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Патент USA US2410449

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Naw. 5, E946..
H. W. mâis'r
ZAAQLMQ
REFRIGERATOR CAR
Filed April 7, 1943
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Nov. 5, 1946.
H. w. KLElsT
2,410,449
REFRIGERATOR CAR
Filed April 7, 1945
6 Sheets-Sheet 2
Y .NOVE 5, 1946.
H, W. KLEIST
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REFRIGERATOR
CAR
Filed April 7, ’.1945
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REFRIGERATOR CAR
Filed April 7, 1943
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Nov. 5, 1946.
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REFRIGERATOR CAR
Filed April 7, 1943
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.Herman
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Patented Nov. 5, 1946
2,410,449
UNITED STATES PATÉNT o FFICE' A
2,410,449
I
I
' REFRIGERATOR CAR(
l
Herman W. Kleist, Chicago, Ill.,
_ Application April 7, 1943, Serial No.` 482,097
15 claims. (c1.v 654-102)
l
.
This invention relates to refrigerator cars and
has for its object to provide a new'and improved
device of this description.
" I
'The invention has as a further object to pro
vide a refrigerator car which will be eilicient in
operation, can be operated at a low cost, and
which shall have a. comparatively low first cost.
The invention has as a further object to pro
' 2
-Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken on line 8-8
"
of Fig. 6. A
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic view ‘showing the
entire system.
Like numerals refer to` like parts throughout'
the several figures.
.
For purposes of illustration I have shown in
the drawings a, car having an outer surrounding
vide a mechanical refrigerated car which is
cooled by vacuum plates built into the car, and 10 wall I andan inner surrounding wall 2, these
walls being separated by spaces filled with heat
which are supplied by means of a refrigerating
insulating material 3. The ñoor of the car is
apparatus on the car operated by a suitable mo
preferably provided with a series of separated
tor or enginer or by connection with the car ac
members 4, ywhich are-separated by spaces 5,
tion. The mechanical refrigerator cars hereto
'these spaces connecting with a longitudinal pas
yfore used have not been commercially successful
sageway 6, which extends along under the mem
because of the excessive weight, ñrst high cost
bers 4 and which connects with a passageway 'l
of the equipment, and the high cost and un
which passes up along one end of the car-and
reliability of the operation of the- refrigerating
through which air passes tothe cooling device.
This cooling device is enclosed in an enclosing
taken up by such apparatus.
20 device which is provided with inclined upper
The present invention has for itsA >object to '
vand lower
v walls 8 and 9, and which connects with
provide an efficient mechanical refrigerator car
the vertical passageway 1. . Mounted within this
which will‘be free from these objections.
enclosing device are a series of cooling elements
'I'he invention has as a further object to pro
vide a mechanical refrigerator car cooled by 25 which are preferably plates, each made upl of
two sheets II and l2 of heat conducting material
vacuum plates with an air .moving device which
with a space between them in which the refrig
draws the air through a space betweenthe plates
erant material is located so as to cool the plates.
and directs> it along the upper part of the ear
These plates have smooth exterior surfaces. kI
so that it will be diffused throughout the car.
This air, after passing through the car, passes 30 prefer to use vacuum plates each with ya pipe
I3 coiled' back and forth in the space between
back again through the vacuum plates so as to
the sheets, shown in detail in Figs. 6, '7 and 8.
be again cooled.
p
» '
'
These sheets are ~ connected together with a
The invention has as a further object to pro
hermetically sealed connection so as to be air
vide a refrigerator car provided with vacuum
tight. Each sheet II is vprovided with a bent
plates with an air moving device for movingthe - i over edge I4
air cooled by these plates so as to distribute it
'which has a sealed connection to
throughout the car, with a refrigerant liquefying
the sheet I2, and each sheet I2 has a projecting
part I5l which projects outwardly from the bent
g apparatus for supplying the lrefrigerant to the
portion i4’ at least at two opposite ‘extremities
plates consisting of a compressor, condenser and
apparatus, and also the great amounimof space f
receiver. The refrigerant passes to a multi
expansion valve and through this Valve to theV
various plates and then' back to the compressor.
The invention has further- objects which are
more particularly pointed out in the accompany
ing description.
'
-
Fig. 1 is a sectional view taken on line I--I
of Fig'. 2, showing one form of invention.
'
Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view taken on
_
.
Fig. 3 is a sectionalv view through‘the heat
exchanger located in the circuit.
.
Fig. 4 is a' sectional view taken on line 4-4
of Fig. 5.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5_5
of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on the stag
gered line 6_6 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken on line 'l--'l`A
of Fig. 6.
e
'
although it may project outwardly all the way
around the sheet. The bent-over edge III- may
be hermeticallyv fastened to the sheet I2 in any
desired manner, as by welding I6. Means are
provided for withdrawingv air from vthe interior
of
the plates I0. One arrangement for this
45.
purpose is shown in Fig. 8 wherein there is a _
Referring now to the drawings:
line 2_2 of Fig. l.
40
plug I1 which projects through an opening in the
bent-over portion I4 and which is provided with
an opening extending all the way through, the
opening being arranged‘in two sections, -a sec
.50. tion
I8 of comparatively small diameter and a
section'l9 of larger diameter. 'I'here is a valve
- 20 in the'section I 9. An air withdrawing device
«is attached to the portion of the plug projecting from the plate and the desired amount of air
5 is withdrawn. During this process the valve 20
l' moves away from itsseat 2 I. When the with
drawal‘of air ceases this valve lis moved onto
its seat by the pressure of exterior air. A clos
ing member 22 isthen inserted into the plug
and may be sealed by welding. or soldering or in
any'Qther desired manner. The plates may
2,410,449
s
3
preferably contain a suitable eu'tectic 23 so as to
make them hold-over plates. This eutectic does
not completely lill the plates as a space is left
from which air is withdrawn and whích'permits
the eutectic to expand when frozen. The with
drawing of air from the space between the sheets
of the plates causes the outside atmosphere to
tightly press the sheets against the pipe I3 so
as to secure a tight heat exchange contact be- ’
tween the- sheets II and I2 and the pipe I3.
When the hold-over plate is used this eutectic
is frozen and acts as a cooling agent for a con
4
exchanger is connected by a pipe 43 with a
strainer 44. The strainer is connected by a pipe
45 with an expansion valve 46. A series of pipes
41 connect the expansion valve with the several
plates I0, and by thismeans a more uniform
temperature is secured in all of the plates. The
refrigerant then passes through the coils- in these
plates and passes out of the plates through the
connections 48 to the common pipe or header 49.
This header is connected by a pipe 50 .with the
heat exchanger 42 (see Fig. 3). A pipe 5I leads
from the heat exchanger back to the compressor.
Connected with the pipe 5I is a tee 52 in which
is located _a bulb 53. This bulb controls, that
siderable time after the refrigerant material has
ceased toñow through the pipe I3. The plates
is, opens and closes, the expansion valve by the
I0 may_be supported and» arranged inthe en 15 usual means consisting of the pipe 54. When
closing device at the end of the car in any suit
the refrigerant returning from the plates I0 rises
able manner. These platesfmay be arranged in
above a certain temperature, this bulb causes the
a horizontal or vertical position and may be
expansion valve to open and admit the refrig
parallel to the roof of the car or inclined with ¿
erant to the coils in the plates I0, and «when
20 the temperature of this refrigerant falls below a
relation thereto.
- In Figs. 2, 4 and 5 I have shown one particular
certain predetermined temperature, the bulb
way of arranging and supporting these plates
I3. In this construction the plates are shown
with their fiat faces extending in a generally
horizontal direction, the plates,` however, being 25
inclined with their edges nearest the end of the
car lower than their edges farthest from the
end of the car. There are a series of supporting
causes the expansion valve to close and shut off
the refrigerant from the coils in the plates l0.
It will thus be seen that the temperature in the
car is automatically controlled.
’
As before stated, the cooled air is preferably
thrown up against the ceiling and is then de
flected and distributed throughout the car. The
members 24 which are provided with a series of
air-moving devices may be arranged at different
notchesA 25. The projecting edges I5 of the 30 angles so as to cause _the cooled air to strike the
plates fit into these notches, as clearly shown
ceiling of the car at different points therealong
in Fig. '1. vFastening devices 26 pass through
and be deflected to secure a more uniform cool
the supporting devices 24 and bind them together
ing throughout the car. This cooled air, after
so as to hold the plates rigidly in position. K These _
absorbing heat from the articles to be cooled in
fastening devices may be of any suitable form, 35 the car, passes through the spaces 5 between the
and as herein shown consist of rods threaded at
separated members 4 of the floor and into the
their ends with nuts 21 on the threaded ends
passageway 6 and the suction of the air-moving
which are tightened up to bind the plates in posi
devices- moves this air up through the passage
way 1 and again into contact with the plates Il!
tion.
The supporting devices are fastened to the 40 where it is cooled and sent back into the car.
One form of heat exchanger is shown in Fig. 3
fastening members 28 by means of the threaded
wherein there is a casing 42 which has end pieces
rods 2B and nuts 21. The fastening members
23at one end of the set of plates are fastened
5B and 51. The refrigerant passing through pipe
in position by the bolts 29 and the nuts 30. Fas
.4I
passes througha coil 58 in the heat exchanger
tening members 23 at the opposite end are se 45 and thence to the strainer. The refrigerant re
cured by bolts 60 to the angle supports 6I con
turning from the header 49 passes into the casing
nected with the ceiling 62 of the car. Associated
55 >on the exterior of the coil 58,*and in contact
with the plates I0 are one or more air-moving
therewith, so that there is a transfer of heat
devices 3I. These air-moving devices are placed
between the refrigerant in the coil and the re
in front of the plates, and instead of forcing the 50 frigerant on the exterior of the coil.
air between the plates, they draw the air through
The motor, compressor and condenser may be
such plates. These air-moving vdevices are. actu
located in any desired point. I prefer, however,
ated by the motors 32, suitably mounted in posi
to have them located in a casing 59 connected to
tion upon the supports 33 and 34, which are at
the exterior of thebottom of the car.
tached to the frame 35. There is preferably a
The frame 35 upon which the motor 32 and
screen 36 in front of the air-moving devices 3l,
lthe fan 3| are mounted is preferably hinged as
through which the _air ispassed. The air is
shown in Fig. 4, so that it can be moved to ex
cooled by being drawn in between these several
pose the motor and fan for inspection and repair.
plates and in contact therewith, and is then
Íf desired, the pin of the hinge may be removed
forced outwardly and into contact with lthe ceil 80 so that the entire member 35, together with the
ing of the car, and thus is distributed throughout
motor and the fan, may be removed-to the shop
the car. The fact that the plates l0 are inclined,
for repair or‘replaced by a new one.
`
as shown in Fig. 4, assists greatly in having this
The use and »operation or my invention are as
the
ceiling
Y air move upwardly into contact with
follows. When the parts are assembled and it is
of the car. Some suitable means is provided
desired to cool the interior of the car, the motor
for supplying the plates I0 with a suitable re
is set-in operation and the refrigerant is forced
frigerant and passing it through the coils I3.
by the compressor 31 through the condenser 39,
As herein shown, there is a refrigerating appara
receiver 40, pipe 4I and through the coil 58 in the
tus on the car, provided with the compressor 31,
heat exchanger 42 to the strainer 44, and thence
with some suitable motor for operating it, such 70 into the expansion valve 46. The refrigerant then
as the motor 33, which maybe a Diesel engine.
passes through the several pipes 41 from the ex
Compressor 31 is connected with the condenser
pension valve to the coils in the different plates
39 and the receiver 40. _
3
.
» '
I0, wherein it cools the air in contact with the
A connection 4I leads from the receiver 40 to
plates. The refrigerant then passes out of the
7
a heat exchanger 42 (see Fig. 9). This ,heat
2,410,449
6
pipe 48 into the header 49, and thence by pipe 50
up of two separate sheets with a space between
through the casing of the heat exchanger 42 in
kcontact with the coil therein, and thence by pipe
5| bacli to the compressor. This causes the plates
I0 to be cooled and the air-moving devices 3| ac
tuated by the motors 32 draw the air through the
spaces between the plates Ill. This air is cooled
by the plates and the cooled air is then directed
into the interior of the car.
them into which the cooling material is received,
arranged in said enclosing device onev above the
other, and separated'by air spaces, supporting
members with which said plates are connected,
fastening members to ~ which said supporting
members are connected, an air-moving device in
front of said .plates which draws cooled air
This cooled air is
distributed throughout the interior of the car 10 through the spaces between them and discharges
such air into the bodyv of the car, and- a passage
and absorbs heat from the material therein which
way leading from said enclosing device to a posi
is to be cooled, and then passes through >the
tion
near the bottom of the car and communi
spaces 5 between the members 4 of the floor and
cating with vthe space inside of the car near the
is drawn up through the passageway 1 by the
bottom thereof.
.
air-moving devices and brought into contact with 15
the plates I0 and again sent out into the interior
of the car.
’
4. A refrigerator car comprising a car body
having a ceiling, an enclosing device near one
end of the car and having an‘air discharge outlet
I have shown one means of controlling the tem
in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the
perature in the car by means of the bulb 53 and
center of the car, a plurality of plates, each made
the expansion valve 4B. When a Diesel engine, for
example, is used, the temperature may be con 20 up of two separate sheets with a space between
them into which the cooling material is received,
trolled by starting and stopping the Diesel engine
automatically responsive Lto the temperature in
arranged in said enclosing device one above the
other, and separated by air spaces, one of said
the interior of the car. Any of the Diesel engine
sheets of each plate having `projecting edges
automatic control means produced by any of the
Diesel engine companies may be used for this 25 which project beyond the other- sheet, supporting
members at two opposite edges of said plates pro
purpose. With such a controlling device the tem
vided with notches into »which‘said projecting
perature controlled element is placed at a suitable
edges are received and fastening devices for hold
position, and when the temperature in the car
ing the supporting members in place so as to hold
falls below a predetermined point the engine is
automatically shut olf, and when the temperature 30 said plates in their operative positions.
5. A refrigerator car comprising a car body
in the car rises above a predetermined point, the
engine is automatically started. It is, of course, ~
evident that' an electric motor or any other form
of motor may be used.
The particular type or
having a ceiling, an renclosing device near one
end of the car and having an air-discharge outlet
in> proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the
form of motor may be changed or altered to suit . 35 center of the car, a plurality of plates, each made
up of two separate sheets with a space between
the conditions presented.
I claim:
y
them into which the cooling material`is received,
,
arranged in said enclosing device one above the
other, and separated by air spaces, one of said
1. A refrigerator car comprising a, car body
having a ceiling, a plurality of vacuum plates ar
ranged in the interior of the car near the ceil
ing and separated one from another by spacers,
said vacuum plates being arranged one above theV
other, and being inclined with the ends nearest
the center of the car in higher horizontal planes
than their other ends, means for supplying a re
40
sheets of each plate having projecting edges
which project beyond the other sheet, supporting
members into which said projecting edges are
received and fastening devices for holding the
supporting members in place so as to hold said
plates in their operative positions, a plurality of
air-moving devices in front of the edges 0fl said
frigerant to said vacuum plates, an air-moving
device in front of saidvacuum plates which draws
the cooled air through the spaces between the
draw air from between the plates, which has been
associated with said vacuum plates, means for
supplying a refrigerant to said expansion valve,
them into which the cooling material is received,
arranged in said enclosing device one above the
uum -plates moving the cooled air through the
provided with notches into which said projecting
plates nearest to the interior of the car which
cooled by the plates, through the spaces lbetween
inclined plates and directs such cooled air to 50 the
plates.
wards the ceiling of the car where it is deflected
6.
A refrigerator car comprising a car body
and distributed throughout the car to cool the
-having a ceiling, an enclosing device near one
material in the car.
end of the car and having an air discharge outlet
2. A refrigerator car comprising a car body
4in
proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the
having a ceiling, a plurality of vacuum` plates ar 55
center o_f the car, a, plurality of plates, each made
ranged in the interior of the car near the ceil
up of two separate sheets with a space between
ing and separated by spacers, an expansion valve
other, and separated by air spaces, one of said
a series of connections from said expansion valve 60 sheets of each plate having projecting edges
to said vacuum plates, one for each plate, an air
which project beyond the other sheet, supporting
moving device at one end of said plurality of vac
members at two Opposite edges of said plates
spaces between the vacuum plate for discharge
edges are received and fastening devices for hold
into the interior of the car, a return pipe lead 65 ing the supporting members in place so as to hold
ing from said vacuum plates to the refrigerant
said plates in their operative positions, a passage
source, a controlling bulb in said return pipe con
way
leading from said enclosing device to a posi
nected with »said expansion valve for closing the
tion
near the ‘bottom of the car and communi
expansion valve when the temperature reaches a
cating with the space inside of the car near the
predetermined low point.
'
bottom thereof, a plurality of air-moving devices
3. A refrigerator car comprising a, car body
in front of the edges of said plates nearest to the »
having a ceiling; an enclosing devicev near one
interior of the car which draw air from between
end of the car and having an air discharge outlet
the plates, which has been cooledby the plates,
in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the
center of the car, a plurality of plates, each madev 75 through the spaces between the plates.
7. A refrigerator car comprising a, car body
2,410,449
havingV a“ ceiling, an enclosing device near one
end of the car and having an air discharge outlet
ranged in a group in the interior of the car and
spaced apart to define relatively restricted inter
mediate spaces, means for supplying a refrigerant
to said vacuum plates, and air moving means
’center of the car, a plurality of plates, each made
adapted'to move relatively warm air from'the in
Ul
up of two separate sheets `with a space between
terior of the car to the spaces between the vacuum
them into which the cooling material is received,
plates and to move the cooled air from the spaces
arranged in said enclosing device one above the
between said vacuum plates back into the in
other, and separated by‘air‘spaces, one` of said
terior of the car, and a housing surrounding said
.sheets of each` plate' having projecting `edges
group of plates, and having an air inlet at one
which project beyond the other sheet,'supporting.
end and an air outlet at the other end.
members at two ‘opposite - edgesl of said plates
12. A refrigerator car, comprising a car body
provided with notches into which said projecting
having a ceiling, walls and floor, and a cooling
edges are received andfastening devices for hold
unit having an air discharge outlet adjacent said
ing the supporting members in place soas to hold
in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward the
said plates in their'operative positions, a passage
way leading from said enclosing device to a posi
>tion vnear the bottom of the car` and communi
eating with the space vinside of the car near the
ceiling, including a plurality of generally plane
faced vacuum plates arranged in a group in the
interior of the car and spaced apart to define
relatively restricted intermediate spaces, means
for supplying a refrigerant to said vacuum plates,
p ^ bottom thereof, a plurality of >air-moving devices
infront of the edges of said> plates nearest to the 20 and air moving means adapted to move air from
a lower level'within the car body to the spaces
interior of the car which draw air from between
the plates which has been cooled by the plates, p between said vacuum plates and adapted to move
the cooled-air from these‘ spaces between said
through the spaces between the plates, said plates
vacuum plates to an vupper portion of the car
being inclined so that the edgesthereof nearest
.the air-,movingdevices are higher than the oppo 25
body.
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`
13. A refrigerator car, comprising a car body,
site edges,‘so that the air moved'between the
plates by the air-moving devices will be directed
having a ceiling, side and end walls and floor,
against the ceiling of the car and deflected there
and a cooling means therefor, including an air ~
directing housing located adjacent the junction
from so as to be distributed throughout the car.
8. A refrigerator carcomprising a car body 30 of an end wall and the ceiling, duct means ex
tending from a lower part of the car to said air
having a’ceiling, an enclosing device -near one
directing housing, a plurality'of generally smooth
end of the car and havingv an air discharge yout
faced vacuum plates arranged in parallel in said
let in proximity to the ceiling, opening toward
housing and spacedßapart to define relatively re
the center of the car, >a plurality of plates, each
made up of two separate sheets with a space be 35 stricted intermediate spaces, means for supplying
a refrigerant to said vacuum plates, and airI mov
tween them into which> the cooling materialfis
ing means adapted to move air upwardly‘through
received, arranged in said enclosing device one
said duct means and outwardly through the
`above the other, and separatedby air spaces, a
spaces between said vacuum plates and into the
` Asource of refrigerant supply, a connection there
,
'
`from to said plates, a v‘return connection from 40 interior of the car. ,
14. A refrigerator car comprising a car_ body
vthe plates back toì'the refrigerant supply, a heat
having a ceiling, an enclosing device near one end
Vexchanger through which both of said connec
tions lead.
‘of the car and inproximity tothe ceiling, open
»
at the end nearest the center of the car, a plu
9. A refrigerator> car, comprising a car body
having a ceiling and walls', and a cooling unit 45 rality of plates, each made up of two separate
outwardly smooth sheets with a space between
having an> air discharge outlet adjacent said ceil
them into which cooling material is received, ar
ing including aplurality of generally plane faced
ranged in said enclosing device one above the
vacuum plates arranged in a group in the space
other and separated by relatively restricted air
for the lading and spaced apart to denne rela
tively restricted intermediate spaces, means for 50 spaces, a source of refrigerant supply, a connec
tion therefrom to said plates, a return connection
supplying a refrigerant to said vacuum plates,
from the plates back to the refrigerant supply,
and air moving means adapted toA move relatively
and means for moving air through the spaces
warm air from the interior of the car to the
between said plates'and outwardly into the car.
spaces betweenV the vacuum plates and to move
the cooled air from the spaces between said 55 15. In combination, in a lcooling unit for re
frigerator cars, an air directing housing having
vacuum plates back into the interior of the car.
an inlet at one end and an outlet at the-other,
10. A refrigerator car, comprisinga car body
an air inlet duct associated with the inlet end
having a ceiling and walls, and a cooling unit
of the housing, said duct itself having an inlet in
vhaving an air discharge outlet adjacent said ceil
ing including a plurality of generally plane faced 60 communication with the interior of the car, a
pluralityol' vacuum plates in said'housing, each
vacuum plates arranged ina group in the space
of said plates having a smooth plane unrestricted
for the lading and; spaced apart to define rela
`i’ace at Aeach side thereof, said plates being ar
tively-restricted intermediate spaces, means for
rangedfin parallel planes, and adjacent each.
supplying a refrigerant to said vacuum plates,
and air moving means adapted to move relatively 65 other, with their ends generally aligned, and be
ing separated by relatively restricted air spaces,
warm airv from the ’interior of the car to the spaces
a source of refrigerant supply, a connection there
'between the vacuum plates and to move the
cooled air from the spaces between said vacuum
plates back into‘theinterior of the car, the op
from to said plates, a return connection from the
plates back to the refrigerant supply, and means
parallel, and freefrom'projections,
ing, through the spaces between said plates and
outwardly into the car through thev outlet end
posed faces of adjacent plates being Vgenerally 70 for moving air throughl said duct, into said hous
'
-11.»_A refrigerator car, comprising a car body
having aceiling and walls, anda'cooling unit
mounted adjacent said ceiling,y including a plu
rality of generally plane faced vacuum plates ar
of
75
said'housing.
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HERMAN W. KLEIST.
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