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Патент USA US2410464

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Nov. 5, 1946.
7 2,410,464
Filed Sept. 27, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Nov. 5, 1946.
Filed Sept. 27, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
" “ awrex'vce 5 560%)‘
, 2,410,454
_ uNrrso Sims" PATENT-“OFFICE ; Y
2,110,464 a
nonpmo. us'rnon ‘
Lawrence B. Scott, Columbus, Ohio‘
Application September 27, 1943, Serial No. 503,961
5 claims"; (01. 29-.-148l
This invention relates to new and useful im- '
provements in bonding methods.
area which causes the surfaces adjacent said
fracture to fluxor tin without preheating and
without overheating of said bonded‘ area.
Heretofore, it has been the customary practice
A further object of the invention is to provide
in brazing ‘and welding fractures or joints to
groove the same for the reception of,the bond- 5 an improved bonding method, of the character
, described, wherein the fracture or joint has the
ing material which makes it necessary to pre
cross-sectionalParea of its surface ampli?ed for
heat the bottom of the groove to a temperature
rapid reception and retention of the requisite
'of approximately 500° F. in order to tin, --?ux ; the
of heat upon a minimum application of
or weld ‘said bottom. It is well known that this
preheating of the groove bottom will result in 10 the same. \.
sun another object of the invention is to pro
the excessive heating of the adjacent portions
an improved bonding method, of the chara
of the member or members being joined and a . vide
described, wherein a de?ecting element or Y
consequent expansion thereof, thereby reducing,
a plurality of small openings may be employedv
the width oft-he groove'and subjecting the bond ,
re?ect and distribute heat to thebonded area
to subsequent tension and distortion. Frequent- 15 to
so as to effect rapid heating of said area with
iii. a separation of the joined member or mem
out overheating.
bers or cracking of the adjacent portions thereof
A construction designed to carry out the ine
occurs prior to complete cooling and contraction
vention will be hereinafter described together ,
of the heated portions.
Therefore, one object'of the invention is to sowlth Other features of the invention
The invention will be more readily understood
provide an improved bonding method employing
» from a reading of the following specification and
’ minimum heat so as to eliminate excessive heat
by reference to the accompanying drawings
ing of the member or members being bonded. ’
wherein an example of theinvention is shown,
An important object of the invention is to
provide an improved method of bonding where- 25 and
Figure 1 is a plan view of a portion of a cast
in the instantaneousand effective absorption of
ing having a fracture therein, illustrating the
heat by the portions of the member or members
step of forming openings in the fracture in ac
adjacent the fracture or joint is effected so as
cordance with the invention,
to necessitate a minimum‘ application of heat-,
ing and thereby avoid overheating of said por- vill) Figure 2 is a view, similar to Figure i, show
ing the step of grooving the fracture.
tions; the minimum application of heat prevent
1 Figure 3 is an enlarged, transverse, vertical,
‘ing the ‘sweating of impurities from the member
sectional, view, taken on ‘the line 3-3 of ‘Fig-1
or members which causes “blow-holes’fand ob-_ _
ure 2,
viating "hard spots” in the, bond.
Another object of the invention is to provide 3'5 Figure 4 is a similar view, taken on theline
4-4 of Figure 2,
an improved Ibonding method wherein the prep- ,
Figure 5 is a'longitudinal, sectional view, taken
aration prior to bonding of the fracture or joint
the line 5-5 of Figure 2,
eliminates overheating and expansion of ‘the . on
~ Figure 6 is a view, similar to Figure 5, of the
member or members during the application of
after bondins'
' heat, whereby a considerable portion of the 40 fracture
Figure '7 is an-enlarged, isometric view of the
bonded area is in shear which is distributed to
prevent a line of fatigue or fatigue points and
fracture, showing the relationship of the groove
whereby said area is not left in a condition of
stress nor the bond in complete tension; it also
and openings,
being possible to pro-freeze the portions of the 45
of the method,
member adjacent its fracture so as to shrink or
Figure 8 is‘ a plan view of an alternative step
Figure 9 is a transverse, vertical; sectional view
of a fracture prior to bonding, illustrating the
contract said portions and expander widen the
use of a de?ecting element,
‘fracture, whereby subsequent cooling and ex
Figures 10 and 11 are views, similar to Figures
pansion of the portions will compress the bond.
A particular object of- the invention is to pro- 50 1 and 2, illustrating a modi?cation of the pre
‘ liminary steps of'tlie method,
vide an improved bonding method, of the char
Figure 12 is a similar view, illustrating the
acter described, wherein the fracture or joint to
provision of a plurality of reduced ports .in the
be bonded is provided with a plurality of open
lower portion of the fractured area,
ings in addition to being grooved, thereby per
mitting arapid absorption of heat by the bonded 85 Figures l3, l4 and 15 are enlarged, transverse,
“vertical sectionalviews, taken on the lines ll-lf,
ll-dl and lL-l! of Figure 12,'reepectively, ,
Figure 18 is a longitudinal, sectional view of
the fractureshown in Figure 12, and
Figure 1'1 is an enlarged, isometric view of a
portionof the fracture prior to the provision of
the reduced ports.
‘As shown in Figure 8, the fractured area to.
be bonded may be reinforced by lateral or. trans-_
- verse extensions
of the openings i2 and groove
II. In this event, several openings i‘! are formed
in the casting laterally of one of the openings l2‘
and with their axes ‘preferably disposed in the
same vertical plane. The upper portions of the
openings II are then interconnected by a groove
l8 whichis identical to the main groove l3 and
In the drawings. the numeral "designates a
castingior other member having a fracture vor
‘crack ll- therein.‘ In carrying out the improved 10
which communicates therewith. Intermediate
method, a plurality of spaced openings ii are
ribs or bridges l8, similar to the bridges H, are
‘formed in the casting throughout the length of
formed between the openings i1 and the alined
‘the fracture II in any suitable manner. The
openings if by the groove‘ It. It is‘ preferable
openings I! extend entirely through the casting
to offset or stagger the openings and grooves
and preferably have their axes vertically-aimed 15 which are disposed on opposite sides of the frac
with the fracture. Although not absolutely essen
ture ll. Manifestly, the provision of lateral_ly—‘
tial, it is desirable ‘that the openings be spaced
disposed openings and grooves provides additional
relatively close to one another so that substan
tially three-fourths of the fracture is occupied
area for receiving the bonding material so as to
reinforce and permanently integrate the‘frac
by said openings. The upper portion of the open 20 tured area.
ings are next interconnected by forming a groove
To assist in the distribution of the heat gen
l3 which is co-extensive with the fracture and
erated by the torch or arc and the ?ow of the
which is of a depth equal to approximately one
material, an elongate de?ecting plate or
half the thickness of the casting i B. As is clearly
sheet 20 may, if desired, be disposed beneath
shown in Figures 3 and 4, the groove is is prefer 25 or
behind the casting having the fracture there
ably arced or curved in cross-section and provides
A plurality of spaced openings, havingsub
a plurality of spaced ribs or bridges ll between
stantially the same diameter as the openings I2 '
the openings i2. Due to the cross-sectional con;
are formed in the plate which is preferably posi
tour 01' the groove, each bridge ll has a curved \ tioned so that the’ openings are oifset or staggered
or arced upper surface iii as shown in Figure '7.
30 relative to each other. Thus, the‘ openings 2|
Manifestly, the provision of both the open- - are disposed beneath the bridges l4 and the open
lugs and the groove greatly amplifies the cross
ings i2 overlie the intermediate or bridging por
sectional area of the surfaces of the fracture, with
tions 22 of the plate 20. Since the latter is
the result that an enlarged area is presented to
placed in close proximity to the under or rear
the bonding material. Attention is directed to 35 surface of the casting, it is manifest that the
the fact that the bridges H, which are formed
heat escaping from the ‘openings [2 will be de
by the arrangement of the openings and groove,
?ected back into- the same as’well as toward the
provide most of the ampli?ed area and materially
area immediately surrounding the .fracture.
assist in the effective and instantaneous absorp
However, due to the openings 2|, the passage of
tion of heat, whereby the ampli?ed surfaces will 40 ‘heat
is not prevented, the escape of heat being re
?ux or tin without preheating. Due to these
tarded or delayed rather than prevented. It is
ampli?ed surfaces, the heat generated by the " preferable
-to form the plate 20 of sheet metal so
brazing torch or welding arc is rapidly received
that it will quickly tin or ?ux so as to retain
and distributed to the area surrounding the frac
the molten bonding material which ?ows into
ture because the heat may pass entirely through 45 ‘and through the openings
l2. Thus, the bonding
said fracture and is not trapped in and de?ected
upwardly and outwardly. of the groove. Thus, it ii
is not necessary to overheat the upper portion
of the casting and a considerable area surround
ihg the fracture in order to bring the lower por
. tion of the fractured area to the requisite tem
operation may be performed more thoroughly and
rapidly. Although the de?ecting plate has been
shown and illustrated as having its openings of!
set or staggered relative to the openings l2 formed
in the casting, it is manifest that the same re
sults could be obtained without said offsetting
or staggering by reducing the diameter of said
From the foregoing, it is readily apparent that
‘plate openings. ~
although the bonding operation, per se, is per
such as in
formed in the usual manner, the preparation of 55
the case of a Jacket or manifold, it is extremely
the fracture makes it possible to obtain improved
di?lcuit if not impossible to use a de?ecting plate.
results. Since the prepared fracture is not sub;
these instances, the fracture is repaired in the
jected to excessive heat, there is no overheating
manner shown in Figures 10 to 17. A plurality of
and consequent expansion of a‘ portion of the
spaced recesses 82, circular in cross-section and
fractured area. Therefore, the bonding material
similar‘ to the openings 12, are drilled, cut, .
I6 is not'in tension and is not subject to dis
punched or otherwise formed in the casting 30
tortion and failure upon cooling of the fractured
area. Also, a considerable portion of the frac
a co-extensive
of its fracture
8| and
38. As '
tured area after bonding is-in shear which is
evenly ‘distributed so as to eliminate the possi 65 shown in Figure 13, the recesses 32 extend sub
stantially through one-half of the thickness of
bility of a line of fatigue or fatigue points.
the casting with the result that the bottom of
If desired, the casting in may be frozen so as
to contract or shrink the same and enlarge the
prepared fracture prior to the bonding, opera-
tion, whereby the fractured area will expand
upon reaching atmospheric temperature so as to
compress the bond or bonding material (6. This
treatment is made possiblesby the fact that no
each recess is disposed in the same horizontal
plane as the lowest point of the groove. Due to
the curvature or are of the cross-sectional con
tour of the groove, a rib or bridge 34 is formed
" between adjacent recesses 32.
Each rib 35 has a
curved or arced upper surface 35, the central por
tion of which merges with the bottom or low point
portion of the casting, including the fractured
of the groove.
portion, is overheated by the application of heat.
75 i To assure the passage of heat through the cast- >
out departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
ing 30, a plurality of ports 38 are formed in the
lower portion of said casting and have their upper
ends communicating with the recesses 32, being
Patent is:
1. The method of bonding a metal fracture
preferably spaced equi-distantly with equal dis
which includes, grooving the metal along the
tribution on opposite sides of thefracture 3 I. As
fracture so as to amplify the cross-sectional area
is clearly shown in Figures 15 and 16, the ports 36
of the surfaces thereof, removing additional
are disposed at a, radial angle relative to the
metal at closely spaced intervals along the groove
recess 32 with which they communicate, whereby
so as to form spaced projections in the bottom of
‘said ports are disposed at an angle transversely
said groove for further increasing the area of
and longitudinally of the groove and fracture.
the fracture surfaces, then forming openings
Manifestly, the reduced diameter of the ports 36
below the groove at the intervals whereby addi
perform the same function as the perforated
tional metal is removed for the passage of heat,
de?ector plate 20 in that said ports tend to delay
‘and then depositing bonding metal in the
or retard the passage of heat and assist in the
even distribution of the same. Also, a portion of 15
2. The method of bonding a metal fracture
the heat passing into the ports 36 is de?ected ‘
includes forming a plurality of spaced
back into the recesses 32 so as to more quickly
openings in the metal along the fracture, remov
heat the surfaces thereof.
ing the upper portion of said metal along said
Attention is directed to the fact that the ports 1
not only retard the passage of heat through the 20 fracture so as to provide a groove which inter
connects the upper ends of the openings and
castings due to their reduced diameter, but also
due to their inclination. In other words, the ., forms ribs therebetween, placing a de?ecting ele
ment having openings therein beneath said frac=
reduced cross-sectional area and inclination of >
ture openings to retard the passage of heat
the ports co-act to reduce the rate of the escap
ing heat so as to prolong the passage of the same 25 therethrough and de?ect a portion of heat back
into the fracture openings,_and then depositing
through the lower portion'of the casting as well
bonding metal in said fracture.
as to retain said heat within the upper or cut
3. The method of bonding a metal fracture
away portion of the casting. It is believed to be .
which includes forming a plurality of closely
obvious that the recesses 32, groove 33, and ribs ~
34 amplify or enlarge the surfaces of the fracture 30 spaced recesses, in the metal along the fracture,
removing a portion of the metal between the
3i for the purpose hereinbefore explained. Due
recesses so as to interconnect the same and form
to the fact that the passage of heat through the
ribs therebetween, forming openings in the bot
fractured area is only delayed and not prevented,
tom of each recess for the passage of heat, and
it is manifest that said area will quickly attain
the desired temperature so as to bring about rapid 35 then depositing bonding metal ‘in said fracture.
, 4. The method of bonding a metal fracture
tinning or ?uxing as well as the retention of the
molten bonding material.
which includes removing-the metal along the
fracture throughout its length in an irregular
Although the hereinbefore described methods
manner so as to provide a groove having alter
may be employed in connection with either braz
ing or welding, the same are probably most bene 40 nate depressions and projections throughout said
fracture so as to amplify the cross-sectional area
?cial when used preparatory to the former. . The
of the surfaces thereof, providing heat passages
two methods described hereinbefore ‘are mani
in said metal below the depressions, and then
festly similar and substantially identical results
depositing bonding metal in the fracture.
are obtained ‘by each. Manifestly, any fracture,
5. The method set forth in claim 4 wherein the
joint, or seam could be bonded in accordance .45
heat passages are constricted by placing a de?ect
with the methods, although only a fracture has '
' ing element having openings therein therebe
been shown and described. ‘
The'foregoing description of the invention is '
neath so as to retard the flow of heat, the open
ings being o?‘set relative to said passages so as to
explanatory thereof and various changes in the
size, shape, and materials, as well as in the details 50 partially close the same.
of the illustrated construction may be made,
LAWRENCE B. sco'rr.
within the scope of the appended claims, with
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