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Патент USA US2410468

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NOW 5,1946.
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H. c. VAN AUKEN ETAL
2,4Í0’468
BOMB SIGHT
Filed April 9, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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ATTORNEY
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Nov. 5, 1946.
2,410,468
H. C. VAN AUKEN ET_AL
BOMB SIGHT
Fì1ed.Apríl 9, 1941
5 sheets-sheet s
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INVENTORJ,
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EIR- ATTORNEY
- NOV- 5, 1945
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H. c. VAN AU'KENy ET AL
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BOMB
SIGHT
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2,430,468
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Filed April 9,l 1941
-
5 sheets-sheet 4
INVENTQRS
HOWARD c. vAN AuKx-:N
F
DERICKN. ESHER
`*'LIFRYAÍK'
,
_
Nov. 5, 1946.
2, 410,468
H. C. VAN AUKEN ET AL
BOMB SIGHT
Filed April 9, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
jF-IE.
INVENTORS
HOWARD C. VAN AUKEN
FREERICK N. ESHER
`
THEIR
ATTORNEY.`
`
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
2,410,468
BOMB SIGHT
Howard C. Van Auken, Bloomfield, and Frederick
N. Esher, Rutherford, N. J., assignors to Sperry
Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y. , a
corporation of New York
Application April 9, 1941, Serial No. 387,574
6 Claims.
(Cl. 244-76)
1
.
This invention relates to improvements in the
art of bomb sights for aircraft which are designed
to direct the course of the craft so that its ground
tracks, except for odset, would pass through the
target in a straight line and which determine the
exact point at which the bombs should be dropped
to strike the target. rï‘his mechanism also pref
erably computes and sets in automatically the
2
« Fig. 5 is a plan View of the same.
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of the two-scale time
of flight dials which are shifted from one position
to theother for low altitude and for high altitude
bombing.
Fig. '7 is a diagram illustrating the trigonometry
of bombing.
The optics of the present invention are sub
stantially the same as shown in the aforesaid prior
amount of offset necessary to compensate for side
drift due to side winds.
10 application Ser. No. 375,900. According to this
The general principles of such sights are well
system, the reticle I of the system (Fig. 1B) is sta
understood in the art and this invention con
bilized in all planes by being mounted on the top
stitutes improvements in certain elements there
of a suitable form of gyrc-vertical 2 which, in
of, whereby simplification is secured as well as
turn, is mounted on a platform 3 stabilized in
improved operation. More particularly, our in 15 azimuth by remote control from a directional gyro
vention constitutes improvements in the method
' «i (Fig. 2). The line of sight, after passing down
.
in the type of sight shown in the prior patent toV
E. W. Chafee and H. C. Van Auken (one of the
present joint inventors), No. 2,162,699, dated June
20, 1939, for Bomb sights.
.
Another improvement consists in further de
20,
wardly through the telescopic sight 5 and through
the reticle, is reflected by a mirror 6, thence by a
prism 'l to a prism 8,'and thence to a, target fol
lowing prismv 9. The latter is shown as pivoted
on the gimbal ring Ill of the gym-vertical so as
to be stabilized about fore and aft trunnion axis
il, and it is tilted through the angle 0 to follow
the target by means of a bell-crank lever I.2 which
velopment of plural scale sights designed t0 op 25 is moved from the sight angle cam I3. The prism
l, on the‘other hand, is turned around a Vertical
erate efficiently at more than one altitude range,
axis to impart the offset angle F to the line of
such as shown in the prior application of H. C.
sight by means similar to that shown in the afore
Van Auken and G. N. Hanson, ñled January 25,
said prior application and comprising, brieñy, a
1941, Serial No. 375,900.
'
long bell-crank lever I4 pivoted on axis l5 and
Another improvement consists in the tie-in be
having its horizontal arm I4’ adjusted up and
tween the azimuth gyro, automatic pilot and bomb
down by the cross trail mechanism I6 to swing
sight, whereby the same directional gyroscope in
the Vertical arm Il about the pivot I5 and thereby
the automatic pilot may be utilized both for steer
rotate the curved -lever i8 and turn the shaft I3
ing the craft and for stabilizing the optics in azi
to which prism l is secured, as explained in the
muth.
'
aforesaid application.
Referring to the drawings illustrating our in
The time of fall is preferably set into .the mech~
vention in diagrammatic form,
anism by adjusting the time of fall fine and coarse
Figs. 1A, 1B and 1C are a diagrammatic per
dials 29 and 3B (Fig. 1C) from charts prepared in
spective layout of the elements of the invention,
in which the three figures taken together repre 40. accordance with variable bomb characteristics
sent a complete diagram.
Fig. 2 is a similar diagram illustrating the auto
matic pilot portion of the invention with its con
nections to the bomb sight.
Fig. 3 is a wiring diagram illustrating the prin
cipal electric connections involved, in simpliñed
form.
Fig. 4 is a sectional View, on a larger scale, of
the special dual variable speed device for intro
and altitude. A knob 2l! is used to set in this time,
said knob rotating a shaft 2l which rotates fine
dials 29 through worm and worm wheel Iûû’ and
shaft I?l , and rotates coarse dial 30 through screw
45 gears |02, reduction gearing IilS and shaft Illli’.
Shaft 2l also has a thread IM thereon, threaded
in a ball `carriage 22 between a cylinder 23 and a.>
disc 24, thereby moving the carriage radially to
and from the center of the disc. 'I'he cylinder 23
50 is normally rotated at a constant speed from av
motor 25 through a suitable gear train 26 and a
change speed gear 27 controlled by push knob 28.
In one position of the knob„the cylinder is driven
into the mechanism, both for low altitude and
at a relatively slow speed from the motor 25 for
high altitude bombing.
55 high altitude bombing, and in the other position at
2,410,468
and 43 is positioned a spring pressed roller Si and
6l’ so as to maintain the disc iirmlyagainst the
bells of each ball carriage and ñrmly against the
is shifted. ln either position of knob 28, there
fore, it will be seen that the dise 2d will be driven
from the motor 25 at a rate dependent upon the
radial position of the ball carriage 22 over the
disc, as determined by the time of fall setting of
dials E@ and 3i) through knob 2B.
Preferably, two dials are provided for both
coarse and ñne readings .t0-3B' and 29-29’, one
pair Sii-29 being read when the device is ad
justed for the high altitude range and the other
Sfr-29’ for the low altitude range by the Vknob
28. ïn order that the proper dials only may be
visible at one time, we have shown a connection
from the knob 23 to masks 3l and 32 on the two
sets of dials. Said connection is shown in the
4
rality of guide rollers Eil. Also, on the opposite
side from each of the adjustable ball carriages 22
a higher or multiple speed for relatively low al
titude bombing, so that by shifting from one posi
tion to the other, the range scale of the machine
respective cylinders 23 and 64. Tilting of the
disc is prevented by additional rollers B2 and 52’
on the bottom thereof and positioned at right
~ angles to the rollers el and >6 l ’.
l’n normal operation, after the sight is placed
on the target through knob '56, the ground speed
(G. S.) knob fili is »adjusted until the sight is kept
continuously on the target. When this is accom
plished, the radial position of the ball carriage
(i3 on the dis-c represents whole range (PF1) (Fig.
7) with reference to the altitude ratio
H)
T17
form of a pin 33 on the back of a clutch shifting
fork 34 on the shaft 28’ of knob 28 which pin 20 of the machine, the variable speed mechanism
solving the equation
engages a slotted arm 35 pivoted at 36 (Fig. 6) A
and carrying at its upper end a gear sector 3'!
meshing with an annular rack bar 38. Said bar
is pivotally connected at each end to the two
masks Si and 32, In the position shown in Fig.
6, only the upper dials 29 and 30 are visible
through the rectangular windows 39, 39’ in the
two masks, which are in this position aligned
with the layer rectangular windows 4Q, dii’ in the
outer cover iii of the instrument. When, how
ever, the knob 28 is shoved to the right in Fig.
1C, pushing the pin 33 to the right in Fig. 6, the
masks will be rotated to the left, moving the
windows
S9" out of alignment with the win
dows fit, fiil’ and moving the lower windows 42,
ft2’ into alignment with the windows 40, lill',
thereby concealing the upper dials 29, 3l! and ren
dering visible the lower dials 29' and 30’. It will
be understood that the two sets of dials 29, 29’
and 3i),
are graduated differently for the dif
25
The adjustment of the knob riß is therefore trans
mitted through bevel gears 63 and shaft 64 to ro
30
tate the whole range shaft 65 which rotates,
through universal coupling ëíì, the threaded shaft
El Said shaft 51 is threaded in a bomb release
Contact device 58 so as to position the same in
ccordance with the whole range (FP1).
The trail correction (PiT) is shown as intro
35 duced from a knob ’iQ having a trail scale 'El
thereon which is set in accordance with tables
from the known altitude air speed and terminal
velocity of the bomb. Said adjustment rotates a
shaft 'E2 through worm and worm wheel 73 and
40 also rotates a spur gear 'iti which meshes with a
ferent altitude ranges.
As stated, as knob 2t is adjusted, it also ad
justs the radial position of ball carriage 22 on
disc 2li, so that the disc 2li will be rotated in in 45
verse proportion to the time of flightV (T) or pro
portional to
l
T
Driven from said disc is a second ball carriage 50
‘t3 which is also radially positioned over the sur
face of the disc and drives a cylinder 44 at a
variable speed dependent both on
1
55
collar V'lâ rotatably but non-slidably mounted on
theshaft :'ìl' and having on its periphery a-circu'
lar rack. Therefore rotation of the spur gear 14
will move contact block 68 longitudinally inde
pendently of the rotation of the screw shaft 61
to introduce the trail correction. A cooperating
contact 16 is shown as secured to a rack bar 11
positioned from a gear 'i8 on the shaft lâ of the
range angle @am i3 so that, `as the range angle
cam rotates, it will finally advance the contact
i5 into contact first with the warning contact
E8’ and then the final bomb release contact 68".
The setting of the trail mechanism also longi
tudinally positions a cam »pin Si! on a three
dimensional cam 8l which is positioned rota
tionally in accordance withl a function (the tan
gent) of the range angle 0 and is so laid out
and the radial distance of the ball carriage 43
that the lift of the pin is proportional to Y cos
from the center of the disc 24 (Figs. 1C, 4 and 5).
6, where Y represents the trail (PiT). Hence the
The radial position of said ball carriage is con
trolled from shaft 45’ threaded in said carriage, 60 cam is shown as rotated from the shaft '19 and
the range angle cam I3 through bevel gears 82.
which in turn is rotatably adjusted from a ground
The lift of the pin 80 governs the tilt of the long
speed and range setting knob llt on shaft lil,
lever M9 of the cross trail linkage through cam
having a gear £8 thereon meshing with a pinion
surface I6 in a manner similar to that disclosed
lill on »shaft fifi. The rotation of the cylinder 44
' in the aforesaid application No. 375,900, to finally
drives a shaft 50 which positions the sight angle
tilt the arm |74’ of the bell-crank lever M to
cam i3 through train of gears 5l, differential '52,
thereby rotate the prism l to introduce the cross
gearing 53, shaft 513 and worm and worm gear 55.
trail angle F. As explained in the aforesaid ap
A direct and quick positioning of the sight angle
plication, the cross trail angle F is proportional
cam may also be obtained from the knob 5S
, through gearing 5l and the other arm of the 70 to Y cos 6 sin D, where D is the drift angle, and
the latter is set into the mechanism by knob
differential 52.
|43, which is turned to bring the drift angle
rI‘he preferred detailed construction of the
indicator |44 into the position indicated by the
variable speed drive is shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
index §45 driven from a shaft M5, in turn posi
The driven disc 2li, as shown, has no central shaft
but is rotatably guided at its periphery by a plu 75 ltioned from the shaft 98 which turns the optics
2,41 0,468
5
6
in azimuth, away from its normal fore and aft
turns, through gears H5, the shaft >|03 directly,
~ position and which therefore represents the drift
angle. Rotation of the knob |43 operates to
shift laterally a rack bar |41 which carries the
pivot pin |48 of a lever |43.
' In orderto adapt the machine to be used also
at high altitudes, the bar TI is also provided
with an additional contact '16’ adapted to en
gage alternative bomb release contact block |03.
Said block is also mounted on a threaded sha-it
6l’ which may also have swiveled thereinV a
circular rack sleeve 15', similar -in lfunction to
the rack sleeve 15, for introducing the trail from
slipping the cylinder under the ball carriage. ‘
- At the same time that the optics are turned,
we dudit preferable also to turn the :craft either
through the automatic pilot or through the
human pilot who observes the pilot director in
dicator |39. Preferably, a two-speedv drive is
interposed in these connections so that the craft
may either be turned at the same rate as the
optics or at a greater rate, which latter is dee
sirable when the correct course is beingsought
for. To this end, the shaft |03 is shown as driv
ing a shaft || 6 leading to the automatic pilot
the spur gear 14’ on shaft 12. The threaded
through change speed gearing H1. AV three-`
shaft 61’ is shown as rotated through a universal 15 position clutch H8 controls the rvariable speed.
coupling 66' from a shaft 83 »also driven from
gear. In the central or open position, as 'indi
the shaft (i4,r but at a slower speed than shaft
cated in Fig. 3, the shaft H6 stands still, but
65, as through` direct- bevel gear connection 8e.
when pushed to the left in Fig'. 1C (up inFig.
Referring now to the wiring diagram in Fig.
3), the shaft ||6 is rotated at one speed, while .
3, it will be seen that when the switch S is 20 when pushed to the right in Fig. A1C (down vin
rotated counter-clockwise, the contacts on bomb
Fig. 3), shaft ||6 is rotated at a multiplespeed.
release block 68 will be in control, while when
The higher ratio is automatically rendered ef
vrotated clockwise, release block |03 will be in
fective when the sight is being uniformly turned
control to actuate the bomb release solenoids
at a predetermined rate from the knobz |09,
85. Preferably the switch S is connected to and
When knob |09 is turned, it lifts a switch block
directly operated from the knob 28 (see Fig. 1C)
H9 out of a notch |20 in a cam |2|, thereby
so that when the scale of the machine is changed
closing the back contact |22 (Fig. 3) and there
by pushing the knob from one position to the
by exciting a clutch winding (not shown) to
other, the switch S is also moved to connect
draw the armature downwardly in Fig. 3 or to
the proper switch block into the circuit with the 30 the right in Fig. 1C. The unit ratio, on the
release solenoid..
other hand, can only be. put into operation when
As stated above, the optical unit is preferably
the block ||‘9 is in the notch, thus closing front
maintained iixed in azimuth from a suitable di
contact |23, and also when a separate switch |24
rectional gyroscope. `¿l and preferably also the
is closed as shown in Fig. 3. Preferably, also, we
entire aircraft is automatically steered from a 35 interpose an interlock between knobs |09 and |-|li
directional gyrcscope, preferably the same direc
so that the latter cannot be moved except when
tional gyroscope 4 which serves as a directional
the former is in its zero or inoperative position,
reference. A diagrammatic layout for accom
i. e., except when switch H9 is in notch |20. For
plishing this purpose is shown in Fig. 2. The
this purpose, we have shown. a locking detent
directional gyro 4 is shown as having a two-part 40 |60 on one end of a lever |6| pivoted at |62 and
inductive pick-oli" associated therewith, one part
loosely Ipinned at its- opposite end to switch "_bar
having three windings 80, 86’ and 81 shown as
H9 so that said detent is pressed into engage
attached to the vertical ring 90 of the directional
ment with the teeth on elongated pinion |64
gyroscope and the other part being a soft iron
when the bar H9 is raised. The elongated pin
bridge 89 attached to the follow-up member 88.
ion l5@ is» ñxed to gear H5 thereby preventing
Such pick-olf is well known in the art and the
turning of the knob lili when. a- rate of turn is
A. C. signal therefrom is ampliiied in an amplifier
set into the machine through operation oi knob
9| to actuate reversible follow-up motor 92. Said
|08. As shown in the drawings, the displacement
motor is shown as driving, through reduction
knob ~||fl may slide with elongated pinion |64
gears 93 and slip clutch 94, the shaft 95 which
to disconnect the gear | I5. This prevents the
drives the follow-up gear 88 on the gyroscope
shaft |03 from becoming locked when detent
and also `runs to the bomb sight, where it is
|60 engages the pinion |613.
' '
shown as connected through a clutch 93 to one
The shaft 95 may bef entirely disconnected
arm of a diiîerential gear train 91 to the vertical
from the optics by pulling a` knob |25y to the right
shaft 98 driving, through bevel gear 93, a shaft 55 in Fig. 1C. This also operates the switch S’ for
|00> which is shown as turning the base of the
controlling the erection rate of the gyroscope,
gyro-vertical through skew gear |0|'. By this
as more fully explained in the prior application
means the optics are stabilized in azimuth.
of E. W. Chafee andv H. C. Van Auken, Serial
For displacing the optics in azimuth to direct
No. 128,034, iiled February 26, 1937, for Bomb
the line of sight on the target and thereby set 60 sights, the erecting winding being shown in Fig.
up the drift angle D, the other arm of the dif
3 at |29 and the resistance controlling the erec
ferential 91 is turned from a gear |02 on the
tion rate at |30.
shaft |03 of a cylinder |04, forming one element
As hereinbefore Stated, the sight may be used>
of a variable speed drive AVSD, the disc |05 of
either with the automatic pilot or without, de'
which is continuously driven from the motor 25 65 pending on the position of theswitch |73| `(Fig.
through a suitable gear train, as shown. The
2. When the switch is in the down position,
position of the ball carriage |08 may be radially
the rudder servomotor |32 is controlled through
adjusted by means of the azimuth rate knob
amplifier |33 from a signal generator ,|34-v
|09 which turns, through gears H0 and |||, a
geared to shaft 95. This Signal generator is
pinion ||2 meshing. with rack teeth H3 on car
preferably in the form of a Selsyn transmitter
riage |08. By this means the proper rate of
(Figs. 2 and 3) in which both the armature and.
turn of the optics may be set up to keep the
neld are rotatable. As shown, the y.field |35 is
lineof sight on the> target. If desired, a direct
rotated from the shaft» 95 while the armature
setting of the optics may be `obtained from an
|35 is mounted on va shaft v| 31 rotated from the
aiuriliaryazimuth displacement knob H4- which 75 follow-back. shaft ~| I6. When used with the auto»
2,410,468
7
8
matic pilot, only the three windings of the. field
said follow-up system, a visual pilot director, a
repeater motor normally actuated from said
transmitter for turning said pilot director, a rud
der servomotor for controlling the heading of the
aircraft, and means for transferring the output
are connected to a Selsyn signal generator (not
shown) in the amplifier |33, which gives a, signal
proportional to the angular displacement of the
generator and transmitter. When, however, the
switch |3| is in the up position in Figs. 2 'and 3,
said windings |34 of the ñeld are connected to
corresponding windings on the Selsyn repeater
motor |38 which operates a pilot directing indi
cator |39, which may be synchronized with the
transmitter by means of a knob |40 operating to
adjust the ñeld of said repeater. In Fig. 2, the
rudder servomotor |32 is shown in the form of
a hydraulic cylinder and piston |4| which oper
ates the rudder |42 of the craft. The sight angle
may also be set up directly by a, knob |58 and at
tached scale | 5|, which rotates a shaft |52 geared
directely through bevel gears |53 to the sight
angle shaft 19.
From the foregoing it is believed the operation
of the bomb sight will be readily apparent. When
it is desired to displace the sight quickly to ini
tially ñnd the target, for instance, the kno-b H4
is turned with the switch |24 open. After the
target is sighted and the pilot is desirous of get
ting on the straight ground track toward the tar
get, the knob |09 is adjusted. Turning of this
knob not only sets up the desired rate of turn of
the optics, but also throws switch ||9 to thereby
of said transmitter to control said rudder servo
motor.
2. In a combined bombV sight and automatic
pilot for aircraft, a displacement control member,
10 means actuated by said displacement control
member for causing displacement of the line of
sight of the bomb sight through any desired
angle, means actuated by said displacement con
trol member for causing the aircraft to turn
15 through a corresponding angle, a rate control
member, and means actuated by said rate control
member for causing said two first-named means
to turn said line of sight at a selected rate and
to turn said aircraft at a faster rate.
3. In a combined sight and automatic pilot for
20
aircraft, a displacement control member, means
actuated by said displacement control member
for displacing the line of Sight of said bomb sight
through any desired angle, means actuated by
25 said displacement control member for causing
the aircraft to turn through a corresponding
angle, a rate control member, means responsive
to said rate control member for setting up a pre
determined rate of turn of said line of sight and
cause a more rapid turn of the craft through the 30 of the aircraft, and means responsive to move
ment of said rate control member from its neutral
automatic pilot or pilot director by throwing in
the clutch ||8, thereby turning the shaft il@
rapidly to displace the iield of the transmitter
|34 at the desired rate of turn. As the ground
position for preventing operation of said dis
placement control member.
track is approached, the azimuth rate is re
pilot for aircraft, a manually adjustable variable
speed drive having an V.output member for setting
duced by turning the knob |89 backwardly until
4. In a combined bomb sight and automatic
it becomes zero when the straight ground track
is reached, at which time switch ||9 drops into
notch |2íl and the turn of both the sight and
up respectively a rate of turn of the sight and a
proportionate rate of turn of the aircraft for
aircraft is stopped.
means
'
If side wind is present, it is necessary to set
in the proper cross trail, which is done by turn
ing knob |43 to match the drift angle indicated
at |44. This will displace the optics slightly (an
gle F), and therefore it is necessary to readjust
the same by turning knob ||4| and at the same
time to readjust the course through substan
tially the same angle. Therefore switch |24 is
closed at the time knob ||4 is adjusted, so that
target tracking purposes, variable ratio gear
driven
from
the , output
member
and
coupled with the automatic pilot for controlling
the turning of the aircraft, a clutch for changing
the ratio of the gear means operable by the ad
justment of the variable speed drive to zero out
2‘ put rate, and manual means thereupon effective
for displacing directly the output member of the
variable speed drive to turn the sight and air
craft for searching purposes, at a proportionate
rate differing from the proportion effective dur
the course is also changed through the proper
ing tracking.
offset angle.
When bombing at low altitude, the knob 28 is
5. In a combined bomb sight and automatic
pilot for aircraft, the combination with an optical
pushed in a direction to expose scales 29’ and Bü’
system rotatable in azimuth on an aircraft of a
while, when bombing at high altitude, it is pushed
’
`
manually displaceable member for rotating di
rectly said system to position the sight on a target
and causing at the same time the turning of the
aircraft through said automatic pilot, means for
thereafter Ytracking the target comprising a
is released in each case at the proper time.
variable speed drive having a manual control
As many changes could be made in the above
construction and many apparently widely dif GO member and an output member operatively con
nected with the sight and with the automatic
ferent embodiments of this invention could be
pilot so as to cause the sight and aircraft to
made Without departing from the scope thereof,
turn at rates varying in accordance with the
it is intended that all matter contained in the
setting of the manual control member, interlock
above description or shown in the accompanying
drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and 65 means operated by the manual control member
in the opposite direction to expose scales 2e and
3i). 'I'his adjustment will change the ratios with
in the machine, as explained, so that the bomb
not in a limiting sense.
Having described our invention, what we claim
and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. In a combined bomb sight and automatic
pilot for aircraft, an optical system, a single di
rectional gyroscope for both stabilizing said opti
on its initial displacement from a zero output
rate position for disabling the manually displace
able member, and further means operated by the
manual control member on said initial displace
ment for changing the relative rates atl which
the sight and aircraft are turned.
6. In a combined bomb sight-and automatic
pilot for a dirigible craft, a variable speed drive
having a control member and an output member,
cal system in azimuth and controlling the head
ing of the aircraft, a follow-up device at said
gyroscope, a connection from said device to turn
said optical system, a transmitter driven from 75 a line of sight defining instrument on the craft,
2,410,468
a directional reference, separate means driven
by the output member for turning the instrument
and also the craft with respect to the directional
reference at either of two different relative rates,
10
displaced to turn directly the output member of
the variable speed drive to turn the craft and
also to position initially the instrument so that
the line of sight is on the target, means controlled
said means including a two speed shiftable gear 5 by the control member on movement away from
mechanism connecting the automatic pilot with
its zero output rate position for shifting the gear
the output member for controlling the turning of
mechanism in another sense to select the other
the craft, means for shifting said gear mecha
of the relative rates, the control member being
nism in one sense actuated by the control mem
then used t0 so adjust the variable speed drive
ber on being displaced to its zero output rate 10 as to keep the line of sight on the target.
position for selecting a predetermined one of the
relative rates, a manually operable displacement
knob effective when the control member is thus
HOWARD C. VAN AUKEN.
FREDERICK N. ESHER.
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