Патент USA US2410767код для вставки
Nov. 5, 1946. F. o. wlsMAN ETAL 2,410,767 AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUN CHARGER Filed June ll, 1943 àsë \ â wwQnNw \ , W I I . \ % _:î? ./ - sv nw\ „wÈ Muw ‘QNW"u »R Wm )whimCwwNm»u N.mwn NVIN. .\ Y ß fm_ WMM Üianìm?wáx,. „M wokN Patented Nov. 5, 1946 UNl'l'E . 2,410,767 AUTQMATIC MACHINE GUN CHARGER Franklin O. Wisman and William C. Rohm-South Bend, Ind., assignors to Bendix-Aviation corpo ration, South Bend, Ind., a corporation of Dela Waffe Application J une 11, 1943, Serial No. 490,458 5 Claims. (Cl. 89--1) 1 2 This invention relates to automatic charging systems for automatic guns, and is particularly adaptable to both small and large caliber auto over thev prior art in that it is readily adaptable matic guns. As is known to those skilled in the ordnance are, guns of this type will not re-load automati cally for automatic ñring whenever a “dud” round has been inserted into the firing chamber, for use with dilferent kinds of automatic guns, i. e., both small caliber guns, and the larger cali ber guns. As is known to those skilled in the . lire arms art, the small caliber automatic guns, for'example, the caliber 30 and the caliber 50 machine guns elfect the re-loading operation for automatic ñre by reciprocation of the breech blocks in the following manner. The recoil op since no force will be obtained to eject the un ñred round and insert a fresh round into the 10 eration oi the gun causes the breech block to ñring chamber. Guns of the automatic type may be moved rearwardly to eject the ñred round also fail at times to eifect an automatic re-load and simultaneously to pick up alive round, which ing operation because the parts thereof become is forced into the iiring chamber by the forward movement of the breech block, whereupon, if the sear is still released, the firing pin moves for ward to'ñre the fresh round. In the larger types of automatic guns em or for some other reason. Since guns of this type ployed in modern warfare, as for example, the 37 are oftentimes located remotely from the opera mm. cannon, which has‘been used in certain tor, as for example, in the wings of an aircraft, 20 types of pursuit aircraft, and different types of it is desirable that the re-loading operation be ordnance vehicles, the re-loading operation is effected automaticallyÀ without requiring the op accomplished in a manner different from that misaligned or otherwise inoperative. Accord ingly, it is desirable to furnish means to effect a re-loading operation in the event that the gun fails to re-load because of defective ammunition erator >to initiate and bring to completion a re charging operation. Many devices have been proposed for elîect ing a re-loading operation of an automatic gun upon failure to operate, but they have generally employed electro-mechanical means, or electro pneumatic means. Devices employing electro mechanical means have been open to the objec tion that they are oftentimes as heavy as the automatic gun which they are to re-load. In aircraft, Where space and weight are at a pre mium, devices of this nature are obviously wholly unsatisfactory. So too, are electro-pneumatic devices, since they require for their successful had with the caliber 50 machine guns referred to above. In guns of this type the re-loading operation is accomplished by the recoil forces of the ñredv round causing the gun barrel to be moved rearwardly, .carrying with it during such movement the breech block, which then con tinues to move rearwardly to complete its re 30 tractive movement after the gun barrel has iin ished its recoil movement and has moved for wardly to the firing position. The two move ments justdescribed effects the ejection of the fired round with the practically concurrent in sertion of ,a new round into the feed way. Upon forward movement of the breech block, the new operation a source of gaseous pressure, which round is moved into the firing chamber, and if musiJ either be stored in cylinders furnished with the sear is in the firing position, the gun con the aircraft, or supplied by compressors driven tinues to fire automatically. from the aircraft engine. The instant invention 40 With the _foregoing problems in mind, it is an avoids the objections to both electro-mechanical object of this invention to provide an automatic and electro-pneumatic charging or re-loading charging system for both the smaller caliber and devices, since it employs in its operation the usual larger-caliber automatic weapons,'the latter be fluid pressure system incorporated with most mil itary aircraft. )Since the pressures employed in 45 ing adapted to» ñre- explosive rounds, asVA for ex ample, the 37 mm. cannon which has been re these systems are quite high, the usual pressure ierred to above. values being maintained between 500 and 1,500 A further object is to provide an automatic pounds per square inch, the motors used in the charging system for one or a plurality of guns recharging or re-loading operation need not be unduly large, nor need they add much to the 50 of the type mentioned above which will employ weight of the aircraft, since high power to weight in its operation fluid supplied by any suitable ratios are obtainable where the motivating fluid fluid pressure system. Astill further object of the invention is to pro vide an rauton'iatic‘charging system, which, after having been serviced for automatic operation, is kept between the values mentioned above. The automatic charging system disclosed in the present invention is a further improvement 2,410,767 ` " 3 4 will not require the further attention of the pilot the circuit for effecting a manual charging op-« 0r operator. eration includes a source of electric power indi Still another object is to provide a charging system for manual charging of the guns to make them ready for automatic operation, the manual means of a lead 26 through a switch 28, which cated generally at 2li which is connected by charging being generally effected by the service when closed on contact points 3i) passes current to lead 32 to a contact point Bil of a manual crew before the aircraft or other vehicle is en charging switch indicated generally by the ordi nal 3%. It may be noted that the manual charg ing switch is not a conductor of current, and the provision of a, novel circuit for one or more 10 when the switch is moved downwardly, as seen in Figure 1, the ground of the switch 3E is broken cf such guns, said control circuitbeing adapted by the separation of contacts 3l’ and 3S, and cur to manual charging of the guns during servicing rent is then passed from the lead 32, through operations, and to automatic charging of the contact point Sli through a lead 3S, and thence guns after the servicing operations have been through a thermo~sensitive switch element di! of completed. a thermal switch whence the current passes A feature of the invention lies in the provision through a lead Lili to the solenoid of the solenoid of automatic cutout means in a charging system operated valve 2‘2. Simultaneous with the ener for a gun should it become jammed in such a gization of the solenoid operated valve 22 is the fashion that neither manual nor automatic charging restore the gun to a firing condition. 20 energization of a winding 53 of a compound wound relay iid. It will be seen that the circuit The foregoing and other objects of the inven just described causes the solenoid operated valve tion will be apparent from the study of the de gaged in combat. Yet another object of the invention embodies 22 to operate, thereby admitting iiuid from the accumulator 2€! to the fluid motor i-’i to effect drawing which shows a preferred embodiment of the invention. It is to be understood, however, 25 a retracting movement of the breech block pin l2. Deenergization of the solenoid of the sole that the invention is not limited by the embodi noid operated valve 22 is effected by releasing ment here shown, nor otherwise than by the the manual charging switch 36, which then terms of the claims appended hereto. causes the fluid in the ñuid motor i4 to be eX In the drawing which illustrates the inven tion: ' 30 hausted back to the reservoir i5. Completion of the operation just described then places the guns Figure 1 is a schematic diagram showing a pair l 0 in condition for automatic operation and auto of guns of the types referred to above, the circuit matic charging, for controlling the automatic operation and the As shown in Figure l, the switch 28 is adapted manual recharging operation being shown sche matically; 35 to be closed upon a contact point 45, which per forms two functio-ns. The first of these functions Figure 2 is a View part in elevation and part in is to pass current from the source 25 through longitudinal section of a charging cylinder, par the switch 23 to a lead 43 which is connected to ticularly of the type adapted for use with larger the lead 32, which has branching therefrom a caliber automatic guns, Referring now to Figure 1 of the drawing, there 40 lead 53 which is connected to one terminal of an armature 52 of the compound relay 54, whence is shown a plurality of automatic guns lll each it passes through a lead 55 to energize the wind having a breech block pin i2 which is secured to ing of a time delay mechanism, indicated gen the breech block (not shown) of each gun l0, erally by the ordinal 58, thereby attracting the and adapted to reciprocate therewith during nor mal operation of the gun. Each gun is furnished 45 armature thereof to the left breaking contact at a contact point 60. The second function taking with a fluid motor I4 which is adapted to retract place upon the closing,r of the switch 28 upon the the breech block pin i2 upon failure of normal contact point ¿SS is to pass current to a Contact reciprocation of the breech block, under condi point 62 of a firing relay 56. The system thus tions later to be described. For supplying fluid under pressure to the fluid 50 far described has placed the guns ready for auto matic operation, and has placed the system in motor lf3, there is a reservoir I6 which supplies readiness for automatic firing. ñuid to a pump I8, which passes the supplied A trigger switch 53 is provided, and is common fluid Under pressure to an accumulator 28, where to both of the guns iû shown, but it may be noted it is stored for use as needed by the fluid motors that the system is readily adaptable, where de It. 55 sired, to use with a trigger switch for each gun, In order to pass ñuid simultaneously to each instead of a single switch for a p-lurality o-f guns of the fluid motors i@ there are provided solenoid as shown. Closing the trigger switch 66 causes operated valves 22, which when energized, under the ñring relay G4 to be energized, at the same conditions later to be described, opens to pass fluid from the accumulator 2D to the charging 60 time causing the armature thereof to be at tracted to the left upon contact point 62. It will motor ill to effect a retracting operation of the be seen that this operation causes current to be breech block stud l2, and when deenergized op passed through leads 66 to energize a solenoid erates to exhaust fluid from the motor I4 back of a trigger motor 'lo associated with each of the to the reservoir I6. |The solenoid operated Valve 22 is not claimed as a part of this invention, and 65 guns it. The function of the trigger motor 1D is well known to those‘skilled in the art, i. e., to has been described and claimed in Pontius et al. actuate the seal', not shown, of the gun l0 to application, Serial No. 464,610, ñled November 5, effect automatic firing. 1942, said application being a division of Pontius Simultaneous with the closing of the trigger L' al. application Serial No. 371,742, filed Decem ber 26, 1940. 70 switch 66 is the energization of a winding 55 of the compound relay 541 which receives current by Means are provided for effecting a manual means of a lead 'I2 which branches from the lead charging operation of each or both of the guns l0. 68. It will be remembered that energization of This operation may be indicated whenever a fresh supply of ammunition is desired to be pro the compound relay 54 was had when the manual vided for the guns i9. As shown in Figure 1, 75 charging switch 35 was closed, when current was scription hereinafter, reference being had to the 2,410,767 5 Supplied to the other winding 53 of the relay 54 simultaneously with the energization of the sole noid of the solenoid operated valve 22 which was operated to effect a manual charging operation. Energization of the compound wound relay 55 Cil 6 , the trigger switch t5 is opened it will beseen that the charging operation is brought> to com pletion irrespective of the condition of the trigger switch 55. " causes the armature 52 thereof to be attracted up Means are provided in the system described above to prevent the operation of the gun when and wardly, 5|] to when a lead current 7:1 to one is passed end ofthrough the armature leads oi ever it is impossible to carry to completion a re tracting or reloading operation. The thermal cutout switch 42 is provided with a resistance ele ment 84 which receives current from the lead 38. gun which is operating properly, a gunfswitch l5 The circuit of resistance element Slä'is completed is provided near the rearmost point of travel or“ by lead 85 and a pair of contacts of manual switch the breech block pin l2, and is adapted to close 36 to ground. These contacts are closed when the each time the breech block pin I2 moves rear switch is not depressed. Since resistance element wardly during operation of the gun IE). Closing 15 8d is in parallel with the solenoid operated valve of the switch 15 causes current to be received by a 22, it will be seen that any prolonged energization lead 'I8 which branches from the lead 5i), whence of the winding of the solenoid operated valve 22 it is passed through the switch 'i6 to a lead> Si] to will heat the resistance 85 to an amount whereby energize the time delay mechanism 53 causing the the thermal responsive element 45 breaks the cir armature thereof to be attracted to the left. How- _, cuit supplying current to the valve 22. The ther ever, when the breech blocl; pin l2 fails to recipro mal cutout switch l‘l2 is of the snap variety and cate, because of improper gun operation, the once opened must be reset manually. When the switch 'i6 will fail to close, and the time delay circuit has been opened by the thermal responsive mechanism 58 will be de‘energized. It may be element 45, it will be impossible thereafter to pass noted that the period of discharge of the time de current to the solenoid operated valve 22. It will lay mechanism 58 is greater than the cyclic time be seen, therefore, that successive retracting oper of reciprocation of the breech block pin l2; thus, ations will not be performed upon the gun i0. it will be noted, that during automatic tiring and The electrical system may be conveniently di during normal operation of the gun lß, the time vided into a iìrst and a second circuit. The iirst delay mechanism 58 will be in energized condi circuit comprising the battery 24, switch 2S, con tion, and the armature thereof will be attracted to -tact 52, trigger motor lil, and the coil 55 of the the left. Now if the breech block pin I2 fails to compound relay 55. The second circuit comprises reciprocate and remains in static position long the battery source 25, switch 28, trigger switch enough, the time delay mechanism will be deen 56,. ñring relay 55, normally closed means 52, time ergized, and the armature thereof will close upon delay relay 58, wire lll, thermal cut-out device contact point 50. A circuit is thus made to eiiect e2, electrically operated valve 22, coil 53A of the an automatic recharging operation. compound relay, normally open means for switch The circuit is made from the source 24, through l5, and a manually operated switch 36. . the electrical time delay mechanism 58. In order to prevent' charging operations upon a the switch 28, through leads 48, 32, 55, 14, and - Referring now to Figure 2 of the drawing there thence through a lead 82 to a juncture with the 40 is shown an embodiment of the fluid motor ylll lead 38. The current then passes through the thermal responsive element 453 of the thermal cut out switch 42 through the lead 45 through the solenoid of the solenoid operated valve 22 and thence to ground. Simultaneously with this oper ation, the winding 53 of the compound relay 54 is energized. The solenoid operated valve 22 then operates to retract the breech block pin I2, there by reloading the gun lll for automatic operation once more. which has been found particularly adaptable to eñect the retracting operation upon the larger typesof automatic guns, as for example, the 37 mm. cannon. The iiuid motor ld comprises a cylindrical tube 88 which is secured to the gun by means of a mounting bracket 99 as shown. Reciprocable within the cylinder S3 is a piston 92 which has a skirt portion 9d, encompassed by a spring 96 which is bottomed at one end against the piston 52, and which is bottomed at the other As soon as the breech block pin I2 has moved 50 end by a threaded member 98 which is held to rearwardly to close the switch 1-6, the time delay the cylinder 88 by means of a threaded element mechanism 58 will be again energized,- thereby §55. The rearward end of the skirt 5t has thread breaking contact at contact point 6D and thus ed thereto a flanged member E52 which is adapt deenergizing the solenoid operated valve Z2 to ed to engage the breech block pin l2 as shown. pass the motivating fluid to the reservoir I6. Fluid is supplied to the cylinder 88 at an entrance Means are thus provided to insure the ccm port IM whence it impinges against the piston S2 to drive it rearwardly to eñect a retractíng of the condition of the trigger switch 55, i. e., whether it be closed or opened during a charging movement of the breech block and the breech operation. It was noted that the winding 55 of 60 block pin I2. When the solenoid operated valve the compound relay 54 was energized as soon as 22 is moved to the exhaust position, the cylindri the trigger switch 56 was closed, at which time cal spring 95 moves the piston forwardly, and the the current was passed through the armature of exhaust fluid back to the reservoir l5. the ñring relay S4, through the leads 58 and ‘l2 Thus has been described a system adaptable and thence to the compound relay 54. However, it 65 for recharging automatic guns of both the smaller may be noted that as soon as the charging oper types, as for example, the caliber 30 and caliber ation thus described was initiated, the winding 50 machine guns, and the larger type, as for ex 53 of the compound wound relay 54 was energized ample, the 37 mrn. cannon, which will automati also. With the winding 53 energized, the arma ture 52 of the compound wound relay 55 remained 70 cally charge or re-load said Aguns upon> failure of automatic operation. While the invention has in the upward position, thereby passing current been described with particular reference to a through the lead '14, lead 82, and thence through proved embodiment thereof it is to be' distinctly leads 38 and 44 to operate the solenoid operated valve 22. ` Since the winding 53 of the compound understood that the invention is Anot limited in wound relay 54 will remainV energizedeven after 75 terms of the system hereinabove described, nor pletion of a charging cycle or stroke regardless - 2,410,767 8 otherwise than by the terms of the claims ap pended hereto. We claim: l. A gun charging apparatus for retracting th breech bolt of a gun to charge the same compris ing a fluid pressure motor adapted to be mounted on the gun and constructed and arranged to en gage the breech bolt, an electrical system includ ing a source of current and a first and a second structed and arranged to disconnect the valve from circuit after a predetermined number of successive attempts at charging the gun have failed. l 3. A gun charging apparatus for retracting the breech bolt of a gun »to charge the same compris ing a fluid pressure motor adapted to be mount ed on the gun and constructed and arranged to engage the breech bolt, an electrical system in circuit, a switch constructed and arranged for 10 cluding a source of current and a first and a sec ond circuit, a switch constructed and arranged connecting said source of current to the first and for connecting said source of current to the ñrs-t second circuits, an electrically operated valve in and second circuits, an electrically operated the second circuit for controlling the fluid under valve in the second circuit for controlling the pressure to the motor, a time delay relay, a nor fluid under pressure to the motor, a time delay mally closed means connecting said time delay relay, a normally closed means connecting said relay to the second circuit, a normally open time delay relay to the second circuit, a normal means in the second circuit adapted to be ly open means in the second circuit adapted to mounted on the gun and constructed and ar be mounted on the gun and constructed and ar ranged to be closed by the breech bolt when re tracted for connecting said time delay relay to 20 ranged to be closed by the breech bolt when re tracted for connecting said time delay relay to the second circuit, a compound relay in the first the second circuit, a compound relay in the first and second circuits, a trigger switch in the second and second circuits, a trigger switch in the sec circuit, and means in the second circuit respon ond circuit, and means in the second circuit re- ' sive to closing of the trigger switch for closmg the first circuit to energize the compound relay, 25 sponsive to closing of the trigger switch for clos ing the ñrst circuit to energizeV the compound re said compound relay being constructed and ar lay, said compound relay being constructed and ranged so that when it is energized it will open arranged so that when it is energized it will open the normally closed means connecting the sec the normally closed means connecting the sec ond circuit to said time delay relay and tend to connect the valve and compound relay to said 30 ond circuit -to said time delay relay and tend to connect the valve and compound relay to said second circuit, ‘whereby a charging cycle once ini second circuit, whereby a charging cycle once tiated will be completed irrespective of the posi initiated will be completed irrespective of the po tion of the trigger switch, said time delay relay sition of the trigger switch, said time delay relay being constructed and arranged to disconnect being constructed and arranged -to disconnect said compound relay and said Valve from the sec ond circuit during normal gun operation. said compound relay and said valve from the second circuit during normal gun operation and to connect said valve and said compound relay breech bolt of a gun to charge the same compris to the second circuit in the event of gun failure ing a fluid pressure motor adapted to be mounted on the gun and constructed and arranged to en 40 ,to cause the bolt to be retracted for charging the gun. gage the breech bolt, an electrical system includ 2. A gun charging apparatus for retracting the ing a source of current and a first and a second circuit, a switch constructed and arranged for connecting said source of current to the ñrst and second circuits, an electrically operated valve in the second circuit for controlling the fluid under pressure to the motor, a time delay relay, a nor -mally closed means connecting said time delay relay to the second circuit, a normally open means in the second circuit adapted to be mounted on the gun and constructed and arranged to be closed by the breech bolt when retracted for con necting said time delay relay to the second cir cuit, a compound relay in the ñrst and second circuits, a trigger switch in the second circuit, means in the second circuit responsive to closing of the trigger switch for closing the ñrst circuit to energize the compound relay, said compound 4. A gun charging apparatus for retracting the breech bolt of a gun to charge the same compris ing a fluid pressure motor adapted to be mounted on the gun and constructed and arranged to en gage the breech bolt, an electrical system includ ing a source of current and a ñrst and a Second circuit, a switch Vconstructed and arranged for connecting said source of current to the ñrst and second circuits, an electrically operated valve in the second circuit for controlling the fluid under pressure to the motor, a time delay relay, a nor mally closed means connecting said time delay relay to the second circuit, a normally open means in the second circuit adapted to be mounted on the gun and constructed and arranged to be closed by the breech bolt when retracted for con > necting said time delay relay Ito the second cir cuit, a compound relay in the first and second relay being constructed and arranged so that when it is energized it will open the normally 60 circuits, a trigger switch in the second circuit, means in the second circuit responsive to closing closed means connecting the second circuit to of the trigger switch for closing the first circuit said time delay relay and tend to connect the to energize the compound relay, said compound Valve and compound relay to said second circuit, relay being constructed and arranged so that whereby a charging cycle once initiated will be completed irrespective of the position of the trig 65 when it is energized it will open the normally closed means connecting the second circuit to ger switch, said time delay relay being constructed said time delay relay and tend to connect the and arranged to connect said electrically oper valve and compound relay to said second circuit, ated Valve to the second circuit in the event of whereby a charging cycle once initiated will be gun failure to cause the bolt to be retracted for charging the gun, and a thermal cut-out device 70 completed irrespective of the position of the trigger switch, said time delay relay being con in the second circuit including a thermal respon structed and arranged to connect said valve to sive element in series with the second circuit and the second circuit in the event of gun failure a resistor disposed adjacent said element and to admit fluid to said fluid motor 4to cause the connected in parallel with said electrically op erated Valve, said cut-out device being con 75 bolt to be retracted for charging the gun, a 2,410,767 10 thermal cut-out device in the second .circuit in said time delay relay to the second circuit, a cluding a thermal responsive element in series normally Aopen means in the second .circuit with the second circuit and a resistor connected adapted to be mounted on the gun and con in parallel with said electrically operated valve, structed and arranged to be closed by the breech said cut-out device being constructed and ar bolt when retracted for connecting said time de ranged to disconnect the valve from circuit after lay relay to the second circuit, a compound relay a predetermined number of successive attempts in the first and second circuits, a trigger switch at charging the gun have failed, and a manually in lthe second circuit, means in the second cir operated normally open switch in the second cir cuit responsive to closing of the trigger switch for cuit constructed and arranged to -connect the lí) closing the ñrst circuit to energize the compound electrically operated valve to said second circuit relay, said .compound relay being constructed and ythrough a shunt around said normally closed arranged so that when it is energized it will open means to thereby charge the gun at will. the normally closed means connecting the second 5. A gun charging apparatus for retracting the circuit Ito said time delay relay and tend to con breech bolt of a gun to charge the same compris nect the valve and compound relay to said second ing a fluid pressure motor adapted to be mounted circuit, whereby a charging cycle once initiated on the gun and constructed and arranged to en will be completed irrespective of the position of gage the breech bolt, an electrical system includ the trigger switch, said time delay relay being ing a source of current and a first and a second constructed and arranged to disconnect said com circuit, a two-position switch disposed between pound relay and said valve from the second cir the source and the first and second circuits and cuit during normal gun operation, and a manu constructed and' arranged to connect the source ally operated normally open switch in the second to the ñrst and second circuits when in one posi circuit constructed and arranged to connect the tion and to connect the source to the second cir~ electrically operated valve to said second circuit cuit only when in one position and t0 connect the .through a shunt around said normally -closed source to the second circuit only when in .the means to charge the gun irrespective of whether other position, said positions being battery and the two position switch is in battery or safety safety positions respectively, an electrically op erated valve in the second circuit for controlling the ñuid under pressure to the motor, a time delay relay, a normally closed means connecting position. FRANKLIN O. WISMAN. WILLIAM C. ROHN.