercepted between the faces end plate 56, the end plates being maintained in 4l and the peripheral wall 22 are equal to the spaced relationship by, and serving to maintain clearances therebetween measured along the the desired position of, the restraining members chords, as indicated by the dimensions 3d. The 35. The interconnection of the end plates 50 rollers 3l are therefore free to travel circum ferentially with respect to the drive member All 60 and the restraining members35 is preferably ef fected by inserting the ends 37 of the latter between the points 3d of equal chord and clear through complementary holes E2. inY the ' end ance, the travel therebetween in one direction plates 5S, as best shown in Fig. 7, and peening being arrested by the edges 36 of the restraining the ends 3? as indicated at 39, the endsY Sïpreí members 35. ' . Referring to Fig. 2, when the housing element 65 erably being substantially square, as shown, to prevent rotation of the restraining members 35, 2Q is rotated rearwardly with respect to the drive and being of reduced section, as illustrated, to member d0, as indicated by the arrow R, the roll provide shoulders 38 abutting the end >plates 50. ers 3l are displaced circumferentially in the direc Referring to Fig. 6, the longitudinal' position tion of rotation R by frictional contact with the peripheral wall 22 of the housing element 23 until 70 of the drive member ¿l0 may be releasably fixed, whereby either end 42 thereof may extend" lon they engage the restraining members 35 which gitudinally beyond the end plates 5D, by means arrest the displacement at points where the roller of a depressible ball-catch 43 disposed adjacent diameters are less than the clearances between each end of one of the faces y¿il and adaptedv to the faces el and the peripheral wall 22, thereby preventing wedging of .the rollers 3l between the 75 engage the inner surface 53 of one of the end 5 2,410,392 6 plates 50. The ball-catch comprises a spring d1 and a ball M disposed within and partially enclosed by a tapered bore 45, the tapered end 46 of the bore 45 being formed by peening as is well known in the art. The roller 3| adjacent the face 4I incorporating the balls 44 is prefer ably shortened, as indicated at 3Ia, to accom modate the balls 44. The ball-catch ¿i3 is fur end plate adjacent each end of said housing ele ment adapted to enclose said bore, each of said end plates having a centrally-located, polygonal hole therethrough; ‘a restraining member adja cent each side ofsaid polygonal hole disposed longitudinally within said bore, each end of each ther adapted to engage and secure a socket ap section complementary to said polygonal holes, said drive member` being longitudinally slidable through said polygonal holes and said bore and extending longitudinally from said bore; and a roller disposed longitudinally between each face plied to the drive member 40. A pin 48 is dis posed within and extends from a transverse bore through the drive member 40 intermediate the ends 42 thereof, the ends of the pin 48 being adapted to engage the inner surface 53 of the either end plate 50 to limit the longitudinal dis placement of the drive member 40. As previously mentioned, the intermittent ro tary motion transmitted to a socket ll in a for restraining member being attached to one of said end plates; a drive member of a polygonal cross of said polygonal drive member and said peri pheral wall adjacent one of said restraining mem bers, said rollers being adapted to engage said faces and said peripheral wall to prevent relative motion thereof during forward rotation of said ward direction by a reciprocating force F, R housing element, and'being adapted to engage applied to the handle 24 of the wrench may be 20 said restraining members during rearward rota in either a clockwise or counterclockwise sense. tion of said housing element to prevent engage The forward direction may be reversed by the ment of said rollers with said faces and said simple expedient of transposing the drive mem peripheral wall simultaneously whereby relative ber ¿lil to the position indicated in dotted lines motion thereof is permitted. 49’ in Fig. 6 and inverting the wrench. A mir 2. A wrench comprising: a right-cylindrical ror image of Figs. 2 and 3 will indicate the action housing element provided with a concentric cir of the transmitting assembly 3c to effect the re cular bore therethrough defining a peripheral versed forward rotary motion. wall; a circular end plate adjacent each end of ’The transmitting assembly 30 provides a sim said housing element adapted to enclose said bore, ple, inexpensive means for selectively transmit 30 each of said end plates providing a concentric ting a component of an alternating rotary mo square hole therethrough; a restraining member tion by alternately developing negligible and in attached to said end plates adjacent each side ñnite coeiiîcients of friction. 'I'he assembly 3û of said holes whereby said end plates are main requires little or no attention, and fouling there tained in spaced relationship with said holes in of by accumulations of rust, dirt, etc., is Virtu alignment; a square drive member of greater ally impossible due to the grinding or pulver izing action applied thereto by the rollers 3|. Extreme accuracy in manufacturing the various length than said bore slidably inserted through said holes and said bore; means for releasably fixing the longitudinal position of said drive mem parts of the wrench is not necessary, for any ber; and a roller disposed longitudinally between reasonable inaccuracies are absorbed by slight 40 each face of said drive member and said peri transverse displacements of the drive member 40 pheral wall and having a lesser diameter than and the rollers 3l with respect to the peripheral the maximum clearance and a greater diameter wall 22 which occur automatically to equalize than the minimum clearance therebetween. the inaccuracies, this feature of the invention 3. A wrench as deñned in claim 2 in which said making for considerably reduced manufacturing 45 releasably-ñxing means includes a depressible costs. ball-catch adjacent each end of one face of said The inventive concept disclosed herein will sug drive member adapted to engage the end plate gest numerous modiñcations and substitutions to thereadjacent, and in which the roller disposed those skilled in the art, and I speciñcaly reserve between said one face of said drive member and the right toall such modifications and substitu 50 said peripheral wall is shortened to accommodate tions that come within the scope of the appended said ball catches. claims. 4. A wrench as defined in claim 2 including I claim as my invention: means for limiting the longitudinal travel of said 1. A wrench comprising: a housing element drive member. provided with a longitudinally-directed, circular 55 bore therethrough defining a peripheral Wall; an CLAYTON L. RICH.