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Патент USA US2410744

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.Original Filed Nov. 10, 1938
Patented Nov. 5, 1946
Milton A. Powers, Detroit, Mich.
Original application November 10, 1938, Serial No.
239,859, now Patent N0. 2,316,749, dated April
13, 1943. Divided and this application April
12, 1943, Serial No. 482,762
5 Claims.
This invention relates to plastic products of
special form particularly adapted for use in build
ing construction but also adapted for any other
applications where their special qualities make
(Cl. 154-45)
tube of plastic such as glass in soft heated con
dition passing between the imprinting rolls of my
process in its simplest form to produce a rope-like
them useful.
Figure 2 is a similar view of a soft heated glass
My invention also includes the manufacture
tube passing thru a set of imprinting rolls, thence
and assembly of the various forms by some of
thru a 'reexpansion furnace and thence through
the processes claimed in an earlier application,
some sizing rolls which bring the product to ?n
Serial No. 239,859, ?led November 10, 1938, now
ished form.
Patent No. 2,316,749, dated April 13, 1943, of 10 Figure 3 is another similar view in which still
which this is a division.
further apparatus has been added for operating
One of the principal objects is to provide plas
tic products of formed cellular construction for
use where a strong material, of light weight, of
good heat insulating ability, and capacity to
transmit light is desired. Other advantages will
become apparent as the disclosure progresses, and
upon a tube of large diameter to produce a sheet
like cellular product.
Figure 4 is a top plan View of the material of
Fig. 3 during processing, some of the apparatus
being removed for clarity of illustration.
Figure 5 is a perspective part view of one form
any one Or more of these desirable properties may
of an imprinting roll as used in the process shown
make the product particularly advantageous for
in Figures 3 and 4.
a speci?c use.
Figure 6 is a plan view of one form of the im
The application just identi?ed is in turn a
printed product, having transversely sealed pas
continuation in part of my application #49365,
?led November 11, 1935 (now Patent No. 2,187,432,
granted January 16, 1940). The present appli
Figure 7 is a plan view of another form of the
product, in which the passages are lengthwise dis
cation describes variations in the methods of the 25 posed.
Patent No. 2,187,432, and claims a new series of
Figure 8 is a section view of a product assem
products resulting from improved described
bled from my special imprinted material sealed
between two parallel sheets of the same or similar
An important object is to manufacture a num
ber of plastic products of glass or the like in large 30 Figure 9 is a section view intended to illus
volume by automatic methods, which, due to the
trate another of the many desirable combinations
low cost of both the raw material and fabrication,
possible—consisting in this case of a unit com
result in ?nal products whose cost makes them
prising grouped layers of imprinted plastic mate
attractive for use on a large scale.
rial separated by a, special dividing wall.
Another object is to produce a glass material 35 In all instances the basic material supplied for
which will be of good insulating quality and
my products preferably consists of newly formed
readily adapted for use as an improvement over
plastic tubing, introduced to the apparatus while
double-pane window constructions.
still in its soft heated state. A suitable method
Yet another object is to provide a glass build
for producing such tubing is disclosed in my Pat
ing block of light weight and great strength ?nd 40 ent No. 2,187,432, wherein molten glass is dis»
ing ready use for both load bearing outside walls
charged downward from an ori?ce and over a hol
and for partition walls where light transmission
low mandril thru which a suitable gas is simulta
is desired. Furthermore, .by special assembly
neously supplied to form and ?ll the hollow tub
methods numerous colored lighting effects and
ing. However, my present invention is not lim
filtering actions are practical, while at the same 45 ited to this alone but may also be practiced in
time minimum heat transmission is possible.
conjunction with the Danner tubing machine or
The foregoing and further objects of the in
the Fourcault process, due attention being paid,
vention will appear upon a study of the following
of course, to the particular requirements of each
detailed description when taken in conjunction
process in relation to the direction in which the
with the accompanying drawing and the append 50 glass flows from the tubing machine. Where im
ed claims.
mediately adjoining location of tube and fabrica
Referring now to the drawing wherein like nu
tion processes is not feasible, reheating to the
merals are employed to designate like parts
proper entry temperature will be necessary. In
wherever they occur:
most cases I start with tubing of proper dimen
Figure 1 is a partially sectioned side view of a 55 sions and viscosity, preferably continuously sup
plied, and containing air or gas or condensable
vapor. Henceforth, the term. “gas” is used to in
clude all suitable substances of non-liquid or
due to the rise in its temperature; As the glass
is becoming softer and the gas pressure higher,
there is an immediate increase in the size of~ the
non-solid form, which may enter-the tubing either
pillow. In other words, the pillows pu? up very
materially depending upon the exact temperature
conditions impressed upon them. When this
with or without preliminary heating, depending
upon the nature of the gas and the character of
the plastic material.
method is applied with care, the volume of the
pillows can be doubled under closely controlled
In Figure 1 two imprinting wheels I and 2 are
rotating as shown with each wheel so geared to
the other as to cause them to operate in unison
with the opposing teeth in each wheel tending to
temperature and timing conditions.
However, great care must be exercised to pre
vent overheating, which will rapidly change suc
cess to failure in this part of the process. Con
touch tip to tip. However, this is prevented by
tinued heating after maximum reexpansion has
the intervening soft glass tubing 3 which contains
been obtained further softens the glass. As the
gas or vapor, the mutually directed force between
‘ the two wheels being su?icient to seal the oppo 15 glass becomes more ?uid the rapidly increasing
force of surface tension tends to draw the walls
site sides of the tube together, yet not strong
together and‘ decrease the size of the pillow. Un
enough to cut ed the tubing into sections. Thus
der these circumstances the internal gas pressure
we have the same basic mechanism and process
is increasingly less than the contracting force
disclosed in Patent No. 2,187,437, the chief differ
ence being that here the sealed containers are 20 of surface tension and the pillow takes on a.
spherical shape and becomes smaller. But, as a
not sheared apart. In fact, during the develop
matter of fact this part of the process is impor
ment of the original process I was successful in
tant and valuable for producing individual cap
producing continuous lengths of sealed glass pil
sules as in my Patent No. 2,187,432. It is an ex
lows, the potential value of which impressed me
at the time, and which are now fully developed 25 cellent method’ for producing hollow spheres in
volume at low cost, successful practice further de
as hereafter described.
pending upon continuous motion of the separated
individual capsules, somewhat like popping corn,
to promote even heating and to prevent sticking.
The product of Figure 1 as mentioned is a more
or less rope-like series of attached “pillows." The
pressure between imprinter blades is‘enough to
unite the soft glass of the opposing walls of the 30
tube, but not sumcient to crack or shatter the 7
In Figure 2 the entering pillows at 8 are seen
to increase in volume as they progress through
glass itself. Thus each sealed pillow is free from
possible leakage to the atmosphere or to its 'ad
the furnace until they reach the desired maxi
temperatures is obtained although good partial
tening action of roll l0 depresses the curved tops
mum size at 9. At this point they leave the fur
joining likeness. By‘ using steam or some sim- v pace and enter a pair of sizing rolls l0 and H.
ilar condensing vapor as fully described in my‘ 35 The position of these rolls determines the thick
ness of the pillows and at the same time the ?at
earlier application, maximum vacuum at normal
to produce a substantially flat top surface. Dur
ing this time the gas pressure inside expands the
Now referring to Figure 2, the same soft glass 40 side walls of the pillows until they approach par
allelism and contact, each with its neighbor. This
tubing 3 enters the imprinting rolls 4 and 5 which '
produces a sized product 12 of superior strength
rotate in unison. However, 'whileroll 4 is similar
and usefulness. The continuous flow of pillows
in construction to the rolls of Figure 1, roll 5 in
may be broken to any desired length and assem
this case is smooth, and thus leaves only a ?at
vacuums are likewise produced due to the con
traction upon cooling of air or other gases.
smooth surface on its side of the tubing. . The
45 v
imprint of roll 4 is such that the full downward
de?ection in the soft glass is made by it, thus
producing a series of ?at bottomed pillows with
upwardly rounded tops. As a supporting aid to
transporting the soft glass in its partly fabri 60
cated form a continuous belt 5a rotates with
the imprinting roll 5 and also passes over sizing
roll ll. While this belt is desirable it is not es
bled in any one of the variety of forms to be de
scribed later. As an aid to separation at regular
intervals, imprinter 4 can be arranged with one
or more sharp imprint blades which will weaken
the continuous length at regular intervals to as
sist in separation by breakage upon discharge
and cooling.
In Figures 3 and 4 are shown important varia
tions in my processes. Here the entering tubing
3 is relatively large in diameter. Flattening by
sential to the working of the process. '
The continuous series of pillows have a cer 55 rolls l3 and 14 produces parallel top and bottom
walls l5 and I6 respectively, but because of the
tain height, with a ?xed volume of gas sealed in
greater initial diameter the transverse distance
side each. It will be readily apparent that‘ the
pressure of the gas was the-force which caused
' is large. For example, a seven inch diameter tube
the pillows to bulge upward between the blades
of the imprinting roll, otherwise the two sides
of the tubing would have tended to become ?at
tened mgether. However, depending upon con
ditions at the moment of forming of the pillow
a certain de?nite amount of gas is trapped there
in. If the pillows are allowed to cool the gas
pressure drops with the decrease in temperature.
However, it may be desirable to increase the vol
at 3 will produce a ?at section coming from rolls
l3 and 14 approximately twelve inches wide.
ume of each pillow in order to procure a better
ure 2 which has two nearby side walls, being
formed of smaller diameter tubing. Such being
70 the case it is evident that the imprinter It will
formed ?nal product having thinner walls.
Therefore, still referring to Figure 2, the pil
lowed tubing enters a reheating furnace 6-6’
supplied with a suitable heat source such as the
For the moment we will consider roll l3 as per
fectly smooth, disregarding blade H.
In such
case the remainder of the process basically dupli
cates the process described in Figure 2. How
ever, we now have a very wide and relatively
poorly supported top wall ii in comparison with
the top wall passing under imprint roll 4 of Fig
tend to drop top wall l5 against wall l6.
To prevent this, roller I3 is provided with an
imprint blade I‘! which at relatively long inter
extended gas burner 1. Immediately the glass
vals seals the glass into gas tight sections. It
absorbs heat, its viscosity decreases and concur
rently the pressure of the gas inside increases, 76 is apparent that the gas trapped in each section '
has no possibility of escape and therefore must
use its space requirements to bell the pillows up
ward between the blades of the imprint roll I8.
To take full advantage of this action there must
always be an intervening sealing wall between
the blades of imprint roll I 8 and roll l3, which
means that they must be spaced some little dis
glass twelve inches square and cementing or
otherwise attaching them on either surface of the
processed section, we have a new glass product‘
as shown in section in Figure 8, where 35 is the
special center with 36 the outer panes.
product will ?nd ready application as heat in
sulating glass for use in window frames where
high optical transparency is not required. It has
In order to take full advantage of the support
the further distinct advantage of being. struc
ing strength of the side walls of the tube 3 it may 10 turally
strong, and not subject to the moisture
be found preferable to apply ‘imprint blade ll
condensation problems of the usual two pane con
(without the roller) to the glass in circular sec
tion and later apply a sizing roll such as i3 to
By taking four processed sections 31 as shown
bring the walls into spaced parallel relationship.
Figure 9 and sealing them into a single unit
Thus the ?attening action of the imprint blade
, and roller do not occur simultaneously and better
15 we have a ?ne quality glass block of great
strength and excellent insulating quality. If de
results may be obtained.
sired one or more outer panes of smooth glass
It may be found desirable to reheat the glass
may be. added (not shown). Furthermore, as
between rolls I 3 and it. Further, of course, in
shown in Figure 9 we may incorporate a thin
all cases the various rolls are interlocked so they 20
member 38 Which can be of colored transparent
rotate in unison. Thus the blades of 18 can be
for example, a pane of red glass, or
arranged to coincide with the impression of blade
blue transparent pyroxylin plastic, with or with
i7. Furthermore, a blade such as i‘! can be ar
out ornamentation, or any one of a, numerous
ranged to weaken the product at intervals to give
group of variations. It may be a sheet of re
spaced separation upon discharge.
Now referring to Figure 4, in connection with
Figure 3, we see a plan view of the glass in proc- '
?ective aluminum foil and, of course, may be
applied in the center, at any level through the
glass assembly or on the outer surface. ,Fur
ess, the elements l3, i8, 20 and El having been
thermore, of course, one or more of the processed
removed for clarity. As the tube 3 ?attens it
sections may be made of a special kind or color
widens as shown between points 24 and 25. Side 30 of glass for producing special scenic e?'fects.
guides 26 and 21 (which might also be rolls)
While one general type of process has been de
hold the proper width and center the glass. Im
scribed as preferable, variations are practicable
print blade I‘! leaves imprints 28 while roll I8
and may in some circumstances be advantageous.
leaves a series of sealing imprints 32 and 33.
For example, instead of mounting the single seal
These imprints are lengthwise and crosswise, re 35 ing imprint blade in a rotating member, the same
spectively, leaving a surface of raised square “pil
result may be accomplished by providing a re
lows” 34. These then pass through the .reexpan
ciprocating mount whereby the blade is depressed
sion process in furnace 20-20’. _ Following this
to seal the section while advancing with the mov
they go between sizing rolls 2| and 22 and edge
ing glass, later to rise and return for the next
sizing rolls 23.
40 sealing operation.
Imprint roll i8 is better illustrated in Figure 5,
Likewise the multiple imprinter may have the
which shows a smooth roll 29 with radially ex
same motion, serving to seal all 01’ the"‘pillows”
tending thin blades 30 along the circumference
in the section simultaneously. This action fur
of the roll. At right angles are a plurality of
thermore has the advantage of maintaining equal
spaced wire blades 3!, with outer edges of blades 45 gas pressure in all “pillows” and consequently
and wires at the same radial distance. This con
struction produces a light weight imprinter of
relatively low cost which does not chill the glass
excessively yet cools rapidly between imprints.
tends to make for a more symmetrical ?nal prod
uct.v Where this particular method of procedure
is adopted, the subsequent reexpansion described
earlier may not be necessary. Furthermore, a
Of course the imprint rolls may be constructed 50 ?attening action may also be obtained in the im
to produce a wide variety of surface appearances
printing mechanism by providing a limiting back
and this description is merely intended to illus
plate on the imprinter to prevent excessive ex
trate one pattern and one possible construction.
pansion. This member may make unnecessary
Another form of material is illustrated in Fig
the use of the ?nal sizing and ?attening roll.
ure 6 as produced by an imprint wheel like Fig- .
The ?nal product also may be assembled as a
ure 5, but without the blades 3i . Here the sealed
multiplicity of layers held together by a suitable
spaces within the glass extend the full width of
cementing material such as sodium silicate, Glyp
the material with closed ends. If an imprint roll
tal resin, methyl methacrylate resin, Bakelite, or
like Figure‘ 5, but lacking the blades 30 is used,
latex. Adhesion may also be obtained by sinter
we will form material as shown in Figure 7 with 60 ing at softening temperature of the glass, but
continuous raised surfaces sealed between the
while this method will make a rigid product it
lines 32. Other forms may be desired for certain
the distinct disadvantage of requiring a long
applications and are readily obtained.
annealing period to reduce strains. The earlier
It might be mentioned here that it is possible
mentioned cements, while possibly subject to de
to vary the glass thickness of different points in 65 terioration if exposed to atmospheric conditions,
the glass at will. For example, application of
are in this case well protected. Furthermore,
additional heat to the top of the tube, at 3 will
they act somewhat as a resilient bu?er between
result in a thinner top wall and a thicker bottom .
layers and thus decrease cracking and provide
greater total strength.
principle can be applied at other points in the .0
many variations
process, if desirable.
may be made within the spirit of the invention
Let us consider, for example, that the glass
and the scope of the appended claims. ‘Among
discharged has a width of twelve inches, a height‘
some of the obvious changes are the substitutions
of one-half inch, and breaks into twelve inch
of- various suitable synthetic plastics for glass
lengths. By taking two panes of window or-plate
wall as the glass becomes ?attened.’ The same
and for one another in the products described
For example. a material known as
"Saran,” a thermoplastic formed by copolymer
ization of vinylidene and vinyl chlorides, has been
tried and found suitable for the manufacture of
capsules and groups of attached pillows.
What is claimed is:
rial, comprising a plurality of elongated hollow
pillows arranged side by side substantially in
parallelism, joined together at their side sur
faces and sealed apart by fusion of said side sur
faces, and also sealed to the surrounding atmos
4. A hollow envelope of plastic material, in the
l. In~a product formed from molten glass tub
form of two substantially parallel walls, divided
ing, a plurality of hollow pillow-shaped elements
into a multiplicity of sealed cell units arranged in
joined together by substantially .full surface
fusion of their contiguous mated edges and sealed 10 rows by a selected pattern of parallel lines which
correspond to compression lines of sealing con
apart by these surfaces of joinder, said pillows
tact between the two main walls of the envelope.
having substantially ?at side surfaces and sub
5. A product comprising a pair of slab-like
stantially ?attened edges.
cellular sheets of light-transmitting plastic ma
2. A product of the character described, com- .
prising a group of hollow thin-walled elements 15 terial, each consisting of at least one layer and
each layer embodying a multiplicity of sealed
formed of plastic material and fused together
cells, said sheets being contiguous; and a third
along their surfaces of contact, the external sur
sheet, thin and of opaque material disposed be
faces of the grouped elements being ?attened at
tween and adhering to said cellular sheets to join
their sides and their edges and each element
containing gas at low pressure and sealed to it 20 them together.
3. A product formed from softened glass mate
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