Патент USA US2410769код для вставки
Nov. 5, 1946. ‘ I K__ BAUMANN 2,410,769 TURBINE, TURBINE TYPE COMPRESSOR,‘AND THE LIKE ROTATING MACHINES Filed Jan. 13, 1944 _ 2 Sheets-Sheet 1, 54 / IQIWHE 2, 3"“ \ J, 27 I ' 8 6i;/ a?‘ ‘Z | 1.’; 722%‘ \ 35 ' 5 I 9 P37_ 49 % 4g 4 216_ M ‘.9989 ‘~33 I” 2e 1“ 427 V 4'5 12 [11/ 3 46 // 10 .74 INVEN TOR. 1221'! 56mm a/zn BY } ATTOR i‘JEYFS NOV. 5, 1946. K, BAUMANN - 2,410,769 TURBINE, TURBINE TYPE COMPRESSOR, AND THE LIIEKE ROTATING MACHINES Filed Jan. 139 1944 a»\ // ‘l \w 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ' ~ ' W“ %k \\ K - , *“m 5*? Bwl 1 Nb In ./ '245 y’? 4‘.FIG.‘ l A. 10 _ INVEIY To)? ‘BY/74L Mu Luz». II rroRMe-Y ‘2,410,169’ Patented Nov. 5’, 1946 UNITED smres PATENT lorries- TURBINE, TURBINE TYPE COMPRESSOR, AND THE LIKE ROTATING MACHINE Karl Baumann, Mere, Knutsford, England, and signer to Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Com pany Limited, London, England, a company of Great Britain i Application January 13, 1944, Serial No. 518,163 , In Great Britain May '7, 1941 ' 4' Claims. (Cl. 230-122) 1 This invention relates to turbines, turbine type compressors and the like rotating machines of the kind wherein during operation there is ax ial reaction between certain of the relatively ro tating parts which needs to be balanced wholly. or in part other than by means of thrust bear ings. In the case of steam turbines of the reac tion type, it has been a common practice to deal 2 munication respectively with high ‘and low pres sure ?uid sources conveniently by ducts in the sleeve, The low pressure ?uid source may be the atmosphere. ’ , At the low pressure end of the rotor the thrust face thereof is more readily provided as the rear , wall of a disc or the equivalent terminating an annular recess extending towards the low pres sure end of the machine, into which recess a sta with the axially-directed reaction between sta tionary piston having an annular face protrudes - tionary and rotating‘ parts by means of so-called 10 with ?ne running clearances at its‘ inner and balancing “pistons” mounted on the rotor and outer cylindrical faces, the recess communicating running with ?ne clearance distances from the by means of a duct or ducts in some part of the stator,-such balancing pistons, for instance, pre rotor body with a source of high pressure ?uid, for instance with the aforesaid high pressure 15 ?cient to balance the axial-force exerted by fluid chamber of the recess at the high pressure end of at the same pressure on the turbine rotor. The senting an annular area to the pressure‘ ?uid suf present invention, however, concerns more par ticularly but not exclusively compressor and gas the rotor. It will bewell understood that in lo ! cations where ?ne running clearances for ?uid . sealing are here called for, known types of laby turbine plants and is notably applicable to the rinth glands may be used. The axial counter high speed axial flow or turbine type compressors 20 thrust obtained by the invention need not neces forming a part of such plants or serving as su sarily be of such magnitude as to balance the perchargers for internal combustion engines of thrusts on the rotor due to the several ?uid pres the reciprocating type. It is frequently also a sures utilised but may have any desired magni- ‘ requirement in the case of such a plant to mini tude terms of the pressures utilised, the thrust mise the space occupied thereby, and particular 25 to beinbalanced or partly balanced being in part ly the axial length, for which reason balancing due to the ?uid pressure at the discharge end of pistons of the full rotor diameter and located ax the machine and the associated areas subjected ially beyond the con?nes of the working rotor are to the pressure there, in relation _to ‘the ?uid not convenient. atv the intake end of the machine and According to the invention, balancing devices 30 pressure the areas subjected‘to the pressure there. ‘ are accommodated substantially within the axial In the accompanying drawings length of- the inner bladed drum or rotor cylin Figure 1 is a diametrical longitudinal section der of the turbine or compressor, and involve a of a part of a machine embodying the present in plurality of faces of rotor surface of annular or frusto-conical or like form on which high pres 35 vention. Figure 2 is a transverse section on the line 2-2 sure fluid is caused to bear, giving thrusts in the same ‘sense for the several faces. By the use of a plurality of such faces, the requisite total area is attained, although the outside diameters of the several faces are necessarily less than the drum diameter. Conveniently, thrust faces are provided at each end of the rotor, that or one of them at the high in Figure 1. ' Figure 3 is a detail section on the line 3-3 in Figure 2. Figure 4 is an enlarged diagrammatic section of the upper half of the structure shown in Fig ure 1, with portions thereof broken away. The‘ machine shown in the drawings may be‘ assumed by way of example to be an axial flow pressurev end arising as one face of a radially ex air compressor forming part of internal combus 45 tending‘ annular recess formed in the rotor, the tion plant which may be employed for the pro recess being divided in the general direction of a pulsion of aircraft or other craft. ' plane at right angles to the axis of the rotor into In the drawings, at i and la are shown parts two chambers by a stationary diaphragm sup of the blade-carrying rotor of the compressor at ported by an axially extending cylindrical sleeve or near the discharge and intake ends respec which enters the recess axially at its outer pe 50 tively. It is assumed that the parts I and la are riphery from the high pressure end of the ma portions of a single rotor drum, but the inven; chine. Fine running clearances are provided at tion is not limited in this respect since they may the inner annular face of the diaphragm and at be parts of two independent rotors such as in two the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces of the sleeve, and the two chambers are put into com 55 machines comprising high pressure and low pres 2,410,769 _ . sure units connected in series and usually. but‘ not necessarily, in axial alignment. _ conveniently by the provision of further holes 3la drilled in the axial direction through the stator cylinder member I? and the external ?ange of the disc 23 and the internal ?ange I9 01’ the . The blades carried ‘by the rotor are indicated at 2, and the guide blades carried by the stator are indicated at 3, whilst one of the blades of the stator annular member 6. The direction of thrust due to the higher pres sure on the thrust disc I4 is indicated by the arrow final stage of stator blading is-indicated at 4. ‘At 5 is shown part of the stator casing carrying the blading 4 and 3 and further stages to the right, 36 (Fig. 4). The air leaving the perforations 33 in the sup rying blading 3 co-operating with blading 2 car 10 porting disc 9 passes, as indicated by the arrow 31,. in the axial direction within the rotor I, la, and riedon the part Ia of the rotor. enters, as indicated by the arrow 38, ports 39 in At 8 is shown an annular stator member de?ning. the supporting disc 12 of the right-hand end la with the left-hand end of the stator portion 5 the of the rotor. Into the annular space 40, axially to discharge or outlet of the compressor through whilst 50 is the part of the stator casing or drum ‘Mat or near the intake end of the compressor car which the air ?ows from right to left as indicated 15 bythe arrow 1, whilst the normal thrust on the rotor is in the direction of the arrow 8. shown at 4|, at the The part I of the rotor is diagrammatically periphery of an annular disc member 42 secured shown as being carried by a disc member 9 having a hub l0 ?xed to a shaft indicated at H, whilst 20 to or forming part of the stator member I 3. At the left-hand end of the cylinder member 4| is an the right-hand part la of the rotor is shown as annular disc 42a bolted to which ‘is a- hollow being carried by a disc l2 the hub of which is also cylinder 43 between which and the inner'surface ?xed ‘to the shaft H, the latter being assumed of the rotor part la is labyrinth packing’ 44. At to be driven from its right-hand end. The left hand end of this shaft is carried in a thrust V25 theinterior periphery of the disc 42a is a cylinder portion 45 between which and a cylinder 46 on the sustaining bearing 5| which is supported by a rotor‘hub is labyrinth packing 41. The cylinder transverse wall 52 associated with the annular 4| is provided with ports 48 connecting to atmos stator member 6, whilst at the right-hand end phere through ports 55, or other source of air at the shaft is carried in a thrust-sustaining bearing 53 associated with another stator member which 30 low pressure through a gap 56 at the intake end of the rotor, the space 49 between the discs 42 and is diagrammatically indicated at I 3; the wall 52 42a, the direction of any gas that may flow from and member l3 and the stator connecting them the space 49 being indicated by the arrow 50. closing the entire casing containing the rotor, I claim: and being supported by the relatively ?xed stator 35 1. In a turbine or compressor or like rotating member 6 and the inlet casing member 54. machine of the kind referred to and having an As part of the present invention the rotor part I inner rotor drum bladed on its outer surface, is provided with a thrust face I 4 or “piston” in the form of a. disc l5 carried by or integral with a the hub I 0,'the periphery of the disc having an thrust balancing devices accommodated substan tially within the axial length of the inner bladed integral or attached cylindrical portion I6, the 40 ‘rotor drum, comprising means within the drum and rotating therewith which provide a plurality of faces of rotor surface of annular form to which outer surface of which is adjacent the inner - cylindrical surface of an axial cylinder I‘! bolted at I8 to an integral ?ange IS on the annular member 6. Labyrinth packing 20 is provided be tween the inner surface of the member I‘! and the outer surface of the cylinder l6, whilst laby rinth packing 2| is provided between the outer surface of the axial stator cylinder l1 and the 45 the counterpart of such thrust, said means and member forming chambers between them, and means for conducting high pressure ?uid to the inner surface of the part i of the rotor. There is bolted at 22 to the right-hand end of the stator 60 respective chambers. 2. A turbine or compressor or like rotating cylinder member H a disc 23 at the inner periph machine of the kind referred to having balanc ery of which is a stator cylinder portion 24 within which is a rotor cylinder portion 25 carried by a . ing devices as claimed in claim 1, wherein the high pressure fluid is caused to bear in a thrust disc or wall 26 bolted at 21 to the rotor part I. Labyrinth packing 28 is provided between the 55 balancing direction on a rotor face at the high pressure end said member comprising a stationary cylinders 24 and 25. As indicated by the arrow 29 diaphragm within an annular recess in the rotor high pressure air passes radially inwards through the annular gap 30 between the left-hand end of and having ?ne running clearances therewith, the rotor part I and the right-hand end of the a stationary sleeve extending with fine running 60 annular member 6. The stator cylinder member clearances within the drum and supporting said I1 is provided around it with a plurality of axial » diaphragm and duct means within said sleeve for passages 3| so that the high pressure air acts conducting the high pressure ?uid into the space upon an annular area of the thrust face l4 the so de?ned between the opposing stationary and radial extent of the area being indicated by the rotating faces. arrow 32 (Fig. 4); . The rotor supporting disc 9 has in it one vor more perforations 33 through which the high 3. A turbine or compressor or like rotating machine of the kind referred to having balancing devices as claimed in claim 1, wherein the high pressure air can pass from the chamber 34 pro pressure fluid is caused to bear in a thrust balanc_ vided between the thrust disc l5 and the stator 70 ing direction upon a rotor face at the low; pressure -disc 23, to flow to the low pressure end of the end of the rotor said member comprising a sta turbine as hereinafter described. tionary piston within'an annular recess in the The space or chamber 35 between the stator rotor and having ?ne running clearances there _ disc 23 and rotor disc 26 is connected to a‘ source with, and duct means for conducting the high of air at lower pressure in any desired manner, but 75 pressure ?uid to the space thusde?ned by the , 2,410,769 opposing stationary and rotating, faces- through v the rotor drum from the high pressure end. _ 4. A turbine or compressor or like rotating ma chine of the kind referred‘ to having balancing devices as claimed in claim 1 with ?uid pressure chambers at both the high-pressure and low pres sure ends of the rotor, said conducting means delivering high pressure ?uid to the chamber at the high pressure end, the high pressure ?uid chamber at the high pressure end of the machine having an outlet leading to a passage within the rotor‘and the high pressure. chamber at the low pressure end of the machine having an inlet com municating with said passage. KARL BAUMANN.