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Nov. 5, 1946. J. A. RosMArr> 2,410,526 ' lPULP s'rocx FLOW CONTROL Filed Oct. 2L 1944 2 sheets-sheet 1 Nov. 5, 1946. ` .L A._RosMArr l I y Filed Oct. 2, -1944 l : ' ë 2,410,526 PULP, STOCK FLow „CONTROL 2 Sheets-*Sheet 2 aa _FI as ` .4 _ ,20 " 4» __ f“ V mm mum( » Aai ' 2o l n T055. E 2,410,526 ¿ PULP s'rocu rLoW coN'raoL .lohn A. Rosmait, Appleton, Wis., assìgnor to D. J. Murray Manufacturing Co., Wausau, Wis., va l - corporation of Wisconsin Application Gctolier 2, 1944i, Serial No. 556,796 . il Claims. (ci. ca_-ic) . l. 2 This invention relates generally to improve ments in the` 'art 0f paper making, and relates more particularly to improvements in the con- ' struction and operation of mechanism for collect-ing, spreading and controlling the flow of effluent or pulp stock as it is discharged from the screens . to the head boxes of paper manufacturing ma chines especially of theF-ourdrinier type. The primary object of my present invention is to provide an improved mode of collecting, dis tributing and controlling the flow of efüuent stock as it passes from the screens to the head box of a Fourdrinîer type of paper making machine or the like. ’ ’ The consistency of efduent or pulp stock deliv ered from the screens toward the Fourdrinier wire of Well known paper making machinery, is iluent stock at laterally spaced intervals into the lower portion of the ñrst pass of the head box, which pass is ordinarily a relatively deep rec tangular space having an upper outlet communi cating'vvith the second pass. The violent injec tion of the fibre bearing stock through these sev eral outlets and the drastic change in direction of ‘iiow produced thereby, further reduces the ve locity of ilow Within the head box and interferes with uniformity in paper production. Then too, at the higher speeds of these paper making ma chines, the level of the liquid in the head box be tween the first and last passes, is not nearly as high as during low speed operation, but at high speeds the level in the head box as a whole should be at a. maximum'. The relative elevation of the screens _with respect to the Fourdrinier wire, is therefore dependent upon the maximum speed of the‘machin'e, and the elevation of the screen relatively low, that is, it has practically the fluid ity of Water and contains only from one-tenth to three-tenths of solid matter such as ñbres, in outlets must be suñîcient to insure proper ca suspension. Depending of course upon the so 20 pacity of flow through the piping headers and called freeness or “slowness” of the stock, even head box and to constantly overcome al1 hydrau- at these low consistencies there is a deñnite tend lic losses. lf, therefore, hydraulic losses are en ency for the fibres to settle or ilocculate into countered due to the use of ine?ñcient conduits small bundles, thus producing lumpy and ex between the screen and head box, raising of the as tremely undesirable formations. This condition screens in an eiîort to obviate such losses, aug is aggravated by aeration, turbulency, cross ments the undesirable condition Whenever the apparatus is operating at low speeds at which box and through the customary pipe headers, T’s the levels in the head box are far below the top, and elbows connecting the surge box with the 30 andl only a fraction of the high speed levels is iirst pass of the head box. The use of this prior. needed above the wire deck for the production of type of conductors results in the production of'_ heavier weight paper. Under such operating numerous sharp turns, corners, and quiescent conditions when utilizing lesser flow capacities zones in which eddy currents and badly settled and -somewhat; higher pulp consistency in the íiows, etc. as the fibre stock passes from the’ surge areas are constantly formed, thus causing sliml7 35 prior circuitous conduits ` together with high" pulp formations to momentarily lodge and to screen elevations, cascading resultsand makes it subsequently break loose and to create lumps, practically impossible to produce sheets of paper holes, and spots in the ñnal paper. This prior of proper texture and thickness. type of header piping also results in consider able lossin velocity head due to the sharp en trance of the stock and the subsequent multiple bends, and requires the screens to be located at It is therefore a more specific object of the present invention to provide an improved system of stock iiow kcontrol from the screens to the wires of> a Fourdrinier type" of paper making machines, elevations suíiiciently >high to compensate for which eliminates all of the above mentioned diñîl- e these hydraulic losses and to properly deliver the culties, and which enables eílicient production of eñìuent stock into the first pass of the'head box 45 paper of desired thickness and substantial uni against the relatively high static head existing formity and any desired practiced speeds. therein. and this static head must constantly be Another speciñc object of this .invention is to maintained sufficient to accomodate the high provide improved apparatus for controlling the est speeds at which the machinery is operable. flow of eilluent stock from a. surge box or the like In these prior paper making systems, the last 50 to the ilrst passA of the head box of a paper mak connection of the piping header usually termi ing machine, embodying a minimumy number oi nates in three or moreoutlets, depending .upon turns or changes in direction of flow, and of such y the width of the Fourdrinier wire; and these out formation that hydraulic losses are minimized lets are slots or holes cut into the rear wall of and excessively high screen elevations are made the head bon and are to _mscharge the 55 unnecessary. - ' ananas 4 . While the invention has been shown and de- ' lA further specific object ofthe invention is to scribed herein as being especially adapted for use in connection 'with Fourdrinier paper making machines of variable capacity and characteristics, provide an improved conduit assemblage for con ducting ñbre pulp stock from the screens to the head box of a paper producing machine, wherein the velocity of íiow of the liquid delivered from 'the surge tank is gradually decelerated and con it is not my desire or intention to unnecessarily restrict the scope or utility of the improved fea- v tures by virtue of this speciñc application thereof. Referring especially to Fig. 1 ofthe drawings, the typical paper making installation shown dia pass of the head box under all conditions of op 10 grammatically therein, comprises in general, a eration. ^ battery of pulp screens` I0 which are normally Still another specific object of my invention is abundantly supplied with‘efliuent or pulp stock to provide improved mechanism` for eiïecting uni Il from a dow box I2 by a fan pump I3, and form delivery of the eñluent pulp stock into the having screen outlets I4 of well known construc .first pass of the head box of a paper making ma tion for delivering the eiiluent stock II into a chine, throughout _the entire width of the box surge box I5; an endless Fourdrlnier wire I6 of and in parallel directions, and for regulating or verted into pressure energy sufllcient to eil'ective- ' ly overcome thestatic pressure head in the first any suitable width coacting with breast and couch rolls i1, I8 respectively, and having a slice or controlling the now into' the head box _so as to produce smooth entry andv to avoid undesirable turbulency and agitation. . inlet I9_ which normally receives the pulp stock ' An additional specific object of this invention is- 20 I I from a multiple pass head box 20 of usual con-v struction; and one orv more now decelerating to provide improved instrumcntali-ties for con tubes 2l, now spreaders 22, and flow control gates ducting the stream of pulp stock through a paper 23 of improved structure interposed between the making machine, in a manner which will avoid surge box- I5 and the lower rear inlet end of the , ` " eiliuent stock and causing the liquid to flow in a 25 head box 20.A The improved iiow control assemblages em solid and smooth stream throughout its course. bodying my present invention and which are Another speciñc object of the invention is to adapted to be interposed between the surge box provide a simple and compact flow distributing I5 and the head box 2U, may be constructed as and control unit which may be used either singly or in multiple and applied to either existing or 30 units of any desired capacity adapted to be utilized either singly or in multipledepending new paper making installations at moderate cost, upon the width of the Fourdrinier wire I5, and so as to insure proper now under varying condi . eddy currents while aiding in deaeration ofthe the decelerating tubes used in these improved as- v tions of operation, and which ‘is also highly ñex semblages may also be of diiïerent types.> As speciñcally illustrated in Figs. 2 to 5 in 35 operation. » These and vother speciñc objects and advan-> ` clusive, the ñow deceleratîng tube 2I of each unit, comprises a frustro-conical upright sheet metal tages of my invention will be apparent from the , ible in its adaptations and efficient in normal following detailed description. tube having circular cross-section ‘throughout its » length but beingof gradually enlarged diameter A clear conception of the features constituting the present improvement, and of the construction 40 from its upper inlet to its lower outlet. Each frustro-conical tube is provided with a series of and operation of several typesof my improved four internal radial vanes 24 the inner edges of ñow control mechanism, may be had byreferring which are parallel and terminate in a common to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of this speciñcation wherein like reference ' circle concentric with the tube axis. The upper smaller inlet end of each decelerating tube 2I is characters designate the saine or similar parts in direct and open communication with the lower in the various views. outlet 25 of the surge box I5, and the lower en Fig. 1 is a diagram or now sheet illustrating larged outlet end of the tapered tube 2| is pro a typical Fourdrinier type of paper making in- ‘ vided with a cylindrical apron 26 which is in open stallatìon showing the general location of my im 'proved apparatus; Fig. 2 is a somewhat enlarged part sectional side elevation of the improved flow control uni-t » showing the same associated with the screen out let, surge box and head box the latter being shown in section; ` Fig. 3 is a rear view of the assemblage shown in Fig. 2, embodying a single improved dow con trol unit; _ ‘ Fig. 4 is a further enlarged central vertical Y section through a type of the improved flow con -trol unit having a ñow decelerating tube which is of circular cross-section throughout its length; Fig.` 5 is a. top view of a single now control unit such as shown in Fig. 4; Fig. 6 is a still further enlarged vertical section vthrough one of the dow regulating gates of my improved control assemblages; Fig. 7 is a part sectional top view of another communication with the adjacent spreader 22; As particularly illustrated in Figs. '7 and 8,' the slightly modiñed flow decelerating tube 2|' of each unit, comprises an upright sheet-metal tube having gradually downwardly expanding cross sectional area of circular cross-section at its smaller top or inlet end and of elliptical cross- - section at its enlarged bottom or outlet end. This modified tube 2l’ is also provided with a. series of four internal radial vanes the inner edges of ' 60 which are parallel, and the smaller inlet end of the decelerating tube 2|' is adapted to communi cate directly with a surge box outlet 25 while the lower elliptical outlet end is provided with an apron 2Iì'` havingA uniform elliptical transverse ' cross-section with the major axis of the ellipse lying in a plane extending across the end of the head box 20 and transversely of the direction of ì now through this box. The improved iiow spreaders 22 are adapted to type of the improved flow decelerating tube, hav cooperate with either type of ydecelerating tube 70 ing circular cross-section at the top and elliptical 2I, 2|', and each of these spreaders 22 comprises cross-section at the enlarged bottom portion a sheet metal casing which is laterally widened thereof; and or spread out to the full width of a small standard Fig. 8 is a somewhat diagrammatic top view of head box 20 as in Figs. 3( and 5, or to one-half a multiple installation _of my improved ñow con trol unit. ` » 76 the width ot a larger head box 20 as in Fig. 8, or to 2,410,526 5 one-third of a still larger box in installations of still greater capacity. The width of the spreaders 22 may be standard in the individual flow control units, and each spreader casing has an inclined bottom 21 directly beneath the apron 28, 28' of the adjacent central decelerating tube 2|, 2|', and zontal, by the inclined bottom 21 of the spreader v 22 andthe stream is further decelerated, spread and widened out to the full width‘of the outlet slot 28, by the rear. top and bottom walls o! the spreader casing'. The partitions 30 within the _ spreader 22 also function to prevent eddies in the advancing spreading stream and to divide Athe same into segregated adjoining parts flowing pass 29 of the adjacent head box 20. Diagonal through the slot 28 in substantially parallel di partitions 30 which radiate from the central axis lO rections. As the effluent stock flows through the of the corresponding decelerating tube and which nozzles 3| and past the gates 23 it enters the, also has a front lower outlet slot 28 communicat ing with the extreme lower rear end of the ilrst divide the slot 28 into three parts of equal length, are also provided within each spreader 22, and these partitions may be either plane as in Fig. 5 or curved slightly away from- the central plane- of the spreader as in Fig. 8. . -As indicated in Figs. 2, 4, 5 and 6, my improved ilow regulating gates 23, _are ilexible -elongated lower portion of the iìrst pass of the head box 20 at relativelyy high velocity but without turbu lency or excessive agitation, and under pressure suiñcient to overcome the> static head of the liquid within the pass 29. The individual gates 23 may be readily adjusted with the aid of their manipu lating rods 34 and handwheels 38 so as to insure smooth entry of the liquid' stock into the head box elements swingably suspended from spreader noz zles 3| which are in open communication with the 20 20 throughout the entire width thereof, and the spreader slots 28. As shown, -there are three in entering eil‘luent stock subsequently flows through dependent gates 23 associated with each spreader the successive passes 'of the head box and is 22, and each. gate is secured to the adjacent noz leventually deposited upon the Fourdrinier wire zle 3| by means of a curvedplate 32 and cap I6 through the inlet I9. In this manner the im' screws 33, and is adapted to be swungl from one proved ilow control mechanism gradually con dot-and-dash line position to> another as illus ducts the ñbre stock from the surge box |5 to trated in Fig. 6, by Vmeans of an independently the head box 20 with but a single gradual change adjustable actuating rod 34, all of which extend in direction of flow, while simultaneously con upwardly through the ilrst pass 29 of the head verting the velocity of ilow into pressure energy box 20. The lower end of each adjusting rod 36 30 suiïiclent to overcome thgstatic head and also extends through a slot 35 formed in a tubular bead avoiding turbulency and eddies. ` 36 formed at the outer swinging end-of the ad From the foregoing detailed description of the jacent gate 23, and is provided with an integral construction and operation of my improved pulp transverse bar 31 snugly engaging the correspond stock flow control system, it should be apparent ing bead 36. The upper end of each adjusting 35, that the invention provides control mechanism rod 3d is screw threaded and coacts with a hand ’ whichbesides being simple and compact in con struction, is also highly eillcient in operation and in a bracket 40, and each rod 34 is also provided functions automatically after the gates 23 have with upper and lower stop collarslll l, 42' for limit been set to meet desired operating conditions. ing the opening »and closing ,of the gates 23, see 40 The improvement may obviously be embodied in Fig. 4. 'I'he swinging gates 23 cooperate with the , units of predetermined capacity adapted to be bottom of the head box 20 to provide sniooth used either singly or in multiple, and each unit transition slots leading into the ñrst pass i9,> and is capable of eiîectively collecting, decelerating, these gates may be independently adjusted so as _distributing and controlling the flow of liquid to provide for diiïerent delivery openings at differ therethrough, and is devoid of multiple bends, wheel 38 having a hub 39~journalled for rotation ent portions of the slots 28 and nozzles 3|. v corners, and quiescent zones in which ñbres are apt to fiocculate or gather. While the circular decelerating tube 2| and apron 26 may perhaps utilized either singly as in Figs. 3 and 5, or in be more readily constructed and applied to the multiple as in Fig. 8, and their use in multiple is 50 spreader 22, the elllptic'al or oval type of tube 2|' not necessarily limited to two units. These units and apron 28’ facilitates lateral vspreading and ., may also be applied either to new installations or distribution of the eilluent stock, and both types to existing installations having Fourdrinier wires of'tubes as well as the spreaders 22 may be I6 of standard widths, thus facilitating manufac- . readily constructed of sheet metal and at ex ture of the units in large lots and application ceedingly moderate oost. The use of the baiües thereof to the paper making machines. Since the 24 in the decelerating tubes and of the partitions normal functioning of the circular and elliptical 30 in the spreaders 22, eliminates swirling and sectioned tubes 2|, 2|' is substantially the same, 'turbulency and aids in proper distribution of the it will suñice to describe the normal operation of stock, and the independently manipulable gates only one of these alternative structures. As previously indicated, the improved ilow de celerating spreader and regulating units may be During normal operation of the improved iiow 60 23 enable. the operator lto readily and eñectively control units, the screens I0 will be receiving an _ control the iiow so as to insure uniform distribu tion throughout the entire width of the head abundant supply of pulp stock || from the ñow box 20. It-is also noteworthy that with my im- . box l2 past the fan pump I3, and after treating the eilluent stock, the screens deposit the ma 65 proved assemblage, the single change in direction. of flow of each» stream. is accomplished at the terial into the surge box i5. From the surge point of maximum ` cross-sectional area' and box i5, the ?lbrous pulp ii flows through the minimum velocity thereof and just prior to final youtlet opening 25, into the decelerating tube 2| distribution and injection of the liquid into the wherein the velocity of iiow is gradually deceler ated due to the gradually increasing cross-sec 70 head box, 'thus permitting most emcient and smooth spreading of the eiïluent stock without tional area, while excessive swirling or whirling creating undesirable disturbances. The depend-~ oi’ the stream is prevented by the radial 'vanos ing aprons at the lowervends of the expanding 2c. Following this initial deceleration of .the decelerating tubes, also enhance the ñnal spread-A advancing pulp, the direction of ilow ls gradually and distribution, and-the gates 23 may be changed from vertical to approximately hori 75 ing readily formed of ñexible sheet material and are l 2,410,526 ` 8 movable within predetermined fixed limits to pressure, and nozzles for delivering the spread tion of the gates 23 and their actuating mech anisms, also insures maximum life thereof 'and ible between the _surge and head boxes of 'a paper making machine, said unit comprising, a . downwardly enlarging tapered tube for initially stream under pressure created by said tube and provide efficient extensions of the final nozzles spreader into> the lower end of the iirst pass of 3l for insuring streamlined and smooth injection the head box. of the nuent stockunder pressure, into the head 5. A decelerating and ilow control unit insert- ' box 20. Ilî'he improved construction and forma fil enables> the operator to conveniently adjust the several independent gates from a remote and accessible station. ~ decelerating the flow of efiluent stock discharged ‘ 10 into the tube from the surge box and for convert ing velocity energy thereof into pressure, a It should be’ understood that it is not desired to limit this invention to the exact details of construction or to the precise mode of operation, herein shown and described,_for various modiii-'4 cations within the scope of the appended claims 15 " may occur to persons skilled in the art. I claim: ‘ spreader in open communication directly with the outlet end of said tube for changing the dl rection of flow of the initially decelerated stream and for spreading it laterally, partitions within said spreader for dividing the stream into seg regated parallel ilow sections, and nozzles for V -delivering thespread stream under pressure cre ated by said tube into the lower end of the ñrst pass of the head box. initially decelerating the ilow of efiiuent stock 20 6. A decelerating and iiow control unit insert discharged from the surge box and for converting ible between the surge and head boxes of a its Velocity energy ~into pressure, means for paper making machine, said unit comprising, a l. In combination with the surge andA head boxes oi a paper making machine, means for spreading> the stock while under considerable downwardly enlarging tapered tube for initially pressure and as it ñows away from said deceler decelerating the flow of efñuent stock discharged _ ating means, means for directly delivering the 25 into the tube from the surge box and for con spread stock under pressure into the lower por verting velocity energy thereof into pressure, a tion of `the ñrst pass of the head box'throughout spreader in open communication directly with the entire width of the latter, and means for the outlet end of said tube ~for changing the di locally varying the cross-sectional area of said rection of now of the initially decelerated stream delivery means to insure uniform distribution of , 30 the stock. > v 2. In combination with the surge and he'ad boxes of a paper making machine, means for ini tially decelerating the flow of eilluent stock dis charged fr`om the surge~box and for converting 35 velocity energy thereof into pressure, means for ' and for spreading it laterally, nozzles for deliv ering the spread stream under pressure created by said tube into the lower end of the iirst pass 'of the head box, and independently adjustable gates for controlling the ñow through said noz zles. ' 7. A decelerating and flow control assemblage for paper making machineshaving surge and preventing swirling of the stock as it passes through said decelerating means, means for lat head boxes, said assemblage comprising, a down erally spreading the stream of stock flowing out wardly expanding upright tube having itssmaller of said de'celerating means and for, further con 40 upper linlet enddirectly communicable with the verting velocity energy thereof into pressure, and A surge box, said tube having circular transverse means for directly delivering the Ispread stock >`cross-section at its `upper inlet end and oval under considerable pressure into‘the lower pori;- ~ transverse cross-section at its lower outlet end, -tion of the first pass of the head box. ¿a .spreader _in open communication with the 3. In combination with the surge and headÄÍ` -large'r'lower outlet end of said tube and having a boxes of a paper making machine. means tor-'1'1 initially decelerating the new of eilluent stock> ï, Äfbottomidïsposed Ín’vertica'l aunement With the " '_tubeltor changingthe flow from vertical to ap discharged ing velocityfrom energy thethereof surge box into and pressure„` for convertmeans . f _.proximately_,>hori__zontal, and independently ad for preventing swirling of the stock as it passes through said decelerating means, means for lat l’_iusizable. means," ior regulating the delivery of’ erally spreading the stream of stock ñowlng out of said decelerating means _and for further con-` eiiluent stock from said spreader into the- lower portion` of the head box at various localities l throughout its width. ` - .8. Afidecelerating and flow control assemblage verting velocity energy thereof into pressure, ,meansv within said'spreading means for Segre-5„ fun-’1' paper making machines having surge and head boxes, said assemblage comprising, a down gating the stock into a plurality of .parallel-_ ;¿wardly expanding upright tube having its smaller streams, and means for directly delivering’the upper inlet end directly communicable with the >spread stock under considerable pressure into ' surge box, a spreader in open communication with the larger lower outlet end of said tube 4. A decelerating and ilow controlunit insert 60 and having a bottom disposed in vertical aline ible between thesurge and head boxes of a paper ment with the tube for changing the flow from ` the lower portion of the first pass of the head box'. making machine, said unit comprising, a down wardly spreading tapered tube for initially decel erating the flow of emuent stock discharged into the tube from the surge box and for converting velocity energy thereof into pressure, varies inv said tube for preventing whirling of the liquid nowing therethrough, a spreader in open com munication with the outlet end of said tube for changing the direction of ilow of the 'initially 70 decelerated stream and for spreading it laterally ' to further convert velocity energy thereof into vertical to approximately horizontal, means with in said spreader for dividing the flow therein into segregated parallel streams flowing toward the head box, and lindependently adjustable means -for controllably admitting said streams under . pressure to' the head box through the several ‘ divisions‘and throughout substantially the entire width of the box. , , JOHN A. ROSMAIT.