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'_ 2,410,638
Nov. 5, 1946. .
A. P. DAVIS vrs1-Al. l
`
SELECTI'VE SYSTEM FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
Filed April 27, 1957
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Nov. 5r,> 1946. '
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A. P. DAvls E-rAL
2,410,638
sELEçTIvE SYSTEM FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
Fil‘ed April. 27', 1957
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Nov. 5, 1946. '
A. P. DAvvls ETAL
2,410,638
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SELECTIVE SYSTEM- FOR GÚÑFIRE CONTROL
4
_Filed April 27, 1957
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SELECTIVE SYSTEM FOR GUNFIRE CONTROL
2,410,633 '
2,410,63
Patented Nov. 5, 17946
FICE
N
"SÍ ES
2,410,638
SELECTÃVE SYSTEM FOR GUNFIRE
CONTROL
Arthur P. Davis, New York, and James K.
Macomber, Rockville Centre, N. Y., assignors
to Arma Corporation, a corporation of New
York
Application April 27, 1937, Serial No. 139,146
20 Claims. (Cl. 89-41)
l
2
This invention relates to gun ñre control sys~
tems and has particular reference to a system for
controlling the firing of the main or other gun
batteries on a ship at any selected point in the
a dilïerential for combining the corrected range
elevation with director correction or with level
for gun elevation order, a differential for com
ship’s motion in roll or pitch.
Range elevation and sight deflection are ordi
narily computed with reference to a horizontal
plane, so that the position of the guns is correct
for firing only at the instant that the deck of the
bining the corrected sight deiiection with the
relative target bearing for gun train order, au
tomatic means for firing in accordance with
these corrected and selected values, and switch
ing means for selectively preparing the automatic
ñring means in accordance with iiring procedure.
For a more complete understanding of this
ship is in a true horizontal plane,- i. e., at the mid 10
invention, reference `may .be had to the accom
point of the roll or pitch. Accordingly, correction
panying drawings, in which:
is required for so-called “trunnion-tilt,” i. e., the
Figure 1 is a schematic mechanical diagram ofdisplacement from the horizontal caused by the
the selective gun iire control system of this inven
motion of the ship about the line of sight, or
tion;
>
cross-level angle, and correction must also be
Fig. 2 is a schematic illustration of the stable
made for motionl of the ship in the plane of
element and a portion of the electric follow-up
sight, or level angle. The roll and pitch angles,
as measured by a stable element, such as a gyro
scopic vertical, must be first lconverted into cross
level and level angles, asv determined by relative
target bearing.
In the systemof the present invention, range
of the system;
Fig. 3 illustrates partially in perspective and
partially schematically, the roll and pitch con
verter;
and
,.
,
l
Fig. 4 illustrates, partially in perspective and
partially schematically, the trunnion-tilt co1'-`
elevation is automatically corrected for trun
nion-tilt and combined with director correction
Referring'to Fig. 2 of the drawings, the stable
or level angle to generate the gun elevation or 25
element designated lI0 in Fig. 1, preferably com
der, which indicates the corrected elevation at
prises a gyroscopic vertical, including the gyro
any instant so that the guns may be continuously
scope I I, universally mounted on the gimbal sup
corrected in elevation. The sight deflection is
rector.
.
'
`
port I2 having the normally vertical shaft i3
automatically corrected for trunnion-tìlt and
combined with relative target bearing to generate 30 journalled in follow-up support i 4 and constantly
rotated by motor I5 carried by follow-up sup
the gun train order, which indicates the cor
port I4. A bail I6 ñxed on the support I4 ex
rection at any instant so that the guns may be
tends over the gyroscope II and carries the re
continuously corrected in train.
spective pitch and roll follow-up coils I'I and I8,
Also in accordance with the present invention,
means are provided for introducing the angular . which are positioned to be inductively energized
by the electro-magnet I3 mounted on the gyro
correction to range elevation in order that the
scope II as the latter tilts relatively to the sup
guns may be fired the maximum number of times
in `either level or cross-level, this correction be
ing introduced either as “director correction” or
port I4.
'
The pitch follow-up coil Il is part of the fol
“cross-level set.” Furthermore, automatic means ' 40 low-up system 20 for energizing the motor 2| in
response to relative movement of the gyroscope
are provided whereby ñring of the gun can be
II to drive the support I4, by means of shaft 32
effected at the selected point in either level or
and toothed sector 30, which is secured to arm 3i
cross-level with a high and consistent degree of
of support I4 at right angles to the pitch axis,
accuracy, independently of the variable reaction
so that support I4 follows the Imovement of the
rates of individual operators.
ship in pitch and maintains the coil I1 in_coin
More particularly, the fire control system of
cidence or alignment with the electro-magnet -I 9.
this invention essentially comprises a stable ele
Similarly, the roll follow-up coil I8 is part of the
ment, preferably a gyroscopic vertical with as
follow-up system 22 for energizing the motor 23
sociated means for measuring and transmitting
the angle of roll and pitch of Vthe ship, mechan 50 to drive the outer gimbal ring 26, by means oi
gears 21, worm 26, and toothed sector 25, which
ical means for converting these angles into level
is secured to outer gimbal ring 24, so as to main
and cross-level angles relative to the bearing of
tain coil I8 in alignment with the electro-magnet
the target, mechanical means for correcting range
I9. n Further details of the follow-up mechanism,
elevation and sight deflection for trunnion-tilt
in accordance with cross-level or cross-level set, 55 which form no part of the present invention, are
2,410,688
3
4
illustrated and described in copending application
Serial No. 53,736, filed December 10, 1,935.
With the follow-up support I4 being stabilized
in this manner, the degree of motion of the ship
in pitch and roll is represented by the propor
tional movements of the follow-up systems 20
and 22. Accordingly, the angular'motion in roll
is measured and transmitted by roll output shaft
28. The angular motion in pitch is measured and
transmitted, plus a function of the roll angle, to 10
ring 88 by relative rotation of gear 84 when tar
get bearing input shaft 44 is trained through
relative target bearing. Also, the factor of roll
added to pitch by the stable element I0 prevents
the motion of the roll ring 5I from affecting the
position of the pitch ring 88 when pitch input
pitch and roll output shaft 29.
Fitting over “conical” shaft 9| is a hollow shaft
.
shaft 8| is locked.
`
Integral with pitch ring 88 are four equally
spaced arms 99 converging to a “conical” shaft
9| normally coaxial with pitch input shaft 8|.
As is illustrated schematically in Fig. 1, th
92 centrally supported by four equally spaced
outputs of shafts 28 and 29’of stable element I9
are introduced into roll and pitch converter 34,
to be described, which also receives relative tar
arms 93 of cross level ring 94 positioned in spaced
relation to pitch ring 88 and so supported by
shafts 9| and 92 as to follow the motion of pitch
get bearing through shaft 35 driven by motor 36
ring 88. Cross level ringI 94 is provided with pivot
actuated by a conventional type of vfollow-up 31
pins 95, spaced 180° apart, in which the outer
driven by high and low speed self-synchronizingv
or level ring 96 is pivoted, in spaced relation to
motors 38, which receive target bearing electri
cross level ring 94. Level ring 96 is in turn pro
cally from a suitable controlling director, not 20 vided with hollow pivot 91 and opposite pivot
shown, and forming no part of the present in
pin 98 spaced 90° from pivots 95 and journ'alled
vention. Hand crank 39 may be clutched to
in respective brackets 99 and |89 of main support
shaft 35 for manual follow~up, if desired. In the
roll and pitch converter 34, illustrated in detail
in Fig. 3, the target bearing shaft 35 is connected
-by bevel gears 4|) to shaft 4I having pinion 42
driving gear 43 secured to the end of hollow shaft
44 journalled in hub 45 of main frame support
frame 46.
'
The cross leve]` ring 94 carries rack IBI engag
ing pinion |92 mounted on shaft |93 journalled
in hollow pivot 91 of outer or level ring 96 and
having the gear |84 at its outer end which meshes
with pinion |95 on counter-shaft |66 journalled
46 secured to the deck of the ship_ The upper
in bracket |61 of outer or level ring 96. This
end of hollow shaft 44 is ñtted with supporting 30 counter-shaft |06 is provided in order that rela
arms 41, 48 and 49, which accordingly move with
tive motion Ibetween rings 94 and 961s not im
change in target bearing, Arm 41 carries one
parted to cross-level output shaft |08 journalled'
pivot 58 of roll ring 5|, Whose opposite pivot
in bracket 99 colinearly with shaft |93 and -driven
52 is hollow and journalled in arm 49.
by the counter-shaft I 66 by gears |89, Thus,
Roll angle shaft 28 is connected, in the roll
shaft |98 mechanically transmits cross-level angle.
and pitch converter 34, through bevel gear 53
converted from roll, pitch and relative target
to one gear 54 of the differential 55, the other
gear 56 of which meshes with pinion 51 on rela
bearing-
gear 62 ñxed on shaft 63 journalled in arm 48
and having a pinion 84 meshing with rack 65 l
tive target bearing.
on roll ring 5I. The addition of relative target
bearing to roll angle by differential 55 is to pre
vent displacement of roll ring 5I by relative ro
tation of gear 62 when target bearing input shaft
44 is trained through relative target bearing.
34 comprises two sets of mountings which are
free to rotate with respect to each other about
a common vertical axis. Each set, level and
cross level, roll and pitch, comprises two rings
Gearing 66 transmits roll angle t0 indicating dial
61.
The pitch and roll shaft 29 is connected by
at right angles to each other. One ring of each
set 96 (level) and 5I (roll) vis pivoted about an
axis fixed with respect to the deck while the
second. ring of each set 94 (cross-level) and 88
.(pitch) is mounted on the corresponding firstv
‘
The outer or level ring 96 carries rack IIB,
tive target bearing shaft 35. R011 angle with
spaced 90"- from pivots 91 and 98, which meshes
relative target bearing thus added by differential 40 with pinion III mounted on levelY output shaft
55 is transmitted by shaft 58 and bevel gears 59
II2 journalled in a bracket I I3 mounted 0n main
to hollow shaft 60 journalled in shaft 44 and
frame 46. Thus shaft I I2 mechanically transmits
having at its upper end the gear 6I meshing with
level angle, converted-from roll, `pitch and rela'
v ’
,
l
It will be seen that the roll and pitch converter
each, 96 and 94, 5I and 88, respectively, pivoted
gear 68 to gear 69 of differential 19, which also
receives roll from shaft 28 through gears 1 I,
shaft 12, worm gears 'I3 and shaft 14. The dif
ring 96 (level) and 5I (roll), respectively, so that
ferential 10 subtracts the roll factor so that pitch
it can be maintained in a horizontal plane. The
angle is directly indicated by pitch dial 15 driven
outer set of rings 96 (level) and 94 (cross-level) is
by differential 18 through gears 16.
rotatably mounted with respect to the main
Pitch and roll shaft 29 is connected by gears 60 frame 46 and the deck of theuship, whereas the
11 to one side of ydifferential 18, the other side
inner set of rings 5|' (roll) v and 88 (pitch) is ro
of which is connected by gears 19 to relative tar
tated, i. e. trained through relative target bear
get bearing 'shaft 35. Relative target bearing
ing, by nieans'of support arms 41, 48 and 49
is thus added to pitch and roll angle by differen
when shaft 44 carrying them ‘is trained through
tial 18, whose output shaft 89 drives pitch input
relative target bearing by target bearing shaft 35.
shaftJ 8| through gears 82. Pitch input shaft 8l
Actually the roll Yand pitchY axes are fixed with
is journalled in roll input shaft 69 and its upper
respect to the deck and the level andy cross-level
end carries gear 83 driving gear 84 on shaft 85
axes are trained.
However, in order to simplify
journalled in arm'49 and hollow pivot 52 of roll
construction, the level and A_cross-level axesf’are
ring 5I. The shaft 85 carries the pinion 86 mesh 70 made fixed and the roll and pitch axes are ro
ing with rack 81 on pitch ring 88, which is piv
tated through relative target bearing, but in the
otally mounted in spaced relation to roll ring 5I
opposite direction to maintain therelative posi
on pivots 89 located 90° from pivots 50 and 52.
tion of the two sets of axes.
I »
Relative target bearing, is Yadded in this way vby
As is illustrated in Fig. 1,-cross-'level angle is
differential 18 to prevent displacement of pitch 75 mechanically transmitted by shaft |08 to dial
6
H3, calibrated to indicate generated cross-level
angle; also- to a conventional form of follow-up
H4, such as the contact type; also to ñring delay
compensator H5, to be described, and thus to
automatic ñring contacts H6 thereof; and also to
mechanical differential ||1. The other side of
differential ||1 also receives cross-level angle,
either from follow-up l |4 through shafts ||8 and
H9, or “cross-level set” introduced manually by
hand-crank |26 clutched by gears |2| to shaft
H9. Dial |22 is geared `to hand crank |20 and
indicates cross-level set. Follow-up H4 through
its follow-up motor |23 and shafts H8 and |24
transmits cross-level angle to trunnion-tilt cor
rector |25. Cross-level set from hand crank |20
mayalso be used to introduce cross-level angle
to the trunnion-tilt corrector |25 through shafts
||8and` |24. Hand crank |26, gears |21, and
shaft |28 are provided for manual follow-up.
along shaft' |52 horizontally from axis Y-Y is
proportional to d sin CL. Axis Z-Z is the line
of travel ofnut |53 for zero cross-level andis
a' vertical axis intersecting axis X-X in a point
Corresponding to zero sight deflection.
A lateral pin |54 on nut |48 fits slidably into
a horizontal slot |55 of slide |56, which is con
strained by rollers |51 to move in a vertical direc
tion as the vertical component of movement of
nut |48.
Pin l |54 on nut |48 also ñts slidably
into a vertical slot |58 of slide |59, which is con
strained by rollers |60 to movement in a horizon
tal >direction as the horizontal component of
movement of nut |48.
.
Similarly, a lateral pin |6| on nut |53 fits slid
ably into a horizontal slot |62 of slide |63, which
is constrained by rollers |64 to move in a vertical
direction as nut |53 moves along shaft |52. Pin
|6| also fits into vertical slot |65 of slide |66,
20. which is constrained by rollers |61 to move in a
horizontal direction as nut |53 moves along shaft
tilt corrector |25 by hand-crank |29, gears |30
|52.
and'shaft |3| and is indicated on helical scale
»» Range elevation 'is introduced into trunnion
|32 of range drum |33 by index pointer |34
threaded onl lead screw |35 driven by gears |36,
which also .drive range drum |33, as crank han
dle | 29. is turned.
The vertical displacement of slide |56 propor
tional to E cos CL is transmitted by rack |68 and
meshing pinion |69 to one side of corrected range
elevation (Ec) differential |10, the other side of
which is connected by pinion |1| to rack |12 of
horizontal slide |66 and receives an input there
from proportional to d- sin CL. The resultant
and shaft |39, and is indicated on dial |40 driven
by gear |4| connected to one of the gears |38.
30 output of differential |19 is the sum of these two
inputs and is equal to E cos CL-d sin CL, which
The trunnion-tilt corrector |25, illustrated in
is the corrected range elevation, Ec. The output
detail in Fig. 4, corrects the range elevation input
gear |13 of differential |10 is connected by gear
from shaft |3| and the sight deñection input
|14 Vto corrected range elevation or Ec output
from shaft |39 in termsof cross-level received
Sight deñection is introduced into trunnion
tilt corrector |25 by hand-crank |31, gears |38
from shaft |24, by mechanically Solving the fol
lowing.: equations:
,.
"Agus/17E sm'cL-td cos CL
E¢=E cos CL-d sin CL
Where Ace-corrected sight deflection, Ec=corrected range elevation, E=range elevation, posi
tive-up; d=deflection, positive-to right, CL:
cross level, positive-down at left, the directions
be considered positive whenv looking toward the
target.
'
shaft |15.
'
`The horizontal displacement of slide |59 pro
portional to E' »sin CL is transmitted by rack |16
and meshing pinion |11 to one side of corrected>
sight deflection (At) differential |18, the other
side of which is connected by pinion |19 to rack
|89 of vertical slide |63 and receives an input
therefrom proportional to d cos CL. The result
ant output of differential |18 is the addition of
these two inputs and is equal to
.
18/1'1 E sin CL-l-dcos CL
Referring to Fig. 4, in the trunnion-tilt cor
which is the .corrected sight deflection, Ac. The
rector |25, the range elevation input shaft |3|
output gear |8| of differential |18 is connected by
is connected Iby universal joint >|42 to one end
gear |62 to corrected sight deflection or Ac output
of shaft |43 connected at its other end by gears
shaft
|83. The empirical factor 18/1'1 is intro
|44 to a parallel threaded shaft |45 mounted on
duced by selecting pinion |11 to give the desired
toothed disc |46, which is rotated through cross
ratio between E sin CL input from rack |16 and
level- angle by meshing worm |41 on cross-level
the
speed of differential output gear |82.
»
input shaft |24, and whose axis of rotation is
Referring to Fig.` 1, the corrected sight deflec
the axis X--X, which coincides with the center
tion (Ae) output shaft |83 from the trunnion-tilt
of‘ the universal joint |42. A nut |48 threaded
corrector |25 is geared to the rotors of high and
onshaft |45 moves along shaft |45 as range in
low speed differential transmitters |84, preferably
put shaft |3| rotates it. The position of the
of the self-synchronizing type, the stators of
nut |48 vertically below axis X-X, in the plane
which through connections |85 electrically re
ofthe drawings, is proportional to E cos CL,
While the position of nut horizontally from axis 60 ceive relative target bearing from the controlling
director, not shown. »The resultant electrical
Ye-Y is proportional to E `sin CL. Axis Y-Y
output, which‘is gun train order Ot, is transmitted
is the line of travel of nut |48 for zero cross-level
by connections |66 to any desired remote firing
and is a vertical axis intersecting axis X-X in
point, and is also transmitted to high and low
a point corresponding to zero range elevation.
speed electrical receiver motors |81, preferably of
The sight deflection input shaft |39 is con
the self-synchronizing type, which drive indicat
nected by a second universal joint |49, positioned
ing dials |88.
'
on the rear side of disc |46 and coinciding with
The corrected range elevation (Ec) output shaft
axis X-X, to 'one end of shaft |56, the other
|15 from trunnion-tilt corrector |25 is connected
end of which is connected by gears |5| to thread
to one `side of mechanical differential |89, to the
ed shaft |52 mounted on the rear surface of
other side of which is connected shaft |90 intro
disc |46. A nut |53 moves along shaft |52 when
ducing director correction or level, from sources
the latter is rotated by sight deflection input
to be described. The resultant output of differ
shaft |39, and the position of-nut |53 along shaft
|52> vertically with respect to axis X--X is pro
portional 'to d cos CL. The position of nut |53
ential |69, which‘is gun elevation orderyOe, is
` transmitted by respective shafts |9| and |92 and
2,410,638.
7
suitable gearing to high and low speed indicating
dials |93 and to the rotors of high and 10W speed
electrical transmitters I 94, preferably of the self
synchronous type, from which the elevation order
(Oe) may be transmitted to any desired firing
point.
~
The aforementioned director correction applied
to differential |89, is received electrically from the
controlling director, not shown, by high and loW
speed receiver motors |95, preferably of the self
synchronizing type, and transmitted mechan
ically to the contact follow-up |96, which trans
mits it by shafts |91, |98 and suitable'gearing to
the input shaft I 90 of the differential |09. Hand
8
Then the ñring circuits to the guns are automat
ically completed at the proper time through the
firing contacts 2| | and 2| 6 of the director cor
rection ñring device 2 I1.
When the master selector switch is in “Cross
level fire” position, only level fo1loW-up204 is
energized, whereas cross-level follow-up || 4 and
director correction follow-up |96 are deener
gized, and the firing circuits to the guns are au
10 tomatically completed at the proper time through
the firing-contacts 22| and 222 of the cross-level
firing device H6, the inner contact 22| of which
is driven by firing delay compensator I|5, and
the outer contact 222 of which is driven by the
crank |99 and gears 200 are provided on shaft |91 15 differential I|1 through shaft 223 and gear 224.
for manual follow-up.
The aforementioned alternative level input to
differential |89 is received from level output shaft
||2 of roll and pitch converter 34. Shaft II2 is
rlî'he single follow-up motor 205, employed for
both follow-ups 204 and |96 remains energized
for both positions of 'the master switch, as in
one position thereof follow-up |96 is energized,
connected to level indicating dial 20 I, and to shaft 20 While in the other position, follow-up 204 is en
202, which is connected by shaft 293 and suitable
ergized. Where manual follow-ups 39, |26, or
gearing to level follow-up 204, which is preferably
203 are employed, cut-out switches are'provided
of vthe contact type similar to cross-level follovv
for the follow-up motors which they substitute,
up || 4. The follow-up motor 209 of follow-up
namely, 36, |23 and 205, respectively.
204 is connected by shafts 296 and 207 to input
Director correction fire is used when the m0
25
shaft |90 of differential |89. Hand-crank 203
tion of the ship is in the plane of sight, or When
and gears 209 are connected to shaft 206 for man
level angle, as indicated on generated level dial
ual follow-up.
20|, is greater than cross-level angle, as indi
Level is also transmitted from _roll and pitch
cated on generated cross-level dial | I3. Cross
converter 34 by shafts ||2 and 202 to firing delay
30 level ñre is selected when the motion of the ship
compensator 2|0, to be described, for actuating
is across the plane of sight, or When cross-level
inner firing contact 2| I, Level is also transmit
angle', as indicated on generated cross-level dial
ted by shaft 2 I2, geared to shaft 202, to one side
II3, is greater than level angle, as indicated on
of mechanical differential 2|3, the other side of
generated level dial 20|.
which is locked, because when cross-level fire is in 35
In operation of the selective gun fire control.
use, director correction follow-up |96 is inopera
system of this invention, With director correc
tive, as Will be explained. Thus shaft 2|4 is
tion fire selected, the roll and pitch converter
driven by differential 2 I 3 through the level angle
34 receives roll and pitch plus roll angles rne
and, through its gear 2|5, drives the outer firing
chanically from stable element |0 by means of
contact 2|6 of automatic ñring device 2|1. 40 respective shafts 28 and 29, and also receives
Where director nre is employed, differential 2|3
relative target bearing by means of shaft 35,
adds the input from level shafts 202 and 2 I2 and
from follow-up 31, the motors 38 of Which receive
from director correction shaft |91 and the output
it electrically from the controlling director.
shaft 2| 4 and outer firing contact 2I6 are driven
These inputs are combined in the roll and pitch
accordingly.
,
converter in the manner described into level and
The firing delay compensators ||5 and 2|0
cross-level angles, which are transmitted by
automatically compensate for the time delay
means of respective output shafts I|2 and |08.
between the closing of the firing switch and the
Cross~level _angle is transmitted from shaft
passage of the projectile out of the gun, so that
I 99 through follow-up II4, follow-up motor |23
the gun is actually fired ahead of the usual firing 50
and shafts |I8 and I 24 into trunnion-tilt cor
time. In the form shown, the compensator 2| 0
rector I25, Where it is combined with range ele
essentially comprises a drag coupling interposed
vation, introduced by hand-crank |29, gears |30
between the ends of aligned shafts 202 and 2|8
and shaft |3I, and with sight deflection, intro
leading to inner firing contact 2| I, the former
duced by hand-crank |31, gears |38 and shaft
carrying electro-magnet 2|9 and the latter car
I 39 to give corrected elevation (Ec) output by
rying a copper ring 220. As the electro-magnet
shaft |15 and corrected sight deflection (Ae) out
2|9 is >rotated by level shaft 202, eddy currents
put by shaft |83.
induced in copper ring 220 cause it to follow
Corrected elevation (Ec) is combined in me
the magnet 2|9, so that the inner firing contact
chanical differential |89 with the director cor
2|| is displaced by an amount depending upon 60 rection from shaft |90 to give the gun elevation
the speed of rotation of the magnet 2I9, which
order (Oe) which is transmitted to indicating
speed is a function of the roll or pitch of the
dials
|93 located at the instrument, and also to
ship, so that outer firing contact 2I6 engages
electrical transmitter |94, from which it is elec
inner contact 2|| at an earlier time. Copending
trically transmitted to suitable receiving motors
application Serial No. 98,877, filed September 1, 65 with dials or conventional automatic follow-up
1936, discloses further- details of construction of
mechanism, not shown, located at the battery, so
the firing delay compensators II5 and 2I0.
that the position of the guns in elevation may
'I‘he electric follow-up and firing circuits are
be continuously corrected in accordance with the
selected by a master selector switch 225 (Fig. 1),
gun elevation order (Oe).
having two positions marked “Director correc 70
Corrected sight deflection (Ac) is combined in
tion ñre” and “Cross-level fire.” When this
electrical differential transmitters |84 With rela
master switch is in position for director correo
tive target bearing received electrically through
tion ñre of the guns, cross-level follow-up || 4
connections |85 from the controlling director to
and director correction follow-up | 96 are ener
give gun train order (Ot) , which is transmitted
gized, whereas level follow-up 204 is deenergized. 75 electrically to receiver motors |81 operating in-V
2,410,638
9
"10
dicating dials |88 located at the instrument, and
drives through gear 224 outer contact 222 of au
also >to receiving motors with indicating dials or
tomatic firing device H6. The othersideof dif
ferential ||'| receives a selected> value of cross
level as set in by hand crank |28 and indicated
~ gunsin train may be continuously corrected in Ur on cross-level set dial |22. This cross-level set
is similar to setting of director correction and is
accordance with gun train order (Ot) .
automatic follow-up mechanism, not shown, 1o
cated at the battery, so that the position of the
' ~ The roll and pitch converter 34 transmits level
to-dial 20|, to firing delay compensator 2|0, and
to mechanical differential 2|3, where it is com
bined with the director correction angle from
Ifollow-up |98 and shaft |91, its output shaft 2I4
made by observing the concentric dials of the
ñring contacts 22I‘and 222 of iiring device I I5
to ascertain the maximum number of opportu
nities to ñre the gun battery. Outer contact 222
thus moves in synchronism with motion óf the
ship in cross-level, corrected for the selected
cross level set at which the battery is to be‘ñred.
`2| 6 of automatic firing device 2|1. Thus, outer
Inner contact 22| is carried by tiring delay com
ñring contact 2|E is made to move in synchro
nism with the motion of the ship in level, cor-` 15 pensator H15, so that inner contact 22| is ad
vanced by an angle which isproportional to the
~rected for director correction, that is, with inner
ñring delay and which is automatically varied
firing contact 2I| locked on zero, the contacts
in accordance With the speed of the ship in cross
2| I and 2|6 will engage, thus closing the gun ñr
level motion. For automatic fire, the‘battery is
ing circuit at the instant the ship is in a position
iìred When contacts 22| and 222 engage.
corresponding to the director correction input.
Cross-level set from hand crank |28 vis trans
The inner Contact 2|| is carried by one member
mitted by shafts I I8 and |24 to the trunnionetilt
220 of firing delay compensator 2 I 0, which causes
corrector |25. Follow~up motor |23 is not ener
the inner contact 2|I to be advanced an amount
'gized during cross-level ñring so that follow-up
proportional to the ñring delay and varied auto
»
matically with' the speed of the ship in level mo 25 I |‘4 is inoperative.
The corrected sight deñection (lAc) from shaft
tion. `Thus the battery is iired automatically
- being connected to gear 2l5 driving outer contact
when contacts 2|| and 2| 6 engage, in accord
ance ywith generated level, director correction and
|83 is combined, as in the case of director Icor
rection fire, with relativetarget bearing in elec
trical diiîerentials |84 and is electrically trans
’
The roll and pitch converter 34 transmits the 30 mitted to dials |88 at the instrument, and also
to receiving motors with dials or automatic fol
cross-level angle by means of shaft |88 to dial
low-up mechanism, not shown, located at the
| I3, to ñring delay compensator I I5, to one mem
battery,'so the position of` guns in train may be
ber of mechanical differential II'I, and to follow
continuously corrected in accordance with the
up II4. Through the latter and corresponding
gun train order (Ot) .
follow-up motorv |23, the second input member of
It will be seen that a highly flexible selective
diiîerential I|`| receives cross-level angle, so the
system of gun fire control is provided by this in
resultant output of diiîerential |I1 is zero.
vention, whereby the main battery or other guns
Therefore, outer contact 222 of automatic ñring
may be automatically ñred with a high and con
device H6, driven by gear 224 on diiîerential
output shaft 223, remains stationary. Firing con 40 sistent degree of accuracy at any selected posi
tion, irrespective of the ship’s motion in roll and
tacts 22| and 222 were cut out of the firing circuit
pitch. `
"
l
Y
by the master selector switch when director cor
While apreferred embodiment of the inven
rection fire was selected.
tion isv illustrated and described herein, it is to
With the master selector switch set in “Cross
firing delay compensation.
level iire” position, operation of, and inputs to, 45 be understood'thatthe invention lis not limited
thereby, but is susceptible of changes in form'and
the roll and pitch converter 34 are the same as
detail within the scope of the appended claims.
for director correction ñre. Roll and pitch con
We claim:
verter 34 thus transmits level angle to dial 20|,
1. In a system for controlling ship gun fire,
to iiring delay Compensator 2|0, to one side of
differential 2|3, and to »follow-up 294, which in 50 the combination of stable means for determining
the angle of unstable movement of theship,
turn transmits level to the other side of differen
means actuated in accordance With target bear
tial 2|3, so that its resultant output to shaft 2|4
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
and gear 2l5 is zero. Outer contact 2|6 of auto
means for converting said angle into level angle,
matic iiring device 2|`| accordingly remains sta
means responsive vto the, “trunnion-tilt” dis
tionary. Firing contacts 2|I and 2|6 of auto
placement of the ship from the horizontal about
`matic firing device 2|'| were cut out of the firing
the lineoi sight to the target, mechanism actu
circuit by the master selector switch when cross
level fire was selected.
ated in accordance with range elevation, opera
tive connections between said trunnion-tilt
Follow-up 284 also transmits level angle to one
side of differential |89 which combines it with 60 means and said range elevation mechanism for
modifying the movement of the latter, means
the corrected range elevation (Ec) received
for combining the output of said two mecha
through shaft |75 from trunnion-tilt corrector
nisms, and means actuated by said last-‘named
|25, to give resultant gun elevation order (Oe),
means for indicating corrected elevation.
which `is transmitted mechanically to dials |93
2. In a system for controlling ship gunfire,
located at the instrument, and also is transmitted 65
the combination of stable means for determin
electrically'by transmitters |94 to receiving mo
ing the angle of unstable movement of the'ship,
tors with dials or automatic -follow-up mecha
`meansactuated in accordance with target bear
nism, not shown, located at the battery, so the
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
position of the guns in elevation may be contin
uously corrected in accordance with the eleva 70 means for converting said angle into cross-level
tion order (Oe) .
As before, the roll and pitch converter 34 trans
mits cross-level angle to dial H3, to firing delay
compensator ||5, and to one side of mechanical
n angle, means actuated by said mechanism `for
determining "trunnion-tilt” displacement of the
ship from the horizontal'about the line of sight
to rthe target, means actuated in accordance
diiîerential H1, the output shaft 223 of >which 75 with sight deñection, operativeconnections be
11
2,410,638
tween said trunnion-tilt means and said sight
deflection means for modifying the movement
of the latter, and means actuated by said last
named means for indicating corrected train.
3. In a system for controlling ship gun fire,
>the combination of stable means for determin
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
means actuated in accordance with target bear
ing„mechanism jointly actuated by said two
means for converting said angle into cross-level
angle, means actuated by said mechanism for
determining “trunnion-tilt” displacement of the
shipfrom the horizontal about the line of sight
to the target, means actuated in accordance
with range elevation, operative connections be
`12
in accordance with range elevation, operative
connections between said trunnion-tilt means
and said range elevation means for modifying the
output of the latter, means for modifying the
output of said range elevation means in accord
ance with' a predetermined angular correction,
`means actuated by the output of said range
elevation means for indicating corrected eleva
tion, and means actuated by said combining
10 means for indicating corrected sight deilection.
'7. In a system for controlling ship gun fire,
the combination of stable means for determin
ing’the `angle of unstable movement of the ship,
means actuated in accordance with target bear
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
tween said trunnion-tilt means and said range
means for converting said angle into cross-level
angle, electrical contacts for firing the gun upon
engagement, and means actuated by said mecha
nism nfor effecting engagement of said contacts.
outputs of said range elevation means and said 20
8. In a system for'controlling ship gun ñre,
director correction means, and means actuated
the combination of stable means for determin
by said last-named means for indicating cor
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
rected elevation.
means actuated in accordance with target bear
elevation means for modifying the output of the
latter, means actuated in accordance with
“director correction,” means for combining the
, 4, In a system for controlling ship gun ñre,
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
the combination of stable means for determin 25 means for‘converting said angle into level angle,
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
electrical contacts for ñring the gun upon en
means actuated in accordance with target bear
gagement, means actuated by said mechanism
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
for eiîecting engagement of said contacts, and
means for converting said angle into cross-level
means for modifying theA actuation of said last
angle, means actuatedby said mechanism for 30 named means in accordance with “director cor
determining “trunnion-tilt” displacement of the
rection.”
ship from the horizontal about the line of sight
9. In a system for controlling ship gun fire,
to the target, means actuated in accordance
the combination of stable means for determining
with range elevation, operative connections be
the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
tween said trunnion-tilt means and said range
means actuated in accordance with target bear
elevation means for modifying the output of the
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
latter, means for modifying'the output of said
means for converting said angle into level angle,
range elevation means in accordance with a
electrical contacts for iiring the gun upon en
predetermined angular correction, and means
gagement, means actuated by said mechanism
actuated by the output of said range elevation 40 yfor effecting engagement of said contacts, and
means for indicating corrected elevation.
means for modifying the actuation of said last
5. In a system for controlling ship gun ñre,
named means in accordance with a predeter
the combination of stable means for determin
mined angular correction.
’
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
10. In a system for controlling ship gun ñre,
means actuated in accordance with target bear 45 the combination of stable means for determining
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
means for converting said angle into level and
cross-level angles, means actuated by said
the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
means actuated in accordance with target bear
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
mechanism for determining “trunnion-tilt” dis
means for converting said angle into cro-ss-level
placement of the ship from the horizontal about v50 angle, electrical contacts for ñring the gun upon
the line of sight to the target, means actuated
engagement, means actuated by said mechanism
in accordance with sight deflection, operative
for effecting engagement of said contacts, and
connection between said trunnion-tilt means and
manual means for modifying the actuation of
said sight deflection means for modifying the
said last-named means in accordance with “cross
output of the latter, means for combining the 55 level set.”
output of the last-named means with the output
11. In a system for controlling ship gun iire,
of said target bearing means, and means actu
the combination of stable means for determin
ated by said last-named means for indicating
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
corrected sight deflection.
means actuated in accordance with target bear
6. In a system for controlling ship gun iire, 60 ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
the combination of stable means for determin
means for converting said angle into level angle,
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
mechanism jointly actuated by said two means
means actuated in accordance with target bear
for converting said ship angle into cross-level
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
angle, two sets of electrical contacts for alter
means for converting said angle into level and 65 natively firing said gun upon engagement, _opera
cross-level angles, means actuated by said
tive connections between one set of said firing
mechanism for determining “trunnion-tilt” dis
contacts- and said level angle mechanism, opera
placement of the ship from the horizontal about
tive connections between said other‘set of con
the line of sight to the target, means actuated
tacts and said cross-level mechanism, and selec
in accordance with sight deflection, operative 70 tive means controlling said connections for rend~
connections between said trunnion-tilt means
ering either of said contacts operative to ñre the
and said sight deflection means for modifying the
gun.
output of the latter, means for combining the
y12. In a system for controlling ship gun fire,
output of the last-named means with the output
combination of stable means for determining
of said target bearing means, means actuated 75 the
the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
2,410,638
14
13
means _actuated in accordance with target bear
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
means for converting said angle into level angle,
mechanism jointly actuated by said two means
for converting said ship angle into cross-level
angle, two sets of electrical contacts for alter
l:natively iiring said gun upon engagement, opera
-tive connections between one set of said ñring
contacts and said level angle mechanism, opera
tive connections between said other set of con
tacts and said cross-level mechanism, selective
means controlling said connections for rendering
either` of said contacts operative to iire the gun,
and means for modifying the level connections to
said corresponding contacts in accordance with
“director correction.”
13. In a system for controlling ship gun ñre,
the combination of stable means for determining
the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
means actuated in accordance with target bear
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
means for converting said angle into level angle,
mechanism jointly actuated by said two means
16. In a system for controlling ship gun fire,
the combination of stable means for determin
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
means actuated in accordance with target bear
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
means for converting said ship angle into cross
level angle, means actuated in accordance with
sight deflection, means jointly actuated by said
mechanism and sight deilection means in accord
ance with the hereinbefore-deiined factor
E sin CL-i-d cos CL
and means for indicating the output of said last
nained means as corrected sight deflection.
17. In a system for controlling ship gun fire,
the combination of stable means for determin
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
means for indicating said angle of unstable move
ment, means actuated in accordance with target
bearing, mechanism jointly actuated by said stable
means and said target bearing actuated means
for converting said angle of unstable movement
into level angle, and means actuated by said
mechanism for indicating the said level angle
existing simultaneously with the said indicated
unstable movement angle.
18. In a system for controlling ship gun ñre,
for converting said ship angle into cross-level
angle, two sets of electrical contacts for alter
'natively iiring said gun upon engagement, opera
tive connections between one set of said ñring
the combination of stable means for determin
contacts and said level angle mechanism, oper
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
ative connections between said other set of con
meansfor indicating said angle of unstable move
tacts and said cross-level mechanism, selective
ment, means actuated in accordance with target
means controlling said connections for rendering
bearing, mechanism jointly actuated by said
either of said contacts operative to ñre the gun,
stable means and said target bearing actuated
and means for modifying the cross-level connec
means for converting said angle of unstable
tions to said corresponding contacts in accord
35 movement into cross-level angle, and means actu
ance with a predetermined angular correction.
ated by said mechanism for indicating the said
14. In a system for controlling ship gun ñre,
cross-level angle existing simultaneously with the
the combination of stable means for determining
said unstable movement angle.
ì
the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
19. In a system for controlling ship-gun lire,
means actuated in accordance with target bear
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two 40 the combination of stable means for determin
ing the angles of pitch and roll of the ship, means
means for converting said angle into level angle,
for indicating said angles of pitch and roll, means
mechanism jointly actuated by said two means
actuated in accordance with target bearing,
for converting said ship angle into cross-level
mechanism jointly actuated by said stable means
angle, two sets of electrical contacts for alter-_
natively ñring said gun upon engagement, opera 45 and said target bearing actuated means for con
verting said angles of pitch and roll into level
tive connections between one set of said firing
and cross-level angles, and means actuated by
contacts and said level angle mechanism, opera
said mechanism for indicating the said level and
tive connections between said other set of con
cross-level angles existing simultaneously withv
tacts and said cross-level mechanism, selective
means controlling said connections for rendering 50 the said angles of pitch and roll.
20. In a system for controlling ship gun lire,
either of said contacts operative to fire the gun,
the combination of stable means for determin
and means for modifying the level connections
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
to said corresponding contacts in accordance with
means for indicating said angle of unstable move
a predetermined angular correction.
15. In a system for controlling ship gun fire, 55 ment, means actuated in accordance with target
the combination of stable means for determin
ing the angle of unstable movement of the ship,
bearing, mechanism jointly actuated by said stable means and said target bearing actuated means
for converting said angle of unstable movement
into level angle, means actuated by said mech
ing, mechanism jointly actuated by said two
means for converting said ship angle into cross 60 anism for indicating the said level angle exist
ing simultaneously with the said indicated un
level angle, means actuated in accordance with
stable movement angle, electrical contacts for
range elevation, means jointly actuated by said
means actuated in accordance with target bear
mechanism and range elevation means in accord
ance with the hereinbefore deñned factor
E cos CL-d sin CL
and means for indicating the output of said last
means as corrected range elevation.
ñring the gun upon engagement, and means actu
ated by said mechanism for effecting engagement
65 of said contacts.
ARTHUR P. DAVIS.
JAMES K. MAC‘OMBER.
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