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Патент USA US2410769

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Nov. 5, 1946.
‘ I
K__ BAUMANN
2,410,769
TURBINE, TURBINE TYPE COMPRESSOR,‘AND THE LIKE ROTATING MACHINES
Filed Jan. 13, 1944
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NOV. 5, 1946.
K, BAUMANN
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2,410,769
TURBINE, TURBINE TYPE COMPRESSOR, AND THE LIIEKE ROTATING MACHINES
Filed Jan. 139 1944
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‘2,410,169’
Patented Nov. 5’, 1946
UNITED smres PATENT lorries- TURBINE, TURBINE TYPE COMPRESSOR,
AND THE LIKE ROTATING MACHINE
Karl Baumann, Mere, Knutsford, England, and
signer to Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Com
pany Limited, London, England, a company of
Great Britain
i
Application January 13, 1944, Serial No. 518,163
,
In Great Britain May '7, 1941
'
4' Claims. (Cl. 230-122)
1
This invention relates to turbines, turbine type
compressors and the like rotating machines of
the kind wherein during operation there is ax
ial reaction between certain of the relatively ro
tating parts which needs to be balanced wholly.
or in part other than by means of thrust bear
ings. In the case of steam turbines of the reac
tion type, it has been a common practice to deal
2
munication respectively with high ‘and low pres
sure ?uid sources conveniently by ducts in the
sleeve, The low pressure ?uid source may be the
atmosphere.
’
, At the low pressure end of the rotor the thrust
face thereof is more readily provided as the rear ,
wall of a disc or the equivalent terminating an
annular recess extending towards the low pres
sure end of the machine, into which recess a sta
with the axially-directed reaction between sta
tionary piston having an annular face protrudes
- tionary and rotating‘ parts by means of so-called 10 with ?ne running clearances at its‘ inner and
balancing “pistons” mounted on the rotor and
outer cylindrical faces, the recess communicating
running with ?ne clearance distances from the
by means of a duct or ducts in some part of the
stator,-such balancing pistons, for instance, pre
rotor body with a source of high pressure ?uid, for instance with the aforesaid high pressure
15
?cient to balance the axial-force exerted by fluid
chamber of the recess at the high pressure end of
at the same pressure on the turbine rotor. The
senting an annular area to the pressure‘ ?uid suf
present invention, however, concerns more par
ticularly but not exclusively compressor and gas
the rotor. It will bewell understood that in lo
! cations where ?ne running clearances for ?uid
. sealing are here called for, known types of laby
turbine plants and is notably applicable to the
rinth glands may be used. The axial counter
high speed axial flow or turbine type compressors 20 thrust obtained by the invention need not neces
forming a part of such plants or serving as su
sarily be of such magnitude as to balance the
perchargers for internal combustion engines of
thrusts on the rotor due to the several ?uid pres
the reciprocating type. It is frequently also a
sures utilised but may have any desired magni- ‘
requirement in the case of such a plant to mini
tude
terms of the pressures utilised, the thrust
mise the space occupied thereby, and particular 25 to beinbalanced
or partly balanced being in part
ly the axial length, for which reason balancing
due to the ?uid pressure at the discharge end of
pistons of the full rotor diameter and located ax
the machine and the associated areas subjected
ially beyond the con?nes of the working rotor are
to the pressure there, in relation _to ‘the ?uid
not convenient.
atv the intake end of the machine and
According to the invention, balancing devices 30 pressure
the areas subjected‘to the pressure there. ‘
are accommodated substantially within the axial
In the accompanying drawings
length of- the inner bladed drum or rotor cylin
Figure 1 is a diametrical longitudinal section
der of the turbine or compressor, and involve a
of a part of a machine embodying the present in
plurality of faces of rotor surface of annular or
frusto-conical or like form on which high pres 35 vention.
Figure 2 is a transverse section on the line 2-2
sure fluid is caused to bear, giving thrusts in the
same ‘sense for the several faces.
By the use of
a plurality of such faces, the requisite total area
is attained, although the outside diameters of
the several faces are necessarily less than the
drum diameter.
Conveniently, thrust faces are provided at each
end of the rotor, that or one of them at the high
in Figure 1.
'
Figure 3 is a detail section on the line 3-3 in
Figure 2.
Figure 4 is an enlarged diagrammatic section
of the upper half of the structure shown in Fig
ure 1, with portions thereof broken away.
The‘ machine shown in the drawings may be‘
assumed by way of example to be an axial flow
pressurev end arising as one face of a radially ex
air compressor forming part of internal combus
45
tending‘ annular recess formed in the rotor, the
tion plant which may be employed for the pro
recess being divided in the general direction of a
pulsion of aircraft or other craft. '
plane at right angles to the axis of the rotor into
In the drawings, at i and la are shown parts
two chambers by a stationary diaphragm sup
of the blade-carrying rotor of the compressor at
ported by an axially extending cylindrical sleeve
or near the discharge and intake ends respec
which enters the recess axially at its outer pe 50
tively. It is assumed that the parts I and la are
riphery from the high pressure end of the ma
portions
of a single rotor drum, but the inven;
chine. Fine running clearances are provided at
tion is not limited in this respect since they may
the inner annular face of the diaphragm and at
be parts of two independent rotors such as in two
the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces of the
sleeve, and the two chambers are put into com 55 machines comprising high pressure and low pres
2,410,769 _
. sure units connected in series and usually. but‘ not
necessarily, in axial alignment.
_
conveniently by the provision of further holes
3la drilled in the axial direction through the
stator cylinder member I? and the external ?ange
of the disc 23 and the internal ?ange I9 01’ the
.
The blades carried ‘by the rotor are indicated
at 2, and the guide blades carried by the stator
are indicated at 3, whilst one of the blades of the
stator annular member 6.
The direction of thrust due to the higher pres
sure on the thrust disc I4 is indicated by the arrow
final stage of stator blading is-indicated at 4. ‘At
5 is shown part of the stator casing carrying the
blading 4 and 3 and further stages to the right,
36 (Fig. 4).
The air leaving the perforations 33 in the sup
rying blading 3 co-operating with blading 2 car 10 porting disc 9 passes, as indicated by the arrow 31,.
in the axial direction within the rotor I, la, and
riedon the part Ia of the rotor.
enters, as indicated by the arrow 38, ports 39 in
At 8 is shown an annular stator member de?ning.
the supporting disc 12 of the right-hand end la
with the left-hand end of the stator portion 5 the
of the rotor. Into the annular space 40, axially to
discharge or outlet of the compressor through
whilst 50 is the part of the stator casing or drum
‘Mat or near the intake end of the compressor car
which the air ?ows from right to left as indicated 15
bythe arrow 1, whilst the normal thrust on the
rotor is in the direction of the arrow 8.
shown at 4|,
at the
The part I of the rotor is diagrammatically
periphery of an annular disc member 42 secured
shown as being carried by a disc member 9 having
a hub l0 ?xed to a shaft indicated at H, whilst 20 to or forming part of the stator member I 3. At
the left-hand end of the cylinder member 4| is an
the right-hand part la of the rotor is shown as
annular disc 42a bolted to which ‘is a- hollow
being carried by a disc l2 the hub of which is also
cylinder 43 between which and the inner'surface
?xed ‘to the shaft H, the latter being assumed
of the rotor part la is labyrinth packing’ 44. At
to be driven from its right-hand end. The left
hand end of this shaft is carried in a thrust V25 theinterior periphery of the disc 42a is a cylinder
portion 45 between which and a cylinder 46 on the
sustaining bearing 5| which is supported by a
rotor‘hub is labyrinth packing 41. The cylinder
transverse wall 52 associated with the annular
4| is provided with ports 48 connecting to atmos
stator member 6, whilst at the right-hand end
phere through ports 55, or other source of air at
the shaft is carried in a thrust-sustaining bearing
53 associated with another stator member which 30 low pressure through a gap 56 at the intake end of
the rotor, the space 49 between the discs 42 and
is diagrammatically indicated at I 3; the wall 52
42a, the direction of any gas that may flow from
and member l3 and the stator connecting them
the space 49 being indicated by the arrow 50.
closing the entire casing containing the rotor,
I claim:
and being supported by the relatively ?xed stator
35
1. In a turbine or compressor or like rotating
member 6 and the inlet casing member 54.
machine of the kind referred to and having an
As part of the present invention the rotor part I
inner rotor drum bladed on its outer surface,
is provided with a thrust face I 4 or “piston” in
the form of a. disc l5 carried by or integral with
a the hub I 0,'the periphery of the disc having an
thrust balancing devices accommodated substan
tially within the axial length of the inner bladed
integral or attached cylindrical portion I6, the 40 ‘rotor drum, comprising means within the drum
and rotating therewith which provide a plurality
of faces of rotor surface of annular form to which
outer surface of which is adjacent the inner
- cylindrical surface of an axial cylinder I‘! bolted
at I8 to an integral ?ange IS on the annular
member 6. Labyrinth packing 20 is provided be
tween the inner surface of the member I‘! and
the outer surface of the cylinder l6, whilst laby
rinth packing 2| is provided between the outer
surface of the axial stator cylinder l1 and the
45
the counterpart of such thrust, said means and
member forming chambers between them, and
means for conducting high pressure ?uid to the
inner surface of the part i of the rotor. There
is bolted at 22 to the right-hand end of the stator 60 respective chambers.
2. A turbine or compressor or like rotating
cylinder member H a disc 23 at the inner periph
machine of the kind referred to having balanc
ery of which is a stator cylinder portion 24 within
which is a rotor cylinder portion 25 carried by a . ing devices as claimed in claim 1, wherein the
high pressure fluid is caused to bear in a thrust
disc or wall 26 bolted at 21 to the rotor part I.
Labyrinth packing 28 is provided between the 55 balancing direction on a rotor face at the high
pressure end said member comprising a stationary
cylinders 24 and 25. As indicated by the arrow 29
diaphragm within an annular recess in the rotor
high pressure air passes radially inwards through
the annular gap 30 between the left-hand end of
and having ?ne running clearances therewith,
the rotor part I and the right-hand end of the
a stationary sleeve extending with fine running
60
annular member 6. The stator cylinder member
clearances within the drum and supporting said
I1 is provided around it with a plurality of axial »
diaphragm and duct means within said sleeve for
passages 3| so that the high pressure air acts
conducting the high pressure ?uid into the space
upon an annular area of the thrust face l4 the
so de?ned between the opposing stationary and
radial extent of the area being indicated by the
rotating faces.
arrow 32 (Fig. 4);
. The rotor supporting disc 9 has in it one vor
more perforations 33 through which the high
3. A turbine or compressor or like rotating
machine of the kind referred to having balancing
devices as claimed in claim 1, wherein the high
pressure air can pass from the chamber 34 pro
pressure fluid is caused to bear in a thrust balanc_
vided between the thrust disc l5 and the stator
70 ing direction upon a rotor face at the low; pressure
-disc 23, to flow to the low pressure end of the
end of the rotor said member comprising a sta
turbine as hereinafter described.
tionary piston within'an annular recess in the
The space or chamber 35 between the stator
rotor and having ?ne running clearances there
_ disc 23 and rotor disc 26 is connected to a‘ source
with, and duct means for conducting the high
of air at lower pressure in any desired manner, but 75 pressure ?uid to the space thusde?ned by the
, 2,410,769
opposing stationary and rotating, faces- through v
the rotor drum from the high pressure end. _
4. A turbine or compressor or like rotating ma
chine of the kind referred‘ to having balancing
devices as claimed in claim 1 with ?uid pressure
chambers at both the high-pressure and low pres
sure ends of the rotor, said conducting means
delivering high pressure ?uid to the chamber at
the high pressure end, the high pressure ?uid
chamber at the high pressure end of the machine
having an outlet leading to a passage within the
rotor‘and the high pressure. chamber at the low
pressure end of the machine having an inlet com
municating with said passage.
KARL BAUMANN.
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