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Патент USA US2410417

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Patented Nov. 5, 1946
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2,410,417.
UNITED‘ STATES PATENT OFFICE?
2,410,417
VITAMIN AND MINERAL DIETARY SUPPLE- ,
MENT AND METHOD OF MAKING
Carl N. Andersen, Wellesley, Mass, asslgnor to'
Lever Brothers Company, Cambridge, Mass, a‘
corporation of Maine
No Drawing. Application March 4, 1944,
Serial No.’ 525,101
7 Claims. ' (Cl. 167-81)
The present invention relates to dietary sup
plements and their preparation, which are in
tended to be used to counteract or to avoid the
effects of dietary deficiencies.’ More particularly,
the invention may be utilized to provide composi
tions which contain in one preparation both min
eral and vitamin substances in a, readily as
similable form, and which at the same time are‘
2
uses has been subject to much'di?lculty. For ex
ample, many of the vitamins are deleteriously af
iected by the oxygen of the air or moisture or
both, by acids or alkalies, by other vitamins or
, by minerals. ,
The di?iculties encountered in providing a
single composition containing both minerals and
vitamins that are stable, it is believed, reside in
fact that the vitamin substances are subject
adequately protected against deterioration and 10 the
to rapid destruction for a number of reasons.
loss of potency over long periods of time.
Oxidation upon contact with air and upon contact
‘It is well known that an average person requires
with water containing air is one cause of the de
for complete health a certain minimum of min
terioration. The presence of minerals in contact
eral and vitamin substances, all of which occur
with
the vitamins, perhaps because of catalytic
naturally in various foods. The most important
action, causes deterioration or destroys the vita
among these substances are the minerals, such as
min substances. The admixture of minerals with
calcium, phosphorus and iron, and the vitamin
vitamins also renders it more di?icult to exclude
‘substances, such as vitamin A, vitamin B com
air or moisture from the vitamins both in admix
plex (thiamin or its hydrochloride, ribo?avin,
ture within the preparation and in contact with
nicotinic acid or nicotinamide; pyridox, panto
the-exterior. As a further illustration, certain vi
thenic acid, choline, inositol p-aminobenz‘oic acid, 20 tamins a?ect other vitamins‘ when in contact with
biotin, chondroitinand other chemically uniden;
ti?ed factors), vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and
vitamin D. Other vitamin substances include
vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), vitamin K and a
each other. Also some vitamins are better pre
served in one environment while others remain
more stable in another environment. No attempt
has been successful heretofore to avoid, to a ma
£5
number of others of less signi?cance from a die
terial degree, the destructive influences present
tary point of view. In general, the vitamins can
when vitamins or vitamins and minerals are in
be divided into two groups: (1) the oil-soluble vi
intimate contact or admixture over long periods
tamins which include‘ A, D, E and K among the
of time, such as when present in a single homo
more common vitamins, and (2) the water-sol
geneous preparation.
'
uble vitamins which include the remainder of 30 There has long been a demand in the art for
those identified above.
7 '
-a single composition containing in a stable form
Although it is possible to acquire the necessary
both vitamin and mineral components. The ad
amounts of all of these materials in a well regu
vantages of such a preparation are readily appar
lated diet, it is well established that a relatively
ent, for example, both with respect to the con
large number of persons do not receive amounts
venience in administering the same and the
whichare regarded as the minimum for complete
health. For this reason dietary de?ciencies fre
avoidance of unbalanced usage.
It has been suggested heretofore that the vita
min and mineral substances could be put in a
Much progress has been made in alleviating di
single alimentary preparation, but such sugges
etary de?ciencies as a result of the isolation or 4 0 tions have not solved the di?lculties described
concentration or both of the several vitamin sub
heretofore, and such attempts have not met with
quently occur.
'
'
stances which now are readily available commer
cially, alone or in various admixtures. The min
erals essential to preferred diet also are available
success inasmuch as in such preparations some
of the vitamin ingredients undergo deterioration
and destruction. It is of particular signi?cance
in tablet or other form, although they have not‘ 45 that it is common practice to provide minerals
met with great commercial success, possibly be
cause the importance of these elements in the diet
has not been generally appreciated. As a result,
and vitamins in two separate tablets or capsules,
one containing vitamins and the other contain
ing minerals. This involves the problem of in
diets are frequently supplemented with one or
convenience in administering and 'the suscepti
more vitamin substances, often without regard to 50 bility to careless usage. There was no assurance,
the proper balance between them, and generally
for example, that a person would take both prep- ,
without any mineral additions, even though it is
well established that the use of vitamin and min‘
eral substances as a dietary supplement, at least
as to certain ingredients, should be carefully‘bal
anced.
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Many of the vitamin substances, both as they
occur naturally and in pure or concentrated com
'mercial forms, are unstable and the preparation
of these materials in a stable form for ordinary
arations, or take them in the related amounts
prescribed. At times the supply of one prepara
tion might become exhausted or misplaced and
not resupplied at once.
In accordance with the present invention the
vitamins and minerals are combined in a single _
preparation, preferably in tablet form, which is
readily taken and assimilated, and at the same
2,410,417 I
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time is .adequately protected against loss of
vention, inasmuch as an indeterminate group of
potency of all of the ingredients over long periods
or‘time. The ingredients of the composition are
them may have an advantageous therapeutic
' preferably present in a substantially uniform or '
va ue.
The iron may be in the form of any iron com
homogeneous admixture which can be placed in
_ tablets by the simple and convenient methods
pound, such as ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate
and ferric pyrophosphate. If an iron phos
phorous compound is used, it permits the inclu
sion of additional phosphorus to supplement that
the tablet. This is of signi?cance in that it
permits the use of an inexpensive and simpli?ed
(F94 (P207) a.2Na2P2Oc.7H2O)
a tablet form in which each ingredient is dis
tributed throughout the tablet with Substantial
uniformity. The mixtures may be formed into
contained in the calcium-phosphorus salt. Iron
currently available for pressing or _“stamping” 10 sodium
pyrophosphate
tablet making technique, which makes the prod-'
has been found suitable for this purpose.
.uct available to the public at a much lower cost
Many studies have been made to determine
than heretofore,
The present invention is predicated upon the 15 the extent of dietary de?ciencies normally en
countered. Resort may be had thereto to deter
discovery that the incompatible vitamins and the
mine the preferred ingredients as well as the
._ incompatible vitamins and minerals when inti
proportions to be used in forming preparations
mately admixed in a single homogeneous com
intended
for dietary supplements in accordance
position may be rendered innocuous to each other, 20
with this invention. The recommendations of
and at the same time the vitamin content may
the National Research Council in Washington
be adequately protected against the destructive
may be considered with respect to the dietary
requirements of individuals. At the present time
action of air and moisture. The invention in
cludes the provision of a protective separation
vitamins A, C, D and thiamin, ribo?avin and
or isolation of the ingredients in such a composi
tion which are susceptible to destruction by con
tact with the remaining substances in the prep
25 nicotinamide of the B complex, are recommended
as desirable vitamins to be included. The min
'erals are calcium, phosphorus and iron. In some
aration, or by separating or isolating the particu
instances it may be desirable to add ingredients
lar ingredients which have a destructive in?uence
not speci?cally mentioned herein, and this also
on the remaining ingredients, or both. Thus one
30.
is
contemplated as part of the present invention.
of the destructive in?uences arising within the
For example, the inclusion of copper promotes
tablet is overcome. The invention also includes
the utilization of the iron. Iodine in the form
the combination of the above features with the
protection of the individual ingredients in such
' of potassium, sodium or calcium iodide may be
included along with magnesium, manganese,
a composition when necessary, as well as the en
cobalt in a suitable form, as well as brewer’s
tire composition, from other destructive in?u
ences, such as air and moisture, which might
yeast and liver concentrate, and any other natu
ral material rich in vitamins.
As a speci?c example, based upon readily avail
able reports, it may be intended to provide in
otherwise be present ‘within the composition or
attack it from the outside. Included in the in
vention is the discovery of a method for accom
plishing the above-described separation or isola
conveniently utilizable form, the following daily
amounts and proportions of the vitamin and
tion of the ingredients and protection of. them
separately and in admixture as ‘a composition
mineral ingredients:
from the various destructive influences. a’
Daily ration
The .present invention is not particularly con 45
cerned with the preparation of the vitamin and
Vitamin A ___________ __ 4,000 units
Vitamin D ___________ _- 400 units
mineral ingredients per se which are utilized in
Vitamin B1 (thiamim
forming the composition of the present‘invention.
hydrochloride) _____ _. 1.0 mgs.
Vitamin B2 (ribo?avin) _ 2.0 mgs.
It is intended that any readily available com
mercialsource of such ingredients, or any that 50 Vitamin P-P (nicotin~=
are developed in the future, may be utilized.
amide) ____________ _. 10.0 mgs.
Vitamin C‘ (ascorbic
In carrying out the invention, the vitamins
may be utilized in a pure or commercially avail-'
able concentrated form or, in place thereof, there
acid) _____________ __ 50.0 mgs.
FedPzOv) s.
may be utilized derivatives or materials having 55
2NazP2O6.7H2O___ {11.0 mgs. Fe
a high content of the vitamin substances desired
Calcium
pyrophosgs’ P }208 mgs. P
and which can be utilized as the equivalent of
,
as P
phate
-------------{250
mgs.
Ca
the usual commercial concentrate. The terms
vitamins are intended to include all such equiv
The amounts may be increased or decreased
alents which are well known in the art. The in
as found desirable, and other vitamins or min
vention is. however, particularly adapted for use
erals may be added without departing in any way
in connection with synthetically formed vitamins
from the invention. For example, the amount
which are more labile because they are in the pure
of vitamin A may be increased to 6,000 units and
state. They present somewhat different prob
D to 600 units, if desired, and other
lems than the naturally occurring vitamins such 65 vitamin
members of the B complex may be added.
as the vitamin B in yeast cells.
.
In the above formulation, the amount of cal
With respect to the minerals, the calcium and
cium may be somewhat lower than required to
phosphorus is provided primarily and preferably
supply the needs of certain classes of individuals,
in the form of a calcium-phosphorus salt. Any
and if desired the amount of calcium may be
such salt may be used, such as mono-, di- or 70
increased. In making the tablet, calcium can
tri-calcium orthophosphate, or calcium pyrophos
phate. It is understood, of course, that less de
sirable compounds containing calcium or phos
phorus, or both, or admixtures thereof, may be
be included in the coating‘ so as to raise the
amount to about 400 mgs., which more nearly
approaches the highest amount required to sup
utilized in forming the preparations ‘01 this. iti 75 plement the diet of such individuals.
A mixture of the above ingredients, if made in '
9,410,417
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accordance with the prior art. would be unstable,
at least as to certain of the ingredients. In ac
cordance with the present invention, loss of po
tency of any ingredient may be avoided over long
periods of time. This may be accomplished by
isolating the substances which are deleteriously
a?ected by the remaining ingredients, or'by iso
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organic ‘solvent until the particles are thoroughly
coated.v To facilitate the distribution of the coat
ed particles, a calcium salt may be added which
absorbs the coated vitamin C. Alternatively, a
mixture of the vitamin and the calcium salt may
be treated similarly with the cellulosic solution
and will be found similarly to have separatel
lating the substances which deleteriously affect
the other ingredients present, or both, preferably
coated the vitamin and salt particles.
’
It may also be preferred to isolz 'e the vita
while retaining the ingredients in the form of a 10 mins of the B complex in a similar manner, either
homogeneous mixture capable of being stamped
or pressed into tablets.
‘
For example, it is believed tobe essential to
~separate any iron compounds present, either by
by coating each vitamin separately. or by coat
ing a mixture of two or more or all of the B
vitamins. All of the water-soluble vitamins may
be coated in admixture, in a single operation, but
isolating the iron or protecting the vitamin bodies 15 I prefer to coat them separately, especially vi- 1
tamins B1 and vitamin C, and calcium panto
thenate.
'
or isolation of any of the ingredients may be
The coating operation may be carried out in a
accomplished, for example, by coating the indi
solution in which the solvent is solely an organic
vidual ingredients and, if desired, including the
coated particles in a granulation that is to be a 20 liquid or one in which the water content is very
small. Thus the vitamin is excluded from con
part of the ?nal mixture.
from contact therewith. In general, ‘separation
In accordance with the present invention, also
tact with moisture, at least in such as amount as
it 'is possible to protect the vitamins alone or in
any admixture by coating the particles with a
would deleteriously affect it during the coating
polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl
chloride-acetate and polyvinyl butyral resins,
the phenol-formaldehyde resins, the urea-form
aldehyde resins, the phenol-furfural resins, the
small particles of the vitamin are coated with a
?lm of the coating material in solution, and that
operation.
'
The exact manner in which the vitamins be
protective substance. Among the materials
come coated with the plastic or ?lm-forming ma
which are particularly adapted to ‘be used for
terial is not fully known, but an understanding
coating purposes are organic solvent-soluble
of the exact physical relationship of the vitamin '
plastic and resinous ?lm-forming materials, such
in the coating is'not believed to be essential to
as the alcohol-soluble natural resins, for example
copal, myrrh, styrax, benzoin and dammar; cel 30 an understanding of the invention and the man- '
ner in which it may be practiced. If the vitamin
lulose ethers, for example ethyl cellulose; cellu
is completely insoluble in the solvent for the cel
lose esters, for example cellulose nitrate and cel
lulosic material it is likely that the individual
lulose acetate; polyvinyl compounds, such‘ as
melamine-formaldehyde resins, and the Dolybasic
upon evaporation of the solvent, this ?lm remains
substantially intact in a dry state surrounding
the particles. In the event that the vitamin ma
terial is soluble or partially soluble in the sol
alcohol-polybasic acid resins known as “Glyp
tals.” These coating materials are referred to 40 vent for the coating material, it is likely that the
dissolved vitamin is co-precipitated with the
herein as ?lm-forming plastics and are used in
coating material upon evaporation of the solvent,
a solution of alcohol or other. organic solvent,
leaving the vitamin in a very ?nely divided form,
such as hydrocarbon esters and ketones. The
but nevertheless thoroughly embedded in the dry
solvent should not be harmful to the ingredient
7 coating material. In either event, it is clear that
to be coated.
the coating material surrounds and protects the
‘ Any of the plastics may be used with plasti
vitamin in ?nely divided form, and a reference
cizers to obtain ?lms of different properties as is
herein to the “coating” of vitamins is intended
well known in the art.
I am aware that it has been proposed hereto- ' to refer to either of the possibilities above de
fore to preserve cod liver oil by a water solution ill) scribed or others of which I am not aware.
The coating material being substantially .im
of the water-soluble alcohol-insoluble Karaya
gum. This is to be distinguished from the plas
pervious to air, and moisture, at least in the va
por form, protects the vitamins thus treated
tics I use and in the manner of use. I am also
against the destructive in?uence of air and mois
aware that it has been proposed to preserve cod
liver oil by mixing it with melted paraffin or hard 55 ture.
fat and absorbing or distributing the mixture in
Although the vitamins so treated are rendered
stable against the destructive in?uences of .
soybean meal, yeast, calcium salts, etc. Paraffin
and fat is not a plastic ?lm-forming substance as
moisture in such forms as the tablet would nor
mally encounter prior to consumption, the coat
de?ned herein, nor are minerals separated from
ing however does not prevent the vitamin from‘
water-soluble vitamins as is possible in accord
being extracted and utilized by the body. Tests
ance with the invention. In addition, paraf?n
and fats melt at so low a temperature as to melt
have shown that a vitamin coated in the manner
or soften, in hot climates. The plastics used have
a melting or softening point above 120° F. It has
also been proposed to coat medicines, such as
ferments and enzymes, with acidic coatings to
prevent harm to the medicine by the acidic con
tents of the stomach and to keep it intact until
it reaches the intestine. The plastics I use pref
described is released within the body and made
available to substantially the same extent as the
' same amount of the same vitamin ‘would b when
administered in the pure form for instanc , in a
freshly made solution.
As stated above, it is important, in the event
that the various vitamin substances are not in
dividually isolated, to isolate the iron, such as
by coating the iron compound.
The vitamins A and D, usually in the form of a
concentrated oil, need not be separately isolated
provided the remaining ingredients have been
ample, by rapidly stirring a mixture of vitamin
‘C and a cellulose ester or ether in solution in an 75 adequately isolated. If desired, however, it is
erably do not contain such acidic groups, so as
not to inhibit the availability of the vitamins in
the stomach.
The coating may be accomplished, for ex
7
a,41o,417
.
possible to incorporate the vitamins A and D in a
v
be desirable to include a small amount of overage
in the case of some ingredients. In others, for
hard fat, such as a stearin or hard monoglyceride,
or in a liquid oil, such as corn oil, wheat germ oil,
cottonseed oil or sesame oil, in accordance with
' example the minerals, where no deterioration is
even theoretically possible, no overage need be
5 included. In the speci?c example, the amounts
mins may be incorporated in a ?lm-forming sub
speci?ed are without overage. The manufac
stance such as described. ‘ In most instances,
turer may increase any of the vitamins by such
however, it is satisfactory merely to admix the
amount as he feels is desirable under the cir
vitamin A and D concentrate with the previous
cumstances. In general, a 10 to 20% overage of
ly formed granulations.
.
10 all of the vitamins would be'adequate to cover
Various materials to function as binders, ?ll
all ordinary contingencies.
ers, etc., may be included for the purpose of ren
In the following description the amounts used
dering‘the mixture more susceptible to the tablet
are those required to make a million tablets, each
forming and coating operations. The use of con
~ having one-third of the daily ration noted above.‘
the prior art. While not equivalent, these vita
ventional ?avoring and sweetening materials
also may be desired and may be admixed at any 15
stage with any of the ingredients.
Ascorbic acid coating and granulation
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Kilos
After the individually isolated ingredients are
Ascorbic acid
16.606
admixed to form a homogeneous admixture, they
Calcium pyrophosphate__~ _____________ _.. 27.216
may be formed into tablets by pressing or stamp 20 Ethyl cellulose dissolved in ethyl alcohol
ing in accordance with the conventional tech
to make a 10% solution ____ __,. ______ __ 1.814
niques employed in the art. After the tablets are
formed, they may have one or more coatings ap
The ascorbic acid is placed in a mixer and as!
plied to ?ll any voids in the tablet and displace
tation is begun whereupon one-half of the ethyl
any air in the tablet, as well as to form coatings 25 cellulose solution is added or a su?icient amount
protecting the entire tablet-against moisture and
of ethyl cellulose solution to coat the vitamin very
thoroughly. After thorough mixing, the calcium
oxygen in the air. ' In general, the coatings may
consist of moisture-proof materials, such as any
pyrophosphate and the balance of the ethyl cel
of the coating-materials of the type described
lulose solution are gradually added alternately
above and shellac separately or in admixture. 30 and mixing is continued, for example, for about
While the coating prevents the entire tablet from
?fteen minutes until a uniform mixture results.
The mixture is agitated while the ethyl alcohol
contact with any moisture in the vapor form,
X-ray tests have shown that the coatings
is evaporated. Heat and a vacuum may be used
do not prevent the relatively rapid disintegration
to assist the removal of the alcohol. Agitation is
of the tablet in the alimentary canal and the 35 continued throughout and for a su?icient length
complete utilization of the ingredients.
of time thereafter to ensure complete dryness.
Subsequent coatings may include materials for
The material thereupon may be screened through
adding weight and body to the ?nished tablets
a 20-mesh screen to form a granulation and
placed in storage for use.
including a calcium compound for increasing the
total amount of calcium in the tablet. In the 40
In this operation the initial mixing of the vita
conventional manner it is preferred to utilize at
min and the cellulose coats the vitamin. The
addition of the calcium pyrophosphate is used
primarily as a means of distributing the coated
> least one of the usual sugar coatings and the out
er surface preferably is polished with wax in a
'
vitamins in a large mass in such a manner that
As a specific example of the formation of an 4 they can be admixed uniformly with the other
conventional manner.
adequately stabilized composition containing
parts of the composition. The additional amount
of the cellulosic solution added after coating fa
both vitamins and minerals resort may be had
to the following description. It is to be under
cilitates the formation of a compact granulation.
In place. of ethyl cellulose any other cellulosic
to assist in the understanding of the invention 50 material may be used and any suitable solvent for
the cellulosic material may be used. The
and is not intended to be a limitation thereof.
amounts are not critical and may be varied as
In making the tablets it is possible to include
desired. The amount of the phosphate may be
the daily ration in one tablet or in a plurality.
increased or decreased, but if altered, a propor
For convenience only, the illustrative example
stood, however, that this example is given merely
will have the daily ration “divided into three 55 tionate change in the amount of the phosphate
introduced at some other stage may be necessary
tablets. This makes the tablets sumciently small
to achieve the desired amount in the tablet.
to be swallowed without chewing, if so desired,
and permits them to be taken at several times '
The B complex coating and granulation
during the day, for example, at or near each meal.
Also, if a person believes that his diet supplies
nearly all of the minimum requirements he may
desire to take only one-third of the minimum
daily ration. The relative amounts, however are
not critical as stated before and are given only
to illustrate an application of the invention.
In the case of certain of the ingredients it’ is
desirable to include a somewhat larger amount
than the daily ration at the time of manufacture
in order to allow for manufacturing loss and to
Kilos
6° Nicotinic acid amide __________________ _Thiamine-hydrochloride
Riboflavin
_
_
.333
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Saccharin _______ __' __________________ __
65 Talc
3.33s
,. ___________ __
____
,.666
v1.048
16.000
Calcium pyrophosphate _______________ _.. 27.216
Ethyl cellulose in ethyl alcohol to make a
10% solution .. ____________________ __
1.8M
The vitamin B complex ingredients are prelim
assure the presence of the amount supposed to be 70 inarily ground in a ball mill with the talc. The
contained in the tablet when it reaches the con
latter is included merely to facilitate grinding.
sumer irrespective of the history of the tablet
To the mixture is added approximately half of
after it leaves the’ hands of the manufacturers.
the ethyl cellulose solution and agitation is car
While the invention stabilizes the vitamins so
ried out until the ingredients are thoroughly
that a minimum of overage is necessary, it may , 75 coated. Following this operation the calcium py
2,410,417
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10
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rophosphate and the remainder of the ethyl cel
has several advantages from the procedural
standpoint.
lulose solution are added and agitation is con
tinued until a uniform mixture results. There
All of the above ingredients, granulations or
‘mixtures, depending on exact method selected for
upon the product is dried under vacuum at about
170° F. to remove the ethyl cellulose solventva
pors. The material is screened through a 20-.
‘ processing the various ingredients, are placed in
mesh sieve to form a granulation and stored ,
a mixer from whichthe air maybe evacuated.
All of the materials are thoroughly mixed. After
until used.
initial mixing and during continued'mixing, the The observations relative to the action taking
oil-soluble vitamins, such as A and D, in the form
place at the various stages and the ingredients‘ 10 of a concentrate or in an oil, are sprayed over
and amounts noted previously in connection with
the granulation. If desired, the concentrate may
‘ascorbic acid are similarly applicable here.
- be applied to one or a mixture of two or more
In an alternative method, all of the ingredients
granulations and the‘ remaining‘ materials then
of the B complex formulation above noted, except
added. 'The addition of the concentrate in the
the ethyl cellulose, are ground to a uniform mix- 15 preferred manner. however, has the advantage
ture and stored‘ for use. In this alternative
of obtaining a thorough mixture during the addi
method the B vitamins are not coated and in
tion.‘
,
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some embodlmentsof the invention this is not
Flavoring material may also be added, before,
necessary if the other means of achieving isolaafter, or during the addition of the'concentrate.
tion and protection are utilized.
~
20
The complete mixture is then ready for stamp
'
Imn coating and granulatm
Kuos
I
ple the amount in each tablet would be adjusted
so as to make a million tablets,
223;?‘é‘eit‘ésé’tié’é’éi‘éii‘i?t?at2.155115;is 21333
}
ing into tablets. In the speci?c illustrative exam
= The eemeeeeee eeeleee
eiveee eeeieeee ere
.make a 5% solution
907- 25 tective coatings. ‘ The ?rst of these coatings may
Calcium pyrophospha1}; """""""""" " 27'216 - comprise a solution of a cellulose ester or ether,
"""""""""" "
such as ethyl cellulose or collodion. If the tablet
The sodium iron pyrophosphate is added‘ to a
mixer and coated with the ethyl cellulose solu-
has any voids‘ into which air may penetrate. the
.wmfing penetrate? into such Voids thereby elimi
tion as described above in connection with the 30 natmg and excludmg 93m
foregoing granulations_ After thorough coating,
the calcium pyrophosphate is added gradually,
_
Although this material resists air and moisture,
‘is has helm pointed out Perewforee I’F'mY analy
and agitation is continued until mixing is com515 shows that th? coatmg 1§ _sumc1ent1y Pene
plete. The resulting moist material is subsetmted under condlt'ions Prevalln'fg in the ahmen'
quently passed through an oscillating granulator 35 tam canal to perm1t disnfmegratmfl of the tablet
and dried at 160° F. in air. The material may be
91nd Fhe release of an of Its consmtuents for “151'
sieved through a 60-mesh screen and .stored for
llzatton by the body- Th? second coating may
use.
_
'
consist of a cellulosic solution with which a vege- .
The observations as to the actions taking place
table shellac has been mixed. This SEQOl'ld 008.1;
at the various stages, as well as the ingredients 40 mg may be repeated aux {lumber 0f deslred times
used on their amounts noted above in connection
for‘ example f9“ addmonal r693“. have been
with the B and C granulations-are also applicable
to the iron granulation.
-
Iron-calcium-gelatin granulation
K?os
Calcium pyrophosphate ______________ __ 184.3
->
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-
‘
“3:23. “i’fi-ffii‘?ifi‘i‘i-jiisffi‘ie“ .9
.
.
found to be de§1rab1e' :rhe substltutmn of a Part
of the cellulosic material by-_ shellac is desirable
from the dietary point of view, but either may be
45 used. It is desirable to dust each of the coatings
"
with a calcium salt in order to facilitate the coat
mg‘
e
'
amoun
5,, d 1e,
us
alslo. pertmiil triteglnglusion of a‘ larger
0
wi
ca 0111111111
0;,
an ac
e
a
e ,
egee
ic ma eria
or w
me eB
a ca cium
wgi’egggélZ148 g?gggjis?iiqflvf‘fr ‘20
compound containing the same, such as for ex
The calcium pyrophosphate and _ coated iron
ample, citric acid.
‘Following the coatings with cellulosic material
and shellac, it may be desirable to coat the tablets
granulations are added gradually with the binder
solution to a mixer until all of the materials have 55 with ._a gelatin and sugar solution as is conven
tional in the tablet coating art.
been added. The ?nal product is a caky and
Following thistreatment' the tablets may be
cohesive mass, and may be passed through an
waxed with a solution of wax in a suitable vola
oscillating granulator and dried in an oven at
tile solvent to provide a polished surface, as is
160° F. > In the ?nal step the material is passed
through a ZO-mesh sieve and thereupon is stored 60 conventional in the tablet coating art.
for processing.
The binder is included so that the tablet will
hold together during the stamping and coating
operations. The amount used and the amount of
Although the use of antioxidants and other
additional agents is not necessary in forming the
tablets of the present invention, it is to be under
stood that the use of such materials is not ex
water used are not critical as long as the desired 65 eluded.
As illustrative of the eifectiveness of the pro
result is obtained.
'
The amount of calcium pyrophosphate is that
necessary, in addition to that used in the previ
tection against loss of potency afforded by the
coating of ethyl cellulose, vitamin tablets were
. prepared following the general technique de
achieve the desired amount of calcium in {the 70 scribed above, including the application of a ?nal
sugar coating. Immediately upon their comple
complete mixture.
“
tion the vitamin tablets were analyzed by con
If desired, the iron may not be included in this
ventional quantitative analysis techniques to de
granulation in which event only the calcium .
pyrophosphate and the binder would be granu
termine the vitamin A content as expressed in
ously ‘ described granulations or mixtures, to
lated. The preferred method described, however, 75 U. S. P. units, and the‘vitamin B1, vitamin C,
2,410,417
11
vitamin B2 and nicotinamide content as ex
that the protective coating may be disrupted or
mechanically or otherwise broken in the digestive
pressed in milligrams. This is referred to as the
preliminary assay. These tablets were then
tract whereupon the vitamins are free to be ab
sorbed, or they may be removed through some
accordance with a well developed accelerating
osmotic action. It is not believed to be essential
aging test which by comparison with analysis of
to an understanding of the invention to define
tablets obtained from the ?eld show that three
the manner in which the vitamins are freed in‘
weeks at 42° C. is equivalent to ten to eleven
the digestive tract from the protective coating
months of shelf life, for the least stable vitamin.
and the above theory is intended to be given
The tablets were tested at different intervals dur 10 merely as a possible explanation of the’ action of
ing the test and the following results are an aver
the protective coating and is not to be construed
stored in an oven at a temperature of 42° C. in
age or‘ many such tests:
as a limitation upon the scope of the invention.
The following tests show, for example, the ,
availability of thiamin protected with ethyl cel- .
Table [A
15 lulose in accordance with the above illustrative
embodiment of the invention. . It is to be under
stood that these tests are merely illustrative and -
‘gtglén Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Nicotin
S P ‘
m'mg
Bi in
mgs.
C in
mgs. »
B: in
mgs.
amide
in mgs.
that similar results may be obtained with other
soluble vitamins or with coatings of other ?lm
I‘ reliminary
essay".-. _ __
2, 001
.
.
.
4. 00
3d week ‘at 42°
C _________ -_
5th week ____ __
1, 996
1, S95
0. 36
0. 33
9. 52
9. 41
0. 71'
71
3. 99
3. 99
20 forming substances of the character herein de
scribed.
. .In carrying out the tests, the subjects were
given a daily diet which furnished approximately
825 micrograms of thiamin, i. e., about that char
on a drug store shelf for eleven months and the 25 acteristic of the daily diet of the average Amer
average of the results are:
ican. Approximately 25 micrograms were fur»
nished
by breakfast, and about 400 micrograms
Table I8
by each of the subsequent two meals.
Urine collections were made throughout the
“gain?!” Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Niootin~ 30 day and analysed for thiamin content. The
s P ‘
Bun
Cm
Blill
amide
methods used and the significance of the tests
mgs.
mgs.
mgs.
in mgs.
The same tablets were collected after being
for demonstrating the utilizationgof thiamin are
assay-._-.- -.
2, 015
0. 41
ll. 21
0. 72
4. 06
set forth by Melnick, Field and Robinson in “The
Journal of Nutrition,”'yol': 18, No. 6, December
(ago 11 mos.).
2, 078
0. 369
10. 34
0. 69
4. 25
35 1939.’ The following table (TableII) ShOWs the
Preliminary
Field sample
’
results obtained with a typical subject:
In the conventional quantitative analysis of
the vitamins as set forth above, the results vary
Table >II_
but are accurate within a range of about 10%. 40
As a result of these variations, the analysis of any
D'
h -
Time of
Thi
l
- ingredient present may appear in some instances
toshow an increase. As a practical matter, the
variations in each instance are so small in amount
that they fall within the limitations of the best
recognized'technique of analysis and thus demon
strate that any loss of potency of the vitamins
45
Micrograma
Home
Micrograma
I825
24
175
_
1A rough approximation drawn from reported values for food
ingested.
,
.
has been too small in amount to be measured
quantitatively. It is generally recognized that
On the second day, immediately after dinner,
of the water-soluble vitamins, vitamin: B1 and 50 5,550 micrograms of thiamin coated with ethyl
vitamin C are the least stable and the most
cellulose in accordance with the present inven
di?icult to protect against loss of potency. Nev
tion, was administered. Twenty-four hour urine
ertheless, asv shown in the above table, these vi
samples were collected and analyzed as before for
tamins which have been coated in accordance
thiamin content. The following table (Table >
with the invention are rendered stable under ac 55 111) shows the results obtained during the feed
celerated stability tests;
_
ing of. the ordinary diet plus the addition of
thiamin coated in accordance with the present
may be utilized in carrying out the present in
invention. The thiamin excreted from the tablet
vention are air and water impervious and thus
was calculated by subtracting the amounts shown
protect the vitamin against contact with air, 60 in Table III as excreted from the dietary intake,
moisture and other undesirable in?uences, nev
from the total amount excreted.
ertheless, the vitamins are readily available when
taken'intemally. It can be shown by tests of
Table Hi
the type herein described that the vitamin is
Although the ?lm-forming materials which
vutilized to_the same extent as a puré vitamin 65
having no coating whatever, and the coating is
a harmless and innocuous ingredient of medicinal
and dietary preparations. The ?lm-forming ma
terials of. the character described are substan-_
tially inedible and inert and probably are unaf
’ fected chemically during passage through the di
gostive tract. Nevertheless the vitamins are ef
fectively freed from the insoluble coating in the
Thiamin intake
Dietary
Coated
Thiamin excreted
Time of \
collection
70 .Microarama Micropmmr
825
>
5.550
Hours
24
Tm‘
From coated
thiamin .
Micropmmc Mcroamma
825
677
The above test was then repeated except that
the additional thiamin was given in the form
hereinafter and thus are available. It is possible 75 of a pure solution. The following table (Table
‘digestive tract as shown by tests to be described
2,410,417
13
IV) showsthe results obtained when the thiamin
.
.
7/
14
.
amount of thiamin utilized is greater when the
was administered in the form of a'pure solution: I vitamin is available for a greater period of time
and at a more uniform rate.v It has been sug
Table IV
gested ‘to increase the utilization of thiamin by
feeding at more frequent intervals, but the dis
Thiamin intake
> 'i‘hiamin excreted
5 advantages of utilizing this method are apparent.
Time of
r ure soi u-
D Mary
“Emily
co co on
tion
-
_ Prior ‘to the present invention it has not been
rrom pure
Tm“!
appreciated that the utilization of the vitamin
could be increased by modifying the, physical form
solution
Hours ~ -
1 825
1 5,000
l 825
1 5,000
'
of the vitamin administered.
1O
24
' 915
1 747
24
I 1, 002
1 802
'
To further illustrate that water-soluble‘ vita
mins which have been coated in accordance with
the present invention and thus rendered stable .
1 Weight in micrograms.
against substantial loss of potency, are utiiizable
The results obtained closely approximate the 7 15 'to substantially the same degree as vitamins which
have not been coated, speci?c biological assays
test results reported by Melnick, Field & Robins
son, supra.
I
'
'
were made on tablets containing vitamin B1 (thi
.
.The above tests indicate that thiamin which
amin hydrochloride) , vitamin B2 (ribo?avin) ,, and
is protected with a coating of a ?lm-forming
vitamin C (ascorbic acid), coated in accordance
water-impervious substance is'as readily utilized 20 ‘with the examples given above. The technique
employed in biological assays is to feed one group
as a test ‘dose in pure aqueous solution. This
of test animals (rats or pigs) under standard 0011- ,
may best be shown by comparing the results ob
ditions with the coated vitamins and a second
tained by feeding extra thiamin in pure solution
form and in‘ coated ‘form. The following table,‘
(Table V) is compiled from Tables III and IV 25
above:
Table V
Thiamin excretion
Di e tary’ \ t i1an}
o ‘
thiamin exstyra
intake
Form -'
Fraction
thiamin
taken
'
group of rats or pigs with an equal amount of un
coated vitamins under the same test conditions.
By comparing the test results, for example, with
respect to weight increase appearance, autopsy
?ndings, and disease symptoms, it can be deter
mined whether or not the coated vitamins have ‘
0 been utilized to the same extent as the uncoated
cvitamins. These tests are known'to the art and
Before After From of extra
dosage dosage dosage dose ex
_
-
-
are believed to be conclusiveewithin limits as vto
whether speci?c utilizabledamounts of vitamins
creted
are present in the material tested. - The biological
‘
1825
1 5, 550
Coated;__.
l 175
1 852
1677
'1 825
l 5, 000
Pige solu-
l 168
1 915
1 747
1825
15,000 ._.do ____ --
on.
.
_
>
assay with respect tovitamin C, for ‘example, was
carried out in accordance with the technique of
Coward and Kassner, using the International
12
15
‘
l200
11,002
1802
16
-
' . Standard of Reference. The biological assay with
i
1 Weight in micrograms;
respect‘ to vitamin B1, for example, was carried out
in accordance with the method described in the
1
Within the limits of precision of the tests carried 4° U. S. Pharmacopoeiaxxl (second supplement).
I The tablets were tested at the level of 520 micro
out, it is clearly shown that the thiamin coated
in accordance with the present invention is
grams of vitamin B2, 130 US? units of vitamin
B1 and 374 international units of vitamin C which
utilized to the same extent as thiamin which is
administered in the form of a pure solution“ I 45 were the actual amounts of the vitamins present a
in the tablets. ,In the biological assays for each
of these vitamins, these amounts were found to
be 'not only present but utilizable.
ticles, moreover, indicates an unobvious and un
As .an additional example of the application
expected advantage of feeding thiamin in the
form of coated particles or granules as compared 50 of the invention, the following formulation may
The rate of urinary excretion of thiamin con
tent, following the ingestion of the coated-par
be used in making 5000 tablets, each containing ~
with thiamin in natural form inasmuch as the
one-third of the daily ration.
utilization of the thiamin‘is caused to take place
ovér a longer period of time. In the foregoing
‘A solution of polyvinyl acetate is made by dis
solving
11/2 pounds of polyvinyl acetate in a gal
tests when extra thiamin was administered in
the coated form, the diurnal variation in the 55 lon of alcohol an'dthis is used as the coating so
lution in accordance with this example.
amount of thiamin excreted was .as follows:
The vitamin c granulation is made by mixing to '
Table vVI
grams of vitamin C with 371/2 grams of calcium
- pyrophosphate. To this is added 44 grams of the
’ Thiamin intake
'
Dietary
1 400
'
——
Time
Coated
v 1 5, 550
'
Thiarai‘iii 6o
Time of urinary
“we
collection
-
cgggld
'
: and the vitamin particles and the calcium pyro
phosphate particles become thoroughly impreg
mun
‘154'
nated and each separately coated with the poly»
vinyl acetate ?lm. To this mixture. is added 371/2
grams of calcium pyrophosphate which absorbs
1 p. m.-5 p.
6:30 p. m
59 p. m.-0
m.-1 1).
a. m.___m_----
p 304
120 i
'
l a. m.-5 a. m_--__
'60
‘25
Wm ---- -- 331331111:
i3
the excess solvent and forms a dry-appearing
- granulation which is passed through a 10-mesh
677
screen and dried. After evaporation of the sol-v
'
s
polyvinyl acetate coating solution and as this
mixture is stirred it breaks into small wet granules
1:00 p.
1 400
'A
‘
2
vent, the granulation is passed through a dO-mesh
1 Weight in micrograms. \
‘
.
' .
screen.
“The vitamin Bi granulation is made by mixing
The above results show that the greatest amount
' 1.66 grams of vitamin B1 with 115 grams of cal
of thiamin utilization occurred during the sec
cium pyrophosphate. To this is ~added 44 grams
ond four hour period and that the utilization was
extended over a long period of time. The total 75 of the above described solution of polyvinyl ace
'
l5
2,410,617
tate in alcohol. During this mixing the vitamin
particles become coated with the polyvinyl ace
tate and when the coating is complete, ‘75 grams
of calcium pyrophosphate is added which dries
the mixture suiiiciently to be passed through a 10
i6
mal conditions after the tablets leave the hands
of the manufacturer. In accordance with the in
vention it is possible to guarantee the claimed po
tency with the use of a minimum amount of over
age.
mesh screen. After evaporation of the alcohol
the granulation is passed through a 40-mesh
.
As indicative of the stability of the vitamin
made in accordance with the above illustrated
screen.
embodiment of the invention, utilizing polyvinyl
In this embodiment of the invention the vita
acetate as a film-forming material,-the tablets
min Ba and the nicotinamide are not coated since 10 made. were analyzed as soon as completed (pre
they are suiiiciently stable when not in contact
liminary assay) to determine the vitamin A con
with the other coated ingredients. This mixture
tent, expressed in U. S. P. units, and the vitamin
I is prepared by mixing 3.33 grams of vitamin B2
B1, vitamin C, vitamin B2 and nicotinamide, ex
with 18.35 grams of nicotinamide, to which is
pressed in milligrams. The tablets were then
added 5%; grams of saccharine as a ?avor, and 154 15 subjected to an accelerated aging test in an oven
grams of calcium pyrophosphite. This is thor
at 42° C. and the tablets were analyzed at dif
oughly mixed into the form of a uniform ?ne
ferent intervals during this period. The results
powder.
The iron granulation is prepared by mixing 70
are as follows:
Table VII
grams of calcium pyrophosphate with 107 grams 20
of sodium iron pyrophosphate to which is added
about 50 grams of the polyvinyl acetate in alco
hol solution. The mixing is continued until the
“if?” Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Nicotin
U s P
l’mi'ts
iron is thoroughly coated, following which the
excess liquid is taken up by the addition of 72 25
grams of calcium pyrophosphate. This is granu
Preliminary
assay ...... . lated, dried and further granulated in the same
1st week at 42°
manner as described above.
For the purpose of placing additional calcium
in the tablet, 1070 grams of calcium pyrophos 30
phate is mixed with a solution of 80 grams of gel
atin in 200 grams of water. This is passed
through a 10-mesh screen, dried and put through
B1 in
mgs.
1, 040
C-___--_____ ._----.l-._
2d week
___
3d week _____ __
l, 720v
C in
mgs.
B2 in
mgs.
0. 49
ll. 4
0. 46
ll. 7 .................. ..
3. 78
- .................. _.
0. 42
4th week ______________ __
0. 38 ________ ._
5th week ____ --
0. 37
1, 800
0. 71
amide
in mgs.
0. 70
ll. 6 ________ -.
3. 69
3. 69
It will be seen that in the above example the sta
a 20-mesh screen. The gelatin is not used as a
protective or separating material but rather for 35 bility is maintained as a result of ‘the coating op- "
eration. Particularly is this true in the case of .
the purpose of conglomeratirig the calcium pyro
vitamin C, which is one of the most di?icult of the
phosphate so as to be in the form of free-?owing
vitamins to maintain. The stability of vitamin
discrete granules which will flow properly in the
B1 levels off after some slight‘ deterioration, but it
later stamping operation.
The above ?ve granulations and mixtures, that 40 may be retained in the claimed potency for well
over a year without the use of excessive over
is, the vitamin C granulation, the vitamin B1
ages.
.
granulation, the vitamin B2 and nicotinamide
mixture, the iron granulation, and the calcium
pyrophosphate granulation are thoroughly mixed
and to this is added a vitamin A and D contain
ing oil in an amount to provide 8,335,000 units of
vitamin A and 833,000 units of vitamin D. This
is mixed thoroughly to distribute the oil in the
mixture of the granulations. Flavor may also be
added. The mixture is then fed to a conventional
stamping means and stamped into 5000 tablets.
Following this the tablets are coated with poyl
vinyl acetate solution and may then be coated
with sugar, wax or other conventional procedures
for improving the appearance and palatability.
In the above examples, the amounts of all of
the vitamins may be increased by what is known
as “overage" in order to assure the claimed po
tency despite any deterioration caused by abnor
As indicative of the availability to man of the
vitamin B1. in the tablets made as above described,
vvusing polyvinyl acetate as the coating material,
six individuals were subjected to tests in accord
ance with the procedure described previously. In
particular, the basal vitamin B1 excretion was de
termined and the increased excretion was deter
mined after the administration of 5 milligrams of
vitamin B1 in aqueous solution.
This was com
pared with the increase following the administra
tion of 15 tablets prepared as above described.
While the results are not exactly comparable
because of the fact that slightly more vitamin
B1 was administered in the form of tablets than
in the ‘pure solution, percentagewise the data
shows that substantially all, or at least 90%, of
the vitamin B1 in the tablets is available. The
data is as follows:
Table VIII
Pure solution, 5 mg. thiamine
Subject
7
Basal
Mm.
Per cent
test
dose
033:?
McgJdau
1, 216
'15 Tablets, 7.2 mg. thiamine
Mm,
Basal
excreted
20
l, 095
873
808
1, 127
l, 234
17
14
12
19
18
l, 059
17
Mc .ldav
a 396
385
376
210
444
227
340
test
dose
M . do
“2,00%
2 111
2, 083
1, M7
2, 006
l, 850
l, 032
Per cent
0am
m
excreted
2,410,417
17
A similar test was made to determine the avaii—
essential, however, to the formation of the
granulations nor to the stabilization of the vi
tamins. For example, any of the water-soluble
vitamins may be mixed with a solution of poly
test was performed in the same manner and the 5 vinyl acetate or other plastic in alcohol. Since
some of the vitamins are quite soluble in alcohol
results are as follows:
Table IX
' ability to man of ascorbic acid in tablets made
in accordance with the above example utilizing
poylvinyl acetate as the coating material. The
Pure solutionégg mg’ ascorbic
Subiect
t
Basal
life . do
dose
Petr
cent
0 test
dose
excreted
Lie . day
A‘to: tes t Petrtgegnt
0
t
Basal
dose
dose
excreted
0/ 84
34
ZlfcgJday
lilcgJday
117
47
14
18
17
16
105
87
118
138
46
35
51
61
27
32
17
i5
113
91
115
90
48
33
55
42
28
136
p 54
26
102
42
18
111
47
25
105
45
0/ 1g
Average"
After est
15 tablets, 179 mg. ascorbic acid
33
This data demonstrates that the ascorbic acid
similarly is available.
they may disssolve. This solution may be drum
Toxicitystudies were made to determine any
dried, preferably under a vacuum so as not to
possible deleterious effects of polyvinyl acetate.
require too high a temperature, to form extremely
thin sheets of ?lm of the plastic in which the
‘These studies were made on albino rats which
vitamin is embedded. This thin sheet material
were fed daily with polyvinyl acetate. Four
may be put through an oscillating granulator and
groups of comparable animals were fed a basal 30 broken up into ?ne discrete granules of any size
controlled diet and three levels of polyvinyl
depending on the adjustment of the granulator.
The granules may be sieved and the ?nes re
acetate respectively, namely 0.5%, 2.0% and 5%,
in their diet. The growth and development of
the animals fed the test material over an eight
week period was not signi?cantly different than
that from the group fed the normal diet and it
may be concluded that the polyvinyl acetate is a
safe ingredient for inclusion in vitamin tablets.
Similar detailed experiments have been con
processed if uniformly sized particles are desired.’
These granules may be used in any of the ways
suggested herein. A small amount of a calcium
salt may be included in'the solution, for example
‘an amount about equal to the vitamin. This does
not alter the consistency of the solution mate
rially and assists in forming a friable ?lm.
ducted from the standpoint of stability, avail 40 In the above described illustrative embodi
ability and toxicity of tablets prepared using a
ments, the coated vitamins are stamped in a
wide variety of plastic or resinous ?lm-forming
compact tablet inasmuch as this is one of the
material. When myrrh, styrax, “Durite” (a
most convenient forms for marketing them.
phenol-formaldehyde resin), “Catalin” (a mel
However, the granulations which contain only
amine-formaldehyde resin), and "GlyptaP’ (a 45 the vitamin in the coating material, or the coated
polybasic alcohol-polybasic acid resin) were sub
vitamins granulated with a calcium salt, may be
stituted for polyvinyl acetate in coating vitamin
admixed with granular or powdered products,
B1 and vitamin C, the following stabilities were
such as dehydrated soups, dried milk concen
obtained on an uncoated tablet:
trates and other food products or ingredients.
Table X
Myrrh
Styrax
Durite
Alkylurea resin
Glyptal
Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin
B1
Cin
Biin
Gin
Biin
Cin
Biin
Oin
Blill
Gin
mg
Preliminary assay _______________ -_
lst week at 42° C ________________ __
Percentage retained after 8 wks.___
mg.
mg.
mg.
0. 40
0. 41
0. 41
10- 4
10. 0
10.0
0. 41
0. 41
0.41
0. 41
0. 37
0. 38
10. l
10. 4
10. 1
95
97
mg
mg.
mg.
10.4
10. 3
9. 8
0. 41
0. 40
0.40
0. 41
0. 38
0.37
10. 0
9. 6
9. 7
0. 37
0. 33
0. 41
8. 9
90
93
100
90
“
9. 9
9. 5 '
9. 6
9. 5
9. 1
mg.
mg.
mg.
O. 42
0. 39
0. 38
10.4
10. 1
10. 2
0. 48
0. 49
0. 53
0. 38
0. 34
0. 30
10. 2
10. 0
9. 9
0. 46
0. 46
0. 43
11. 5
95
90
100
93 '
11. 4
12. 1
11. 5V
ll. 6
11. 6
The’ data in the above tables listed heretofore
They are admirably suited also for use in animal
is typical of the results obtained with many
feeds. Extensive research and analysis in con
resins, and indicates that vitamins are retained 65 nection with dehydrated soups, for example,
in at least 90% of their original quantity after
forti?ed with coated vitamin granulations of the
a shelf life of about a year. This requires not
type described herein, showed that the soups
more than a 10% overage to assure the claimed
retain their added vitamin content when sub
potency under normal conditions of distribution.
jected to accelerated aging conditions. This
In‘ the above illustrative examples the coated 70 demonstrates that the granulations vneed not be
vitamins are included in a granulation containing
compacted nor stamped in order for the coating
a large‘ amount of a calcium salt. This embodi
to act su?iciently in stabilizing the vitamins.
ment is described because it is one way of includ
The stabilization provided by the coating is par
ing a large amount of calcium and phosphorus
ticularly noteworthy when the coated vitamins
in a ?nished tablet. The inclusion of a salt is not 75 are added to dehydrated soups where the protein
2,410,417
'
,
19
20
>
and hydroscopic agents in such ?nely divided
geneous edible composition containing both min
eral and vitamin-nutrient components, includ
material is such as normally to accelerate the
deterioration of added vitamins which. are not
ing mineral ingredients comprising compounds of
otherwise stabilized.
It will be apparent that my invention is 'sub
ject to many ‘obvious variations in procedure
iron, phosphorus and calcium, and vitamin in
’ gradients comprising water-soluble vitamins nor
mally deteriorative and incompatible with a min
which will be re?ected in the composition of the , eral component, which comprises separately
tablet, and that many equivalent materials may
mixing vitamin B1 and vitamin C with a solu
be substituted for a number of. the ingredients
tion ‘of a ?lm-forming water-insoluble plastic
disclosed. All such obvious variations and 10 dissolved in an organic solvent, distributing the
equivalent materials are to be included within
coated vitamins ‘in one of the mineral compo
the invention. ' ,
r
nents, and evaporating the solvent ‘to form a
This application is a continuation-impart of ,
moisture and air resistant protective coating of
application Serial No. 414,607, filed October 11, ' the plastic upon individual particles of the vita- ‘
1941, and Serial No. 424,786, ?ied December 29, 15 mins separating them from mineral components
with which they are incompatible and protect
ing them against deterioration due to air and
, L'A substantially homogeneous edible compo
moisture, said plastic nevertheless being perme
sition containing both mineral and vitamin
able to digestive fluids so that the coated vitamins
‘nutrient components, comprising at least one 20 remain available for absorption _in the digestive
1941.
1'
I claim:
water-soluble vitamin normally deteriorative and
tract.
incompatible with minerals, individual particles
_ 5. A method of making a substantially homo
of_ which are protected with a moisture and air
geneous edible composition containing both min
eral and vitamin nutrient components in a single
tablet, comprising at least one water-soluble
resistant ?lm-forming water-insoluble plastic
inert with respect to said vitamin and effecting
a physical separation of said coated vitamin from
‘ vitamin normally deteriorative and incompatible
said‘mineral and from any other components
with which said vitamin is incompatible, said‘
plastic being permeable to digestive ?uids so that‘
the coated vitamins remain available for absorp 30
. tion in the digestive tract, said coated vitamin
particles being a free-?owing uniform granulai
with a mineral component, which comprises mix_
ing'the water-soluble vitamin with a solution of
a ?lm-forming water-insoluble plastic dissolved
in an organic solvent, distributing the coated
vitamin in a mineral component, and evaporat
ing the solvent to form a granulation in which
vtion compressible into tablets.
\
a moisture and air resistant protective coating
2. An edible composition containing both min- , ,of the plastic upon individual particles of the
eral and vitamin components in a single tablet 35 vitamin separates them from mineral components
stabilized against substantial loss of potency over
a long period of time, comprising a mixture of
_ mineral
ingredients,
oil-soluble vitamin
, with which they are incompatible and protects
them against deterioration due to air and mois
in
ture, said plastic nevertheless being permeable '
gredients, and water-soluble vitamin ingredients,
to digestive ?uids so that the coated vitamins
individual particles of at least one of the water
remain ‘available for absorption in the digestive
tract, mixing the granulation with an oil-soluble
vitamin, stamping the granulation mixture into
, soluble vitamin ingredients being separately pro
vided with a coating of a ?lm-forming water
insoluble plastic inert with respect to said vita
tablets, and coating the tablets with a ?lm of
min, said coating being resistant to moisture and
plastic impervious to air and moisture.
‘air and e?ecting a physical separation'from other 45
6. A method of making a substantially homo
components with which the coated vitamin is in
geneous edible composition containing both min
compatible, said plastic being permeable to .
digestive ?uidsso that the coated vitamins re
era! and vitamin nutrient components in a single
tablet, including mineral ingredients comprising‘
main available for absorption in the intestinal"
‘ tract, all of said mineral and vitamin ingredients
- being in uniform admixture formed into tablets
‘ coated with a ?lm substantially impervious to air
and moisture.
‘
-
3. An edible composition containing both min
59
compounds of iron, calcium and phosphorus, and
vitamin ingredients comprising oil-soluble vita
mins and water-soluble vitamins normally de
' teriorative and incompatible with a. mineral com
ponent which comprises separately mixing vita
min Bi and vitamin C with a solution of a ?lm
eral and vitamin components in a single tablet 55 forming water-insoluble plastic dissolved in an
. stabilized against substantial loss of potency over
organic solvent, distributingthe coated vitamins
a long period of time, comprising a mixture of
in a calcium and phosphorus containing mineral
mineral ingredients comprising ‘compounds of
component, and evaporating the solvent to form
iron, phosphorus and calcium, and vitamin in
granulations inwhich a moisture and air resist
gredients comprising vitamin C, vitamin B1, vita 60 ant protective coating- of the plastic upon in
min B2, vitamin A and vitamin D,_individual
dividual particles of the vitamins separates them
particles of said vitamin B1 and vitamin C each
from mineral components with which they are
being, separately provided with a coating of a
incompatible and protects them against deteri
?lm-forming‘water-insoluble plastic inert with
oration due to air and moisture, said plastic
respect thereto, said coating being resistant to 65 nevertheless being permeable to digestive ?uids
moisture and air and e?ecting a physical separa
so that the coated vitamins remain available for
tion from other components with which the
absorption in the digestive tract, mixing the
coated vitamins are incompatible, said plastic
granulations with an oil-soluble vitamin, stamp
being permeable to digestive ?uids so that the
ing the mixture of granulations into tablets, and
coated vitamins remain available for absorption 70 coating the tablets with a ?lm of plastic imper
in the intestinal tract, all of said ingredients being _
vious to air and moisture.
.
in uniform ‘free-?owing admixture formed into
‘l. A method of making a substantially homo
tablets coated with a ?lm substantially imper
geneous edible composition containing both
vious to air and moisture.
. ~
'
'
mineral and vitamin nutrient components, com
4. A method 0! making a substantially homoa 75 prising at least one water-soluble vitamin nor
2,410,417
21
mally deteriorative and incompatible with a min
eral component, which comprises mixing the
water-soluble vitamin with a solution of a ?lm
, forming watei'einsoluble plastic dissolved in an
organic solvent, distributing the coated vitamin
in a mineral component, and evaporating the sol
vent to form a granulation in which a moisture
and air resistant protective coating of the plastic
upon individual particles of the vitamin separates
them from mineral components with which they
are incompatible and protects them against de
teriorations due to air and moisture, said plastic
nevertheless being permeable to digestive ?uids
so that the coated vitamins remain available for
absorption in the digestive tract.
CARL N. ANDERSEN.
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