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Патент USA US2410725

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Nav. 5, 1946.
A
P. FRANKLIN
STEREOSCOPIC APP'ARAT US IN RELATION T0
REPRODUCTION AND TELEVISI
Filed Aug. 25, 1944
2,410,725
OCÈÍINEMATQGRAPH
1l Sheets-Sheet l
Nov. 5,‘ 1946.
STEREOSCOPIC
A. P. FRANKLIN
APPARATUS IN RE
2,410,725
LATION TO CÍNEMATOGRAPH
REPRODUCTION AND TELEVISION
Filed, Aug. 25. 1944
11 sheets-sheet s
Nòv. 5, 1946.
A. P. FRANKLlN
REPRODUCTION AND TELEVISION
sTEREOscoPIc APPARAT Us IN RELATION To OINEMATOGE
’
Fil'ed Aug. 25, 1944
4l
’
11 Sheets-Sheet 4
Abw
firm/fwn'.
Nov. 5, 1946.
A. P_YFRANKLlN
2,410,725
STEREOSCOPIC APPARATUS IN RELATION TO CINEMATOGRAPH
REPRODUCTION AND TELEVISION
Filed Aug. 25. 1944
_
11 Sheets-Sheet 5
73),: im
NOV. 5, 1946.
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2 10,7254
STEREOSCOPIC APPARATUS IN RELATION TO CINEMATOGRAPH
REPRODUCTION AND TELEVISION
Filed Aug. 25. 1944
11 Sheets-Sheet 6
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REPRODUCTION AND TELEVISION
Filed Aug. 25. 1944
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Nov. 5, 1946.
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A_P. FRANKLlN
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2,410,725
sTEREoscoPIc APPARATUS 1N RELATION To GINEMATOGRAPH
-
REPRODUCTION AND TEI..\.'«:vIsIoNI
Filed Aug. 25, 1944
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- 11 Sheets-Sheet 8
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Nov. 5, 1946.
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STEREOSCOPIC
l11.1». FRANKLIN
2,410,725’
APPARATUS IN RELATION TO CINEMATOGRAPH
REPRODUCTION ' AND TELEVI S ION
Filed Aug. 25, 1944
11 sheets-sheet 10
NW» 5» .1946»
A. P. FRANKLIN
2,410,725
STEREOSCOPIC APPARATUS IN RELATION TO CINEMATOGRÀPH
REPRODUCTION AND TELEVISION
Filed Aug. 2s. 1944
www@ ,
11 sheets-sheet 11
v Patented Nov. 5, »119.4596
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stares PATENT 'oi-irisa
2,410,725
STEREOSCQPIC APPARATUS 1N RELATION
'
TO `CINEMATGGIRAÍPH
AND TELEVISI‘ON
REPRODUCTIQN
Alan Philip Franklin, Lower Kingswood; England
Application August 25, 1944, Serial No. 551,128
-
In Great Britain August 31, 1943
2
This invention relates to stereoscopic appara
front of the viewer the two eye pieces will always
tus for viewing stereoscopic pictures and in par
be maintained with their axes in_a plane passing
through the centres of the two pictures.
The device may be made of metal, cardboard
ticular to moving pictures resulting _from cine- _
/matograph or television reproduction where -a
number of people have to view the same pic
l torial reproduction.
»
or one of the well-known plastics or-any other
suitable material. The device can be moved to
Conform to any movement of the Viewer.
In thesimplest form no, lenses or mirrors are
-
One of the difficulties experienced with the de
sign and construction of any apparatus suitable
for use bythe public is that the average member
needed for this invention. The probability is that
of an audience will not use any device as an aid 10 only one prism will be necessary.
to vision which has .to .be held or manipulated
continuously during a performance or which
must be held close up to the eyes.
y
'
I
The device could also be used in the case of
polarised light where the pictures to be viewed
are superimposed. For this purpose a polarisîng
Another ditñculty is that in stereoscopic repro
duction any movement ci the viewer which moves'
ñlter would be iìtted to each eye piece and the
prism or prisms moved out of the line of vision.
` the eye-pieces of the viewing device out of the
Y
plane passing through thecentres of the two pic
tures destroys fusion and the stereoscopic eüect
The drawings which will now be referred to
show the `stages of development of the invention.
Fig. 1 is a perspective diagrammatic view of one
is at once lost. If- the device is held or worn by
form of apparatus made according tothe present
the viewer the necessary restraint would be most 20
irksome, whereas when the device is mounted in
Fig. 2 is a part sectional plan view of another
the manner described hereinafter in relation to
form of device made according to the present in
my own invention this diñculty is overcome.
»In the application of polarised light it has been
Fig. '3 is a cross-section on the line 2_2 of Fig.
suggested to provide special spectacles for view 25 2 looking inthe direction of the arrows.
lng, but the drawback to the provision of-glasses
Fig. 4 is a front view of the cap shown in Fig. 2.
or other unattached device is that, >apart from
Fig. 5 is a front .view of the device illustrated
_the expense, they are liable to become damaged or
in Fig. 2 on a reduced scale to show part of the
. lost. If, however, they are made a ñxture and
method of mounting.
adapted to my invention as hereinafter disclosed, 30 Fig. 6 is a side view showing the complete device
this and other dimculties would be met.
with mounting.
,
\
The stereoscopic edect depends on the visual
Fig.
7
is
a
sectional
plan
view
of
modified
fusion of two pictures. A very few people can, . form of the device shown in Figs. 4, 5 aand
6.
with practice, train their `vision to eiïect'the fu
Figs.
8
and
9
are
end
views
of
the
device
shown
sion without any aid, but these are the exceptions
invention.
»
vention.
and even they see a parasitic image on each side
'
I
.
'
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-
.
35 in Fig. 7.
-
Fig. 10 is a longitudinal sectional elevation of
of the fused image, moreover, the concentration
the device shown in Fig. 7.
«
required imposes a deilnite strain. The majority
Fig. 11 is a sectional plan view of one form of
of persons, therefore, must have some aid toA Vi
device made according to the present invention.
sion in order that in- spite of theirnatural but .40 Fig. 12 is a cross section on the line 2--'-2 of Fig.
somewhat inñexible control of focus and conver- .
_ gence they can produce currect' fusion of the two
images without strain.`
y
11 looking in the direction of the arrows.~
in Fig. 11.
By use of a very complicated system oflmultl--l
»
»
Fig. 1'3 is a front view ofthe device illustrated
_ .
-
'
'
a
Fig.' 14 is a side v_iew on a reduced scale show
‘ple lenses and concave mirrors, individual aids to 45 ing the complete device 'with mounting.
vision might possibly ybe dispensed with, but at a '
Fig. 15 is aplan of Fig. 14.
vprohibitive cost.
`
Fig. 1'6 is a _sectionalp'lan view of a inodiiiedV
Persons using my apparatus in the'home», could
l form of the device.
' move their viewing pieces, and fixtures erected on
-
Figs. .17 and 18 are front and side elevations
a suitably weighted stand to any position to suit 50 respectively of the device shown in Fig. 16. .
the angle of the prism. Prisms could be change
Fig. 19 is a sectional plan view.
~
, able but would be chosen for a normai distance
from the television set so that 3'or -more people
can view it at the same time.
Fig. 20 is a transverse vertical section through
i one of the prism holders, and
. As the device is ñxedly supported in position in /sß
Fig. 21 is an elevation sione' of the butterfly
ñaps Bil.’vl l
2,410,725
3
4
Referring to Fig. 1 which shows one form of
apparatus made according to the invention com,
>
-
device in the case of a cinema would be from the
hack of the'front seat and slightly to one side
to avoid the head of the front seat holder. They'
prising a vertical bar I carried on a support 2
can be on either his left or right or alternated
which in turn is carried on a telescopic column 3
adjustable as to height, pivoted at 4 to a slide 5 Ul according to circumstances, or the mounting can
be accommodated in the recess between two seats
mounted on a rail» 6 secure to the backs of two
and drawn out to the required position. A
seatsin the row in front of the viewer. A handle
The mounting as shown in Figs. 5, 6 and 8
'l is provided to assist manipulation, and the de- A
mainly comprises a standard 28 pivoted to a slide
vice is maintained in'position by tightening all
22, the slide being capable of adjustment in a lat
pivots~ or other adjustable parts. A pair of eye
eral direction,~ and the standard adjustable in. a
pieces ñtted with prisms 9 are arranged in rela
vertical direction. The slide 22 enables the ap
tion to the bar I and are encased in a manner
paratus to be moved to conform to any lateral
similar to the eye pieces of a stereoscope.
movement of the viewer. The apertures in the
The bar I is made of such dimensions that 'if
adjusted to its normal position it will block out 5 eye-pieces as seen in Fig. Bare elongated to allow
for his movement up and down. After the de
the view of the right-hand picture from the left.
vice has been correctly positioned the various
eye and vice-versa so that the right eye of the
adjustable parts may be locked by a wing nut or
viewer will only see the right-hand picture and
a clamping device. The ñtting arrangement of
.
The operation of the device will be obvious from 20 the tubes as shown in Fig. 6, comprises a fork 23
the left eye the left-hand picture.
the drawings, therefore no further description
will be given.`
‘s
The arrangement will avoid discomfort of any '
attachment which has to be worn and, as will be
seen, the eye pieces are of such a size as to en
able them to be positioned at from three to six
inches from the eyes of the viewer whilst per
mitting a full and correct view of the respective
pictures to be obtained.
which receives the transverse pivot 24.
`
In order to avoid loss of parts all parts are
made so that nothing can be detached, although
they can be loosened for purpose of adjustment.
.The arrangement as shown in Fig- 6 enables the
apparatus to vbe pushed away from the viewer to
a position shown in full lines in which other
members of the audience can readily pass up and
down the row whilst the position shown in dotted
Referring to the construction shown in-Figs, 30 lines illustrates the device adjusted for viewing.
2 to 6, the device comprises an outer casing a sim
ilar in shape to the eye mask of a stereoscope.
Pivots b provided with wing nuts c are secured to
' If the tubes are made detachable and ínter
changeable each will be secured by a chain 25 or
other link in order to avoid loss. ‘
In order to reduce the aperture of the tubes in
Mounted within the outer 35 Figs. 2 to 6 to the desired size a detachable and
and extend laterally from the casing toengage »
supporting arms d.
casing a are inner casings e and e' which are
provided with pivots .f slidable in slots g in the
outer casing and secured by thumb nuts h. The
inner -casings e and e' carry detachable ñared
interchangeable cap (Fig. 4) maybe provided
for each tube. ’ In Fig. ’7, however, ajustable shut
ters 4 and 'I are provided to serve the same pur
pose. Of course, foreach seat a different aper
tubes 7' and y" which are secured against unau
ture can be ñxedly provided.
thorized' removal by light chains shown in Fig.
ate any adjustable apparatus.
6 ('25). Within the outer casing a is mounted an
apertured partition lc adjacent the ends of the
tubes j and 7". The tube e is provided with a
prism m whilst the tube e' may be open-ended or
In order to reduce the cost one prism only need
be used and this can be located -in one of thetubes, the other being left clear, preferably the '
provided with a piece of plane optical glass to
keep out draughts. The end of the tubes i 7" are
Thi:J would obvi
,
right. The angle of the prism would naturally
be >selected according to the position of the seat
from which the pictures are to be viewed, but it
has been found in practice that a prism of about
20° willgive perfect fusion in the greater part of
Referring tothe construction shown in Figs. '7 50 the auditorium so that special prisms would only 'l
be required for a small number of seats.
to- 10 inclusive, this form of the device comprises
Minor adjustments may be effected by moving >
a box-like outer casing I of substantially .rec-»
the apparatus nearer or further from the eye, the
tangularr cross-section two ends of the box being
major adjustment .being obtained by the prism.
left open. One end is shaped to form an eye mask
2. Portions 3 of the side walls adjacent the other 55 In most cases the more important adjustments
can `be effected permanently for each seat, leav
end are removed and replaced by shutters 4
ing only a' few minor adjustments to be carried
' hinged at 5 the said shutters having upper and
lower flanges which ñt into the casing I and by , out by the members of the audience, which will
only be of the simplest kind.
y ‘
friction therewith hold the shutters in the de-~
No new equipment will be required for projec
sired position after being set. The casing l is 60
tion as the complementary pictures are arranged
provided with a longitudinal partition 6 extend>n
closed by a cap n having an eccentric aperture
shown in detail in Fig. 4.
ing for partof the distance and two shutters 1
pivoted at 8 which' may be brought together'to
side by side on the film and projected through
, the same lens.
In order to make use of the same size frame as
the dotted line. At the mask end the box-like 65 is now used in practice this area may be divided v v
longitudinally of the ñlm. This would normally
casing is provided with an apertured partition 9
make the pictures taller than they are wide.
which is inclined backwardly as in Fig. l0. In
front of the partition 9 adjacent the right-hand
this is objected to then by any known optical sys
tem the image can be turned through an angle of
-aperture thereof is a. detachable prism holder IllV
provided with prism ll the holder being slidable 70 90° in taking the pictures and reversed on pro
laterally and pivoted in the same manner as in
jection. Each picture being half normal size the
the form shown in Figs. 2 to 6. A similar holder
use at first would probably have to be'restricted
may be provided in front of the other aperture
to small cinemas or news reel theatres but when
and carry plane glass tov exclude draught.
it has been proved a success and the public have
The most convenient position for mounting the 75 beome accustomed to the novelty the expense of
form an extension or partition 6 or moved to
j 2,410,725
necessary modiñcations for application to larger
buildings would be justiiied. In practice, it has
been found by test that the smaller-sized pictures
Forward of the guides s the sides of the body I
are inclined outwarlly and terminate in pivoted
shutters I4 of opaque material having actuating
give ample View even in the back seats of a large
members I5 secured thereto which extend
through arcuate slots I6 in the bottom wall of
If `this method of projection is adopted, it will
the :body l a friction device or other means (not v
mean that, with the same degree of magnifica
shown) being provided to hold the pivoted shut
tion'as for ordinary ñlms the length of the two
ters I 4 in position after being set. In a similar
pictures together will be 30’ and the height 10’.
manner the central partition 6 terminates in two
That means that the fused picture will be 10 pivoted shutters I1 with actuating members I8
>15’ x 10'. On the other hand, if the two pic
extending through arcuate slots I9. Secured to
tures are taken square on the normal ñlm, they
the bottom wall of the body.I near the point of.
could be projected’without the 90° prism, to make
balance isa bifurcated lug 20, the wings of which
cinema.
_
I
a fused picture of 10’ x 10'. If the cinemas will
not enlarge their screens, so as to make them v30’
long, the latter arrangement can easily :be car
are drilled at 2l, to receive a rivet or bolt 22
shown dotted in Fig. 13.
'
In the drawings the prisms III are of relativelyy h
v large angle and it is to be understood that such
ried out.
Furthermore, if the square ñlms, which I con
wide angle prisms would only be required Áfor
tend, and,- as I have proved by tests, with third
seats relatively close to the screen and that- in
dimensional vision would be quiteA appropriate, 20 many cases a single prism is suflicient the other
are objected to, the picture rwould have to be one
being omitted or replaced by a piece of optical
quarter the size of the normal picture assuming
plane glass. The use of a singlet-prism will reduce
also that 20’ is the maximum breadth available ' cost of manufacture.
for the two pictures.
,
Turning nowy to Figs. 14 and 15 of the drawings
Referring to the form shown in Figs. 1l to 13,
which show one formV of adjustable mounting
the ’device comprises a hollow body part or cas
which enables the device to be moved _to the de
ing I having a mask portion 2 cut away to the
sired position whilst guarding against its being
approximate shape of the forehead and, there
tilted sideways.
l
` I
.
,
fore, somewhat‘similar in shape to the mask of
Mounted on the back of the seat 30 is a bracket
the well-known stereoscope. The device accord 30 3| pivotally supporting a 'ertic'al member 32v
ing to the present invention however, diiîers es
, carryinga linked >frame the embers 33 to 33 of
sentially from a stereoscope in that the viewer ‘
which form two coupled parallelograms theouter
should not press his forehead against the device
vertical member 38 carrying ‘a- vertical socket 39
or vice versa and should on the contrary always
in which is pivotally supported a pin Ml formed
arrange the device so that-it is clear of his fore 3.5 with a lug adapted to enter between the wings
head by a few inches.- The mask portion 2 there- fore only acts as a shield or shade to shut out
ì .
¿of the bifurcated lug 20 arid drilled to. receive
the -rivet or bolt 22.
unwanted light or views and so aid concentra
Figs. 14 and 15.show clearly the movements
v
which may be imparted to the device and its sup- ,
Slidably mounted in the body I adjacent the 40 port.
It will be obvious from Fig. '14 how the de
mask 2 are two shutters or movable blocking
`vice
can
be raised or lowered, drawn towards the
pieces 3, carried in guides- 4, the shutters 3 ex
viewer' or pushed away while Fig. 15 shows by
tending through slots 5 in the body I, so as to
_dotted lines how the whole support may be swung
be manually operable from outside the body I.
sideways to conform to the _regulations of the
45
Each slidable shutter 3 is formed from a sheet of
London
County Council or other local authority,
opaque material of rectangular shape to slide in
by pivoting about the member 32 or directed
the guides @and is provided with .a rectangular
angularly by turning the device about the pivot
aperture two inches square, the inner edge 'of
39. Fig. 14 also .shows how the device may be
which is spaced one inch from the edge of the
tilted about the rivet or bolt 22. It should be
shutter. I The two slidable shutters are arranged 50 noted
that this varrangement entirely prevents
to be able to'overlap at their inner ends so that
any sideways tilting.
the opaque end portions of one inch width may
'I'he device above described is best suited for
overlie one another. l
use where the viewer gets a relatively clear space
Arranged longitudinally down the centre ofthe
between two members oi' the audience sitting in
body I and extending forwardly from adjacent
the seats immediately in front. In some cinemas
the guides 4 is a _central partition yIi of opaque ma- f
the seats are not so well arranged. In such
terial. Fixed to the central partition 6 adjacent
cases the seats should be reë‘arrangèd or the
, the guides d is an opaquetransverse ñxedblock
screen raised. If `this is not-»possible then the
ing piece 'I which is also Íof opaque material and
one inch wide being bisected by the central par 00 _alternative but more elaborate modified construc
tion.
tition 6.
'
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tion shown in Figs.1`6, _17 aîid 18 may be employed.
.
In these figures the same reference numerals
Also mounted in the body I between _guides
8 are prism mounts 9 holding the plane two inch V; have been used to denote the same partsòy `\Ir\1-~
stead of direct vision,\î"p'airs of mirrors 5I and 52 '
prisms Iii, the prism mounts 9 being provided
~with an extension II which extending for the 65 are provided to enabley the viewer to see past the
head of the person in front. The body I is of
full depth of the prism and being made of opaque
modified shapeV to accommodate theïmirrors and
material serves the dual purpose of a handle and
a light- excluder. _The side walls of the. body I
more closely resembles a pair of i prismatic field
are apertured at I2 to the full width of the prism
mount 9 to enablel the mount 9 to be withdrawn
for the purpose of changing or'cleaning the prism
ID. Stops I3 which may be soldered or otherwise
locked to the body I are provided to limit the out
ward movement of the prism mounts Sand pre
set in adjustable mountings so that their angu
larity may be adjusted about pivots 53 to suit
Athe -seat from which the screen is to be viewed.>
Only very small angular adjustment would ever
_ vent unauthorized withdrawal.
glasses or binoculars. The mirrors 5I and 52 are
70
be required and the arrangement such that mem- ‘
bers of the public would not be able to alter the
75 angularity once it had been set for the required
2,410,725
7
8
distance. 1n other respects the device is identical
vset it angularly to direct it onto the screen. He
with that shown in Figs. 11 to 13 except that a
will then make such adjustments as may be
necessary to ensure that with his left eye he can
single prism I0 is shown on the right-hand side `
and a piece lof plane optical glass 53 on the left
side. Two prisms may, of course, be used and in
this construction as the' mirrors can be adjusted
to produce fusion the use of -a prism could `be
dispensed with. However, the adjustment of the
mirrors -being very delicate, a more rapid and
see only the left hand picture andwith the right
C51. eye only the right hand picture. It will’ be found
that quite an appreciable movement of the head
may be made without much ioss of vision. The
- shutters Aand prisms may be pre-set for normal
y us'e and will only require adjustment so that the
'
adjustment can be secured 10 pictures fuse in the most comfortable position.
accurate
fine
empirically by changing the prism for one of a 1 It may also be necessary to make a slight adjust
'
nient of the prism or prisms lll by sliding them
in or out in order to look through the/i’centre of
the prismas some people are much 'wider be
the latest and most simpliiied form of the device
which was evolved from that illustrated in Figs., 15 tween the eyes than others. Once set, however,
no further adjustmentV is necessary. If anyone
11 to 13 of the drawings. Wherever possible the
different angle.
Turningnow to Figs. 19 and 20 which show
cate the same parts as in Figs. 11 to 13, and only
wishes to pass or if the viewer wishes to leave or,
in the case of an emergency, the device can be
the differences will be noted.
swung instantly out of the way.
lsame'reference»numerals have been used to índi
~
The following diiîerences will be noted;
1. The central front,?laps l'l have been dis
'
`
The iixture will be such that if ' the viewer
wishes to lean over to one side or alter his posi
pensed with.
2, The shutters` |4- have been lengthened and
the pivots made a good ñrm íit so that the pins
tion in any way, he can bring the device with him,
by the very slightest movement of the instru
ment or the ñxture.
He will in most cases be able
l25 to continue to view the pictures without any fur
3. Instead of the sliding shutters 3 a pair of
ther adjustment, having drawn the device to the
hinged butteriiy shutters 6D are mounted on the
most comfortable position in front of the eye as
partition 6 within the mask 2, the hinges being
before. With some kind of “angie-poise" fixture
made stiff so that the butterñy shutters 60 remain
this is an easy matter.
30
in the position in which they are set.
A further advantage is that as the device is
4. The blocking piece ‘l has been omitted.
supported at a reasonable distance from the eyes
5. The prisms ID are nearer the eyes.
the viewer if obliged to wear spectacles may do so
6. The top and bottom of the mask 2 are _not
without inconvenience.
'
I5 and slots i6 are norlonger necessary.
'
cut away and so cover the butterfiy shutters 60.
For the sake of convenience and when time '
7. Stops I3 to prevent removal of the prism 35 permits the device when out of use should be
holders are formed on the inner end of the prism
pushed straight away from the viewer so that it is
holders instead of on the casing as shown in Figs. _ behind or between the heads of the persons in
1 to 6.
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` the row in front, in the best position for the
8. The prism mounts have been modified to
comfort of others.
,
ensure a smooth sliding action and a steady 40
A device made according to the present inven
mount, as will be seen-from Fig. 20 of the draw
tion can be used ~for several purposes. ‘
ings ñled herewith.
`
(a) It can be employed with private televisionl
' 9. The sides of the device Y have become
sets being suitably mounted in a fixed relation.
straightened to reduce the number of corners and
(b) It may be used in a cinema for viewing
simplify construction.~v It may be found that
stereoscopic pictures projected on the screen for
without the blocking piece when the prism or
a ñlm projector.
.
'
glass holders 9 are drawn out slightly for adjust
_
(c) With suitable modifications and adjust
ment light is admitted in the centre. It is prob
ments it can be adapted for use with complemen
able that the butterfly shutters 60 when opened 50 tary pictures arranged side by side in the normal
~out to the correct extent will exclude this Vun
manner of viewing stereoscopic pictures or it can
wanted light from’the eyes. If not, it would be
be used for viewing superimposed pictures, sepa
an easy matter to provide extensions at the in
ration of the two pictures being obtained by the
ner ends of the prism holders 9 which will slide
bi-colour known process (which cannot-at pres
through slots in the central partition 6 and over
lap each other when the prism holders are pushed
in tothe full extent.
These extensions should
not need to be more than 1/2f' wide.
ß
ent be used for viewing stereoscopic pictureslin
colour). or the use of polarised light, the device
` being provided with red and green glasses or
polarised ñlters in the already well-known man
As will be seen fromFig. 21\,the top and bottom
ner for effecting separation of such pictures in
corners of the free- edge of the butterfly ñap B0
havebeen rounded off. This avoids sharp cor 60 place of the prisms. The prisms or plain glass
eye-pieces could be removed and the necessary
ners and is found in practice to be the most suit
- able shape.
'_I‘o enable the device tobe used in the home in
conjunction with television sets, the support _may
eye-pieces inserted.
j
,
«
If a member of the audience does not wish to
>see stereoscopically but wishes to view one picture
comprise a weighted pedestal which can be stood 65 normally without any aid to vision, the prism or
prisms would have to be drawn out of the line of
« on the ground in the desired position.
Vision, and the line of vision from -the two eye
For use in a cinema the device will be equipped
` -
with all adjustments setaccording to the distance '
from the seat tothe screen and the angle sub
pieces confined to'one picture which, in the latest
device, is secured by closing the- front shutters -so
tended by the two pictures so that for normal j 'I0-that only one picture can .be seen _either through
plain glass- or direct. In the case of the earlier
Y _vision perfect fusion would be obtained. Which
ever form of device is installed the viewer after . tubular construction this, would be effected by
pivoting both tubular extensions to? direct them
taking his seat and making himself comfortable
both onto the same picture. Some seats could be
will draw the device down and 'towards him until
it is only a few inches in front of his face and will 75 kept for this purpose.' preferably the outside
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seats of the stalls, where practice has shown that .
the stereoscopic eñe'ct is not quite as arresting.
It is intended that in the design finally adopted
for production every reasonable measure will be
adopted- to render the device foolproof and to
`guard against loss or damage or the removal by
unauthorised persons of the device or any of the
parts thereof.
For the purpose of photographing the pictures
'
i
Without affecting the correct functioning of the
device.
'
'
Apart from the novelty ofthe fixture in front
of the viewer to keep'the prism level and to pro
vide the minimum discomfort and inconvenience
to the audience (thus-overcoming the usual ob
jection to visual aid)„there is novelty and in
genuity in the inference subsequently confirmed
by a test in'a cinema that perfect stereoscopic ef
to be viewed an ordinary cinematographic cam 10' fect vcan. be produced Without magniiication in
.the viewing apparatus, the necessary magniflca- ,
era can bevused, and _one way of converting it to
tion being fully provided by the projector-` The
take stereoscopic pictures is to fix a simple at?
prism used is .therefore plain glass and/no focus
tachment to the lens of the camera. This attach
singis required. It has been possible thus to
ment will consist of a .box-like member the aper
tures of which (at each end) will be the size of 15 overcome the dimculty that has so often' pre
sented itself in dealing with this problem, namely,
.the ñlm to be taken but there will be a partition
how to combine focus and fusion in a stereoscope
down the centre. From each side of this parti
made for viewing at a distance. It has always
rtion two tubular members diverge to eye distance
been laid down that for perfect stereoscopy fusion
apart. In the ends of ythese tubes prisms are
placed and two parallel extensions connected to 20 and magnincation mus-t both be included in the.
viewing apparatus. A prism which did not em
v the tubes are positioned to face the direction of
body a magnifying lens was therefore abandoned `
the camera’s view finder; thus the light passing
»as useless many years ago in making the orig
through each eye-piece is bent by .the prisms dovm
inal stereoscopes.
the tubes and directed through each side of the
What ï claim and desire .to secure by Letters
box-like attachments to the camera lens. The 25
Paten-tis:
parallel extensions >can be made conical to take
l. Stereoscopic apparatus for viewing' adjacent
the whole picture or probably a better arrange
pictures at a distance, comprising, a viewing de
ment would be to have the two lenses one at the
vice having two sight openings and means for"
end oi' each extension instead of a single lens as
heretofore Idescribed or of a split lens. The lens 30 effecting fusion in the eyes ’of the viewer, of
the images seen by his two eyes therethrough,
of the camera can be detached and replaced by
and an’adjustable fixture supporting said device,
the box-like structure above described. The an- .
a socket member adapted to be secured to a ñxed
gle between the end tubes and the divergent tubes
support, a vertical member pivotally mounted
' can be as large as possible yand the degree of'retherein,
a jointed frame pivoted thereto, for par
35
fraction of the prisms lcorrespondingly small.
n tial rotation-in a vertical plane and having an
The prisms can be made of glass, plastics or
horizontal joint permitting adjustment -of the
other material such as perspex‘and this can
outer part of said- frame in said plane towards
equally apply to the pri-sms in the viewing or pro
and away from said socket member, a vertical
jecting device. This method of converting the 40 pin
rotatably mounted in the outer part of'said
oinematograph :camera into -an apparatus ca
frame, and means- for pivotally mounting said
pable of taking stereoscopic pictures will be both
device upon said pin for angular adjustmentrela-. simple and inexpensive.
tive thereto about an axis parallel to aline join
, Some or all of the following advantages are
ing the centres of said sight openings.
.
claimed for _the various forms described:
45
2. stereoscopic apparatus for viewing adjacent
1. It is the only form of stereoscope known for
pictures at a distance, comprising, a viewing de
viîwiëlg pictures at a distance or more than about
vice having two sight openings and means for
a
oo .
'
-
eiîecting fusion inthe. eyes of the viewer, of the
2. No focussing is required when used in a y images
seen by his two eyes therethrough, and an
cinema because the prism lused is not a lens. 50 adjustable fixture supporting said device, a
When a lens is used this is one which does not
socket member adapted to be secured to a fixed.
require focussing.
,
'
support, a vertical member pivotally mounted
3. The prism angle is selected according to dis
tance and size or picture to be viewed.
.
` 4. Only one prism is required in most cases.
therein, avjointed frame pivoted thereto, for
partial rotation in a vertical plane and having
55. an horizontal joint permitting adjustment of the
5. The only stereoscope in which blocking pieces ' outer part of said frame in said plane towards
and apertures are adjustable. Such adjustments
and away from said socket member, a vertical
may be ñxed for each seat and there need be n
f pin rotatably-'mounted in the outer part of said
further adjustment.
`
frame, and means for pivotally mounting said
6. The device i-s a fixture requiring no holding 60 device upon said pin for angular adjustment rela- '
or wearing and need not bev positioned close to ,
the eyes, but viewed at any distance up to that of
about 6" -from the prism. 'Ijhe fixture arrange
'- tive thereto about an axis parallel to a line join
' ing the centres of said sight lopenings whereby'
l*said viewing device is .movable in any desired
direction within the limits permitted and i" main
home for a television set.
f
65 tained with the eye pieces for the two :ies of
r1.v As a is a more the stereoscopic effect is not
vision positioned so that a line joining the vcentres
lost by movement-as with spectacles or other de-A>
of the eye pieces is always in a plane passing
Vices fixed to the head.
_
»
’
~
through lthe~centres of the pair of pictures and is
ment is novel for a cinema as well-as in the
i
A
'
l
8. Large eye-pieces give greatest possible scope
for head movement of viewer and provide-great 70
positively restrained from movement out fof said
plane.
_
_
_
,
' comfort in viewing and enable the viewer to
3. stereoscopic apparatus for viewing adjacent
choose his vown distance, whereas the usual
stereoscope has small eye-pieces and must be
vvice having two sight -openings andmeans for
viewed closeup.
ï .
pictures at a distance, comprising, a viewing de
effecting fusion in theeyes of the viewer, of the
9. >Anyone who has to wearspectacles can do to 75 images seen by. his two eyes- therethrough, and
l
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1l
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anadjustable ñxture supporting said device, a
socket member adapted to be secured to a ñxed
support, a lverticalmember pivotally 'mounted
therein, a jointed frame pivoted thereto for par
thereto about an axis parallel to a line joining
tial rotation in a vertical plane and having an
horizontal joint permitting adjustment of the
.
the centres of said sight openings, a lens for said
viewing device,' said lens being not more than
one-half diopter and mounted in the line of vis- Y
ion of one eye.
5. stereoscopic apparatus for viewing adjacent
outer part of said frame in said plane towards
pictures at a distance, comprising, a viewing de
and away from said socket member, a vertical
vice having two‘sight openings and means forpin rotatably mounted in the outer part of said
eiïecting fusion in the eyes of the viewer, of the
frame, and means for pivotally mounting said de-` 10 images seen by his two eyes therethrough, and
vice upon said pin for angular adjustment rela
an adjustable fixture supporting said device, a
tive thereto about an axis parallel'to a line join
socket‘member adapted to be secured to a ñxed
ing the centres of said sight openings, prisms for -support, a vertical member pivotally mounted
said viewing device, means enabling said prisms
thereirna jointed frame pivoted thereto for par
to be interchangedA whereby the apparatus is 15 tial rotation in a vertical plane and having an
usable from any part of an auditorium of a
horizontal joint permitting adjustment ofthe
cinema.
'
outer part of said frame in said plane towards
4. Stereoscopic apparatus for viewing adjacent
and away from said socket member, a vertical
pictures at a distance, comprising, a viewing de
« pin rotatablymounted in the outer part of said
vice having two sight openings and means for 20 frame, and means for pivotally mounting said de
effecting fusion in the eyes of the viewer, of
vice upon said pin for angular adjustment rela
the images seen by his two eyes therethrough,
tive thereto'about an axis parallel to a line Ajoin
and an .adjustable ñxture supporting said device,
ing the .centres of said sight openings, said adja
a socket member adapted to be secured to a
cent pictures being of half normal width posi
fixed support, a vertical member pivotally mount 25 tioned side by side and said viewing device pro
ed therein, a jointed frame pivoted: thereto, for
viding magniñoation whereby, no alteration in the
partial rotation- in a vertical plane and having
projecting apparatus, or enlargement of the
an horizontal joint permitting adjustment of the
screen is required and only half the area of '
outer part of said frame in said plane towards and
the normal size of each individual frame, and'
away from said socket member, a vertical pinl 30 rhalf the area of the screen being used, provided
rotatably mounted in the outer part of said frame, y the usual proportion of lengt’h to breadth of the
and means for pivotaily mounting said device
individual picture is retained.
.
upon said pintor angular adjustment-,relative
~
ALAN PHILIP FRANKLIN.
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