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Nov. 5, 19.46. ' 5; D. BRANNER 1 LANDING GEAR FOR AIRCRAFT _ Filed July 19, 1944 E 5 _ - 2,410,625 ' 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 _ INVENTOR. 65R NHRD '.Q.' 51M’ NNER BY A TTORNEY Nov. 5, 1946. B, D, BRANNER" 2,410,625 LANDING GEAR FOR AIRCRAFT Filed July 19 ,> 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 14 v mmvrozg. BER/V550 D. BRENNER BY v A TTORNEY Patented Nov. 5, 1946 ‘UNITED STATES PATENT. orrics 2,410,625 LANDING GEAR roe AIRCRAFT Bernard D. Branner, Waterford, Conn. Application July 19, 1944, Serial N0.v.545,654 3 Claims. (Cl. 244—103) 2 1 Each wheel is provided with a plurality of vanes The invention relates to landing gear for air craft and more particularly to retractable landing gear for aircraft of the heavier-than-air type, commonly referred to as aeroplanes. The object of the invention is to provide a novel landing gear whereby the initial landing shock on the entire landing gear is automatically less ened in an e?icient and simple manner. or cups ill located at spaced intervals circum ferentially of the rim [3 as illustrated in Fig. 1, and projecting outwardly therefrom so as to ex tend beyond the wheel as shown in Fig. 2. The vanes or cups ill may be cast or otherwise produced as independent elements and then con veniently fixed in place upon a supporting ring it which in turn may be suitably secured in place The invention contemplates further the provi sion of a novel landing gear whereby the impact 10 upon the rim 13. friction factor developed by the initial contact In another form, the vanes or cups it and the supporting ring 55 may be cast or otherwise pro duced as integral parts of each other to consti tute a one-piece unit. This procedure eliminates of the landing wheels with the ground surface is automatically reduced to a harmless minimum. A further object of the invention is the provi sion of a novel landing gear designed and con 15 ~ the necessity for the tapping which is required when the vanes M are produced as independent structed to conserve the rubber of the tire and elements, and also reduces machining of the parts to add materially to the life thereof. to a minimum. The aforesaid one-piece unit Other objects will appear from the description furthermore is’ of maximum lightness in weight hereinafter and the features of novelty will be 20 and may be produced in a minimum of time. pointed out in the claims. In still another form, the rim 13, the vanes or In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate cups Eli and the supporting ring it may all be a1 example of the invention without de?ning its cast together or otherwise produced as integral limits, parts of a one-piece wheel unit. This procedure Fig. l is diagrammatic elevation of an aero 25 results in still further reducing the weight of the plane embodying the novel landing gear; unit and eliminating entirely the need for any Fig. 2 is a side view of one of the landing wheels tapping thereof. of said landing gear including the novel features; In any case, regardless of the process followed Fig. 3 is a sectional view of said wheel on the in producing the vanes Id or the units. including line of Fig. 2; p Fig. is a diagrammatic View illustrating by 30 the'same, said vanes or cups iii are shaped and dimensioned to develop very little air resistance means of directive arrows the dimensional planes throughout one portion of their rotatlve path, utilized in the members included in the novel and to serve as scoops for producing resistance landing gear; to the air throughout the remaining portion of Fig. 5 is a diagranmatlc front view of one of 35 said rotative path, when the novel landing gear said members; is down preparatory to a landing of the aerop‘ane. Fig. 6 is a side view showing the contour shape In Fig. 4., the dimensional planes utilized in an of a single member, and individual vane or cup M are indicated by direc Fig. '7 is a fragmentary perspective view of a single member as it appears on a landing wheel. The running gear as such may be of any con tive arrows. ventional type and may be embodied in the aero plane in any well-known way with customary associated operating means for retracting and lowering the running gear in accordance with each vane or cup It presents an approximately tapering appearance with a relatively wide base a. conventional practice. ‘ When viewed from straight-ahead, as in Fig. 5, and an undulating outer edge by extending up wardly and inwardly and terminating in a curved 45 relatively narrow upper end 0 all as indicated in In any event, as shown in the drawings, the landing gear includes the landing wheels ll! ro tatably mounted on the frame H and provided with rubber or equivalent tires i2 preferably of Fig. 5. Each vane or cup M is curved in the general designed to receive and retain the tire !2, suitable provision being made for removing the tire I2 diate point, in the form of a scoop with an up turned outer section Ili—a when viewed as illus direction of the circumference of the wheel as shown in Fig. 6, the forward or lower end section 50 being transversely curved throughout that por the pneumatic type. tion extending from the base a to an interme Each wheel ill includes the customary rim l3 at will for purposes of replacement or for any other reason. trated in Fig. 6. This scoop tapers inwardly to 55 ward the top (Fig. 5) and the outside ?ange or - 2,410,625 3 4 wall correspondingly diminishes, until at a point 0 about midway between the lower and upper act as air brakes by increasing the drag on the plane. ends of the vane said outside ?ange or wall com pletely merges or melts into the ilush curvature thereof. From the point 0 to the upper end 0 the vane I4 is flush transversely and has curvature only in one dimension. The scoop form of the The novel landing gear is designed with special regard to the heavy planes of today and to those of the future. As the size, weight and carrying capacity of aeroplanes is everincreasing in the aircraft industry and in the present planes, a de vane 14 is illustrated in perspective in Fig. '7 vice such as the one illustrated and described which shows also the curvature of the outside herein, will become a veritable necessity to avoid walls and its streamline merging or melting into 10 undue bulkiness in the landing gears and at the the trailing part of the particular vane. same time to enable the landing gears to absorb In practice, as the aeroplane approaches a the tremendous impact shocks that they will be landing, the landing gear is lowered in the cus called upon to withstand. tomary manner at the conventional time, by the In conjunction with the instant novel device a pilot, to adjust the landing wheels H1 to’ their low 15 small, controllable speed governor may be at ered, landing position. In this position, as the tached, one to each individual wheel, with the speed for rotational motion of the Wheels while aeroplane continues to advance, the pressure of in the air pre-set. Such speed governor would the Wind developed in the landing of the plane, prevent the wheels from attaining too much on the vane or cups l4 located below the horizon tal diameter of each wheel [0, will cause the lat 20 momentum to cause “forward-lash,friction” re sulting from the push which in such case would ter to rotate in the direction of the arrows in develop with the initial contact of the landing wheels with the landing surface. Although the present invention has been de the same and immediately traverse the same in the direction of the continued forward landing 25 scribed in conjunction with a preferred embodi ment it is to be understood that modi?cations movement of the plane until it is ?nally brought and variations may be resorted to without de to rest. The initial engagement of the wheels parting from the spirit and scope of the inven IS with the landing surface is accordingly a tan tion as those skilled in the art will readily un gential moving contact instead of’ a scraping, Fig. 2'. The wheels m, therefore, rotatively en gage the landing ?eld, as the aeroplane reaches 30 derstand. Such variations and modi?cations are sliding engagement as in the case when the land ing' wheels are stationary as the aforesaid in itial engagement takes place. considered to be within the purview and scope of the claims. I claim: 1. In a landing gear for aeroplanes including 7 As a result the novel landing gear serves to conserve rubber and adds greatly to the life of the tires [2 by reducing to a minimum, the in 85 landing wheels, that improvement which com prises a plurality of vanes projecting outwardly itial contact friction which tends to burn off the from said wheels at spaced intervals circumfer rubber of said tires very quickly. At the same entially thereof, each vane being curved in the . time by thus reducing the impact friction set up direction of its length and tapering longitudinally by said initial contact of the wheels H) with the landing surface, the initial landing shock on 40 inwardly toward the associated wheel and having its forward end portion provided with an up the entire landing gear is materially reduced over turned outer edge section to constitute a scoop that which is developed in the conventional type whereby said wheels are rotated on their axes by of landing ‘gear in which the landing wheels are wind pressure developed in the landing of the rotatively at rest when the initial landing con 45 plane to cause said wheels to rotatively engage tact takes place. . the landing surface as said aeroplane reaches As the aeroplane comes in for a landing with the same. the landing gear in its lowered position, the ro 2. In a landing gear for aeroplanes including tation of the landing wheels is affected automat landing wheels, that improvement which com ically'by the wind pressure developed in the land prises a plurality of vanes projecting outwardly ing of the plane. This wind pressure acts in one from said wheels at spaced intervals circumfer direction to rotate the landing wheels in such a entially thereof, each vane being curved in the way that the initial contact of said wheels with direction of its length and having its forward end the landing surface will be a rotative engagement portion shaped like a scoop with an upturned whereby the landing wheels are immediately caused to traverse said landing surface in the di 55 outer section gradually merging into the vane at an intermediate point whereby said wheels are rection of landing of the particular plane in ques rotated on their axes by wind pressure developed tion. All of the vanes or cups are so designed in the landing of the plane to cause said wheels that those vanes or cups located above the hori to rotatively engage the landing surface as said zontal diameters of the wheels develop a stream V line effect and accordingly exert very little re 60 aeroplane reaches the same. , 3. In a landing gear for aeroplanes including sistance ‘in opposition to the rotation of said landing wheels, that improvement which com wheels, while all the vanes or cups below said prises a plurality of vanes projecting outwardly horizontal diameter act as scoops to produce re- _ from said wheels at spaced intervals circumfer sistance to the‘ wind pressure and to thereby 65 entially thereof, each vane being curved in the transmit rotary motion to the landing wheels. direction of its length and tapering longitudinally inwardly toward the associated Wheel and having its forward end portion shaped like a scoop with an upturned outer section gradually merging into The device is extremely simple in construction and principle ofoperation and, relies entirely for power to rotatively operate the landing wheels, upon’the resistance of the air, caused by the for the vane at an intermediate point whereby said wheels are rotated on their axes by wind pressure ward movement of the plane in its landing op eration. . The rotation of the landing wheels may bestopped at any desired point or time by‘apply ing the customary wheel brakes. In the landing of the plane, the aforesaid vanes or cups will also developed in the landing of the plane to cause said wheels to rotatively engage the landing sur - face as said aeroplane reaches the same. _ V BERNARD D. BRANNER.