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Патент USA US2410773

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Nov. 5, 1946;.'
2,410,773;
M. E. CHANDLER
FUEL CONTROL MECHANISM
Filed` July 22 , 1942
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nEïChadler
Patented Nov. 5, 11946
„ ¿41amV
UNITED STATES
ATENT "
2,410,773
FUEL CONTROL MECHANISM
Milton E. Chandler, New Britain, Conn., assignolj
to Chandler-Evans Corporation, a corporation
of Delaware
Application July 22, 1942, Serial No. 451,874
` 14 Claims.
l.
(C11. 12S-140)
engine. In this construction, a connection i0
leads from the throat of the venturi 'I to a con
trol valve casing il enclosing a diaphragm, gen
My invention relates to fuel control mecha
nisms.
'
.
It has among its objects to provide an improved
contrbl mechanism for controlling the fuelisup
plied through injectors to the cylinders-of inter
erally indicated at D. which separates the casing
into two expansible chambers I2 and lil. This
nal combustion engines. A further object of my
'invention is to provide such an improved control
ling mechanism especially adapted to use in con
nectlon with airplane engines,v either of the gas
oline or fuel-oil operated type. A still further
object of my invention is to provide such im
proved’ controlling mechanism of the typewhere
in the fuel supply >through -the injectors to the
connection i0 communicates with the chamber
i2 below the diaphragm D, while a connection It
leads from the scoop 8 through a chamber i5
communicating with the chamber i3 through an
aneroid operated valve I5. Further, as shown,
the diaphragm D comprises a central portion D'
and a peripheral portion i32 surrounding the por
tion D’ and having its own periphery clamped be
tween the peripheral portions of component cas- , .
engine cylinders varies as a function of air flow
to the engine, and wherein improved cooperating
mechanism is provided to control the operation
ing members cooperating to form the lcasing il.
. Moreover, note that the portion D' of this dia
phragm carries usual axially disposed cooperat
of the fuel injector pump in such manner as to
maintain the quantity of fuel supplied by the
ing discs Il and -a ring i8 of larger diameter than I
injectors a function of air flow under all operat
these Vdiscs and has a coiled spring I9 biasing the
ring i8 and the enclosed central portion D' of
the diaphragm into the raised position shown in
Figure 1, wherein the ring i8 is pressedagainst
an annular series of stops 2li depending from the
upper member 0f the casing il. The stops 2d
ing conditions of the engine including enrich
ment under overload conditions. A still further
20
object of my invention is to provide improved
controlling mechanism for the injector pump,
wherein this controlling mechanism is controlled
by variations in air flow, and -wherein the opera 25 are spaced so that the same pressure acts on the
entire upper surface’of diaphragm D. As shown,
tion of said pump is also suitably modified by
a coiled spring 2|, lighter than the spring I8,
including improved cooperating controlling means
acts on. saidupper member as an abutment and
is also disposed centrally with and acts upon the
operative during the idling range. These and
other objects and advantages will, however, here 30 upper face of the discs l1. On the opposite face
óf the discs~ il from the spring 2i is a depending
inafter more fully appear.
_
button 22 attached _to the adjacent face of a
In the accompanying drawing, I have shown
for purposes-of illustration one embodiment which . suitable small diaphragm 23 which is suitably
attached to the lower casing member around the
my inv‘entio'n may assume in practice.>
35 edge of an annular chamber 2t. This diaphragm
In this drawing:
Y
23 and valve member 22 are normally slightlyFigure 1 is a diagrammatic view of my improved
raised by fluid pressure in chamber 2t, to provide
mechanism, and
communication beneath the diaphragm 23 be
Fig. 2 isa detail view showing the diaphragm
tween this annular chamber 2d and an axial dis
valve of Figure 1 in a different position thereof.
In this illustrative construction, l'. have illus 40 charge or drain passage 2b, and the button 22
. variations in the speed of the engine, while also
trated my invention asA applied to an engine I
including a cylinder la and having a suitable
rises and falls as necessary .to control the escape
of iluid from chamber 2t, as hereinafter de
scribed. Note here also that connection be
tween the chambers i2 and i3 on opposite sides
2 by a wobble cam t and supplying fuel to an dfi of the diaphragm D is established by passages
2t and 2l having communication between the
injector E, only one cylinder being shown in order
same controlled by a suitable valvel 28 forming a
to simplify illustration.
'
part of a usual manual “rich” mechanism, `not
My improved controllingl mechanism, which’shown. The total air pressure differential be
controlsv the operation of the injector pump 3,
herein includes controlling- mechanism respon 50. tween the scoop t and the throat of the venturi
'l is a measure of the velocity ofthe flowing/air.
sive to variations in air ñow to the engine l. As
This pressure diiïerential produces a flow of air
shown, this mechanism includes an air meter d
thru a secondary air passage which may be
including a usual air venturi l, hereinof the rec
tangular type, and having a scoop â and suitable
traced from scoop t thru connection it, chamber
throttle means s between theventuri i er.: the 55 it, past valve it into chamber i3, connection
service shaft 2' and injector pump mechanism,
generally indicated at 3, driven from the shaft
' s
.-
21, pastvnve 2|, mecum-es, chamber n ¿ad e and hence thepressure‘imthe cylinder of motor
„_ connection .Il‘to the throat of venturi 1. ’
35 is controlled by the button 22.
'
.
Inthis secondary-air passage, the total pres
Movementl of the piston 86 _is utilized to- con
' Bure dinerential- between the scoop _8 and >the
throat oi' venturi A'I may be considered as being
trol the pump 3. ì As shown, the piston 38 is piv
otally connected through _a suitable slotted con
nection 3'I'to the upper end of a linkf38, pivoted
-divided into two' component pressure drops, one y
. across the- altitude'compensating valve `|6 and
_ at its lower end at 39, and also pivotally con
the- other across the restriction controlled 'by
a nected between lts ends at 40 to a -longitudinally ^
valve 23. The pressure responsive valve il cor-'
adjustable rod 4I controlling the positionof ad
' rects the pressure dinerential acting on the dia 10' justment cfa valve member 42 in the injector
Phrasm D so that it is an accurate measure of
pump 3.- In the illustrative constructiomthis
A the mass'of air flowing per unit time. rather than Y
valve member 42 is reciprocable in a fuel inlet
the velocity of air flow. vUpon'a decrease in air
chamber 43 in the injector pump casing and
density, such- as accompanies an increase in alti- - - »
tude of an aircraft, the valve I6 moves .toward
pressed plungers.“ operated by the wobble cam
e, a' coiled spring I5 normally biasing' said valve
‘member to the left. Herein, this valve member
_ closed position.- thereby increasing the propor
tion of the total fuel pressure differential which, `
takesplace scrum valve Ii, and decreasing the`
cooperates in its .diii’erent longitudinal positions
_ proportion of the total fuel pressure differential
which >is effective on\ the diaphragm D,
ñowing’per unit time due to the decrease in
l
_
to vary the closing time of T-shaped’inlet pas..
The 20 sageways 46 in the plungers 44 in such manner as
to vary the amount of fuel supplied to these
' pressure dißerential on diaphragm Dis‘thereby
_corrected‘for the decrease in the` mass of air
density.
'reciprocably mounted on the front >ends of spring- _
- plungers from a usual fuel pump Il to fuel inlet
41a and chamber _431. -Qheck valves I8 and relief
.ports 49 communicating with relief passages 5@
'_ ‘
- The valve 23 is normally in a position where a 25
small fixed restriction connects ‘the chambers l2
and I3. It may be manually moved from .this
position to one -where‘the‘resriction is substan
tially closed.` When «the restriction. is closed.
being also provided.
`
'
. As a result of the control of the adjustment of
the position of the piston 36 in accordance with
variations in the air now to the> engine. and the
adjustment of the valve 42 by the piston 36,"lt will
, there is no air now thru the secondary passage 30 be apparent that the quantity of fuel supplied
just traced, and hence no pressure drop thru the
from the inlet Ila to each infector 5 will vary as
valve I8. Valve Il then hasno controlling effect, ~
and the
diaphragm D is then subjected A to
v
total air pressure differential.
"
‘
a function of air now. Further, it will- be noted
_that when the air now increases sufllciently to
the
`
overcome the spring i9 and increase the eüective
-»The pressure differential on the diaphragmy` 35 area of the diaphragm D, the pressure inïpipe 33
D acts in a downward direction on the but
» Aton' 22, ‘and thereby >tends to close the outlet
. will then be additionally built Iup in such-_man
ner as thereby to additionally actuate the" piston
passage 25. 'The pressure diñerential on dia
i8, i. e. even further, and -thereby enrich the mix- .
phragm 23 acts upwardly against the button 22;
ture as required under. such conditions'ffwhile
- and thereby> tends to open 'the outlet passage v40 maintaining the total _j el flows. function‘ïofair
,» 25. Since the pressure in chamber I2 is small,
now.
`
v,
¿_.."~.„
.
.
n
j
-
being customarily measured in inches of water,
Cooperating with> the mechanism above de
while the pressure in chamber 2l :is relatively
scribed and operating to'enablethe above con
large, being customarily measured in -inches of
mercury or pounds per square inch, it may be 45
considered that the force acting thru diaphragm
23 on button 22 in a valve opening direction is
trol to be iniiuenced by variations in enginegspeed,
improved cooperating controlling mechanism is
- also provided. A ball EOYernor; 5I, carried on a ‘
suitable engine service shaft, which- may'ffbe the
determined by the pressure in chamber 24, disshaft 2 or a suitableshaftfdriven therefrom, is
regarding the> effect of variations in pressure in
connected to a dependlng'~linltb2 pivoted at 53
chamber l2.` The pressure diilerential acting 50 and connected through aëïc'rosslink 54 near its
downwardly on diaphragm D. as previously de
upper end to the lower end l‘ot-»the link-38.v .As a
scribed,.is a measure of the mass of air entering
the engine. _ yThe spring 2i assists this air pres
sure diiîerential' but, 'since this is a Arelatively ’
result of thisconnection',` hileythejjrod 4i will be
operated by the piston .3l heretofore described
to adjust the valve 42. theadlustment'of the lat
, light spring, its ei'l'ect lsnegligible except at very 55 ter will obviously be modified-by. the. action of the '
low air flows. The purpose and eñect'of spring
ball governor on the
5_2', ~-_the vgovernor mov
v2_I'at such low airfiows is explained below.
~ ing the lower pivot 39 of the
in súch man
The position of button. 22 controls the pressure
of nuid supplied to a fluid motor 35 which con
trols the displacement of the injector pump mech
' . anism 3. The iiuid is supplied by' a gear pump 29, .
whose outlet pressure is controlled by conven
tional relief valve 30. The fluid may be the-lubri- '
eating oil of the engine, and the pump „may be
the usual oil pump. Most of the oil discharged
ner 'as thereby to enable the -speed of theengine
to modify the _effect ofgtheëlair‘control and ac
cordingly enable the mechanism to operate sat
isfactorlly under widely varying conditions.
Under idling conditions. the vquantity of air
flowing thru the venturi ‘I is quite -small relative
to the dimensions of the venturi. At such times,
(iiiA I it hasbeen found that -the - pressure diiferential
by pump 29 passes thru a conduit 32, but a por
’ between the chambers l2 and _I3 is not an accu
tion of the oil passes thru a restriction 3l intoal ,rate measure of the quantity'of air _flowing thru _
-« `conduit 33 and-thence thru chamber :fand the
>outlet controlled by the position o! button 22
the venturi. I have therefore provided the spring
2| which actsdownwardly onthe central portion
, into a drain 25, which .may be connected to a 70 D’v of the ldiaphragm D. At normal air flows, the
suitable reservoir or'to the inlet of pump 29. `
force oi' spring 2| is so small as compared to the
The fluid motor 35 includes a cylinder in which
a piston 3B ismovable.` The nuid under pressure
is supplied to the cylinder lfrom a conduit 34 coni
_ nected to conduit 33. The pressure in conduit 33 75
force due to the pressure differential acting on
.the diaphragm that its enectis negligible. At low
air ilows, however. the effect-‘of spring 2| on the
diaphragm is large as compared to the eiïect of
2,410,773
the pressure differential.
The spring 2| then
in connection with airplane engines having usual
ignition mechanism; my improved controlling
mechanism is equally well adapted to use in any
Diesel- type engine, which, as usual, has no such
causes the establishment of a pressure ‘in con
duit 33 which is larger than that required to
cause the injector mechanism to'supply a quan
tity of ,fuel proportionate to the air flow.
ignition mechanism and depends upon the heat of
compression to ignite the charge.
ling mechanism is also further cooperating con
While I have >herein specifically described one
trolling mechanism modifying the operation of
embodiment which my invention may assumegl
the injector pump during the idlingv range. , As
practice, it will be understood that this has be 'ifY
shown, this mechanism includes a cam» 55 carried 10 chosen for purposes of illustration, and that the
on the throttle shaft 56 and cooperating with an
invention may be modified and embodied in other
adjustable member 51 carried on the lower end
forms without departing from its spirit or the
of the depending link `52. As shown, the latter l scope of the appended claims.
Cooperating with the above described control->
link is biased toward the cam by a spring 58 and
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
also carries an adjustable stop 59 engageable with la Letters Patent is:
.
,
.
a portion 59a on the engine and which cooperates
1. In a fuel- control mechanism for internal
with the member 5l in determining the limits of
combustion engines, an air conduit, control means
responsive to variations in the quantity of air
movement of the link 52 by the cam 55; Thus,
flowing through said conduit,= hydraulic control
when >the throttle shaft 53 is adjusted into idling
position, the above control mechanism automati 20 mechanism controlled by said controlling means.
fuel injector mechanism including an injector
cally decreases the fuel delivered by the injector
pump having a valve opened and closed during
pump 3 to the quantity desired to effect idling
each cycle of operation of said pump, means con-l
operation.
'
.
trolled by said hydraulic control mechanism for
It may be stated that the function of spring
2| is to transfer controlfof the fuel injector mech 25 varying the time of closure of said valve to vary
the delivery of said pump as a function of air flow,
anism from the diaphragm D to the throttle dur
ing conditions of low air ñow. Such conditions
occur only when the throttle is within a range of
and means controlled by the engine throttle for
modifying the closing- time of said valve.
i
positions adjacent its closed position, usually
2. In a fuel control mechanism for internal
termed the idling range. The cam 55 is so de-_ 30 combustion engines, an air conduit,fcontro1 means
responsive to variations in the quantity of air
signed that it is effective to control the injector
mechanism only when the throttle is Within this
range of positions. Under such conditions, the
spring 2l is eñective-to maintain a substantially
constant pressure in conduit 33, so that the posi
tion of piston 26 is substantially constant and the
effective control of the fuel supply is 'provided by
the throttle operated cam 55.
.flowing through said conduit, hydraulic control
mechanism controlled by said control means, fuel
injector mechanism including, an injector pump
having a valve opened and closed during each
cycle of operation of said pump, means controlled
by said hydraulic control mechanism for varying
" thetime of closure of said valve to vary the de
~
livery of said pump as a function of air flow, and
In the operation of the complete mechanism, in
normal operation the central portion D’ of the 40 means controlled by engine speed for modifying
the closing time of said valve.
diaphragm D will so control the valve member 22
and diaphragm 23 as to maintain the pressure in
3. In a fuel control mechanism, an air conduit,
control means responsive to variations in the
the pipe 33 a function of air flow. Consequently,
quantity of air flowing through said conduit, hy
draulic controlmechanism including- a cylinder
and a piston therein reversely adjusted by- said
the piston _36 through its connected linkage will
so adjust the valve 42 automatically as to main
_tain the fuel flow from the fuel inlet 41a to the
several plungers M also a function of air flow.
Further, it will be apparent that as the engine
speed varies, the ball governor 5I will modify the
controlling means as a, function of air flow, fuel
'injector mechanism including an injector pump
having a valve opened and closed during each»
~ above control as necessary to automatically com 50 cycle of operation of. said pump, linkage adjust
able by said piston to control the time of closure
pensate for variations in engine speed, while, dur'
of said Valve to vary the delivery of said pump as
ing idling, the manual adjustment of the throttle
a function of air flow, and throttle operated
shaft 56 will effect the desired manual adjustment
means for adjusting said linkage to automatically
during operation in the idling range. As the air
vary the operation of said valve and the delivery
flow to the engine increases, however, the nor
of the pump during idling.
`
mally functioning portion D' of the diaphragm D
will be automatically increased in area by the
4. In a fuel control mechanism, an air conduit,
addition of the peripheral portion D2 thereto, as
above described, in such manner as further sub
» stantially to build up the pressure in the pipe 33,
and, accordingly, Vthrough the piston 36 and the
linkage connecting the latter to the valve member
42, automatically further increase the quantity of
fuel delivered by the several injectors to the sev
eral cylinders, in such manner as thereby -sub
stantially to enrich themixture while maintain
ing the enrichment also a function of air now.
It will be understood that while, for -illustrative
purposes, I have shown only one complete injector
delivering to a single cylinder, -a series of cylinders
and injectorsis provided, with each injector and
cylinder successively supplied with a suitable
charge of fuel through the action of the wobble
' cam ,4. Further, it will be understood that while
control means responsive to variations in the
to
quantity of air flowing through said conduit, hy
draulic control mechanism including a cylinder
and a piston therein .reversely adjusted by said
controlling/ means as a function of air ñow, fuel
injector mechanism including an injector pump
having a valve opened and closed during each
cycle of operation of said pump, linkage adjust
able by said piston to control the time of closure
of said valve to vary the delivery of said pump
_as a function of air flow, and engine speed op
erated means for adjusting said linkage to modify
vthe closing time of said valve in accordance with .
‘engine speed.
'
5. In a fuel supply system for an internal com-_
bustion engine, a conduit for air flowing to said
engine 'for combustion purposes, means associated
I contemplate the use of my improved mechanism 76 with said conduit for producing two unequal pres
~ 2,419,773' _
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sures whose difference is a measure of the quan
tity of _air flowing therethrmthrottle means for
controlling the flow of air thru said> conduit, fuel
, injector mechanism including a plurality of re
sitioned by said throttle means independently of
said motor means.
'
.
9. A fuel supply system for an internal com
bustion engine, comprising injectorvpump mech
ciprocating pumps> for supplying fuel directly to 5 anism for supplying fuel to said engine, means
the cylinders of said engine,'means for controlling
for controlling'the capacity of said pump mech
` the fuel displacement per stroke of said pumps, ,.
anlsm, ñuid motor means, a floating lever, means
means responsive to the difference of said two un
connecting said capacity control means and said
equal air pressures including a flexible diaphragm,
motor means to spaced points on said lever, a
means attached to said diaphragm for operating 10 passage for air flowing to said engine for com
said fuel displacement controlling means and ef- _
. bustion purposes, means responsive to the rate
fective to increase said displacement in response
of flow of air thru said passage for controlling
to an increase of said difference of air pressures,
said motor means, throttle means for control
spring means biasing said diaphragm in a direc
ling the flow of air thru said passage, cam means
tion to increase said fuel output, said spring 15 connected to said throttle means for concurrent
meansl being effective when said difference of air
movement therewith, and follower means for'said
pressures is small to operate said diaphragm in
cam means for transmitting motion to another
a displacement increasing direction, andfmeans
point on said lever, said cam and follower means
operative as an incident to movement ofl said
being effective to move said-` lever when said
throttle means into a range of positions adjacent 20 throttle means is in a range of positions adjacent
said closed position to reduce the displacement of
itsclosed position, so that said capacity, control
said pumps regardless of the position of said dia
means is then positioned by said throttlev meansl
phragm.
independently of said motor means.
.
~
m i
' ‘
l0. A fuel supply system for an internal com
6 A fuel supply system for a. m t ple cylinder 25 bustiûn
engine’ comprising injector pump mech_
internal -combustion engine, comprising a plu
rality of reciprocating inJector pumps „for sup
anism for supplying fuel to said engine, means
for controlling the capacity of said pump mech
'for controlling the fuel> displacement per-stroke anism, fluid motor means, a floating lever, means
connecting said capacity control means to an
offsaid pumps, fluid motor means including an
expansible chamber having a. movable wall for 30 intermediate point on said lever, means connect-y
ing saidI motor means to one end of said lever,
operating said capacity control means, valve
a passage for air flowing to said engine for com
means for controlling the pressure in said cham
bustion purposes, means responsive to the rate
ber, a passage for air flowing to said engine for,
of flow of air thru said passage for controlling
_combustion purposes, means responsive to the
rate oi' flow of air thru said passage for con -35 said motor means, throttle means for controlling
the Aflow of air thru said passage, a second‘lever
trolling-»said ,valve means, throttle means for
pivoted at one end and connected by a link to
controlling the flow of air thru said passage,
`the other end of said floating lever, means bias
and means eñective when said throttle means>
ing said, second lever in a direction to increase
is in a, predetermined rangeof positions'to move
said displacement control means concurrently 40 the capacity of said pump mechanism, stop
means for limiting the movement of said second
therewith and independently of said motor
plying fuel to the cylinders ofsaid engine, means
means.
'
,
_
_
'7. A fuel .supply system for an internal com
bustion engine, comprising injector pump mech
lever by said biasing means, means responsive
to the speed of said engine for moving said second
lever against said biasing means, and cam means
anism for supplying fuel to said engine, means 45 connected to said throttle means for moving said
second lever against said biasing means when
for controlling the capacity of said pump mech
( said throttle means is in a range of positions ad
anism, fluid motor means, a floating lever, means
jacent its closed position.
connecting said capacity control means and said
11. A fuel supply system for an internal com- »
motor means to spaced points on said lever, a
passage for air flowing to said engine for com 50 bustion engine, comprising injector' pump mech
_ bustion purposes, means responsive to the rate
of flow of air thru said passage for controlling
said motor means, throttle means for controlling
the now of air thru said passage, and_means 5,',
connecting said throttle means to another point
on said lever, so that'said capacity control means
anism for supplying fuel to said engine, means
for controlling the capacity of said pump mech'
anism, iluid motor means, a floating lever, means
connecting said capacity control means and said
motor means to spaced points on said lever, a
passage for air flowing to said engine for com
bustion purposes, means responsive to the rate
of
ilow of air thru said passage for controlling
motor means.
,
said motor means, 'and means responsive to the
8. A fuel supply system for an internal com 50,/ speed
of said engine for positioning another point
bustion engine, comprising >injector pump mech
on
said
lever and thereby moving said capacity
anism for supplying fuel to said engine, means
control means independently of the said motor
for controlling the capacity of said pump mech
means.
anism, fluid motor means, a floating lever, means
l2. A fuel ,supply system for _an-internal com
connecting said capacity control means and said 35 bustion~
engine, comprising pump mechanism for
motor means to spaced points on said lever, a
supplying fuel to said engine, means for varying
passage for air flowing to said engine for com
the capacity. of said pump mechanism,l a floating
bustion purposes, means responsive to the rate
lever, a connection between said capacity varying
of ñow of air thru said passage for controlling
means and a central point on said lever, iluid
said motor means, throttle means for controlling 70 motor means for positioning one end of said
the flow of air thru said passage, and means op-lever, means responsive to the power output of
erative to connect said throttle means to another
-said engine for controlling said fluid motor
point on said lever when said throttle means is " means, and means responsive to the speed of said
in a range of positions near its closed position,
engine for positioning the opposite end of said
so that said capacity control ymeans is then p0-- 75 lever.v
,
A
may be positioned thereby independently- of said
ing lever means, a connection between said ca
pacity varying means _and a central point on said
lever means, ñuid motor means for positioning
i3. A fuel supply system for an internal com
bustion engine, comprising pump mechanism for
supplying fuel to said engine, means for varying
one end-of said lever means, means responsive to
, the capacity of said pump mechanism, s, floating
lever, a connection between said capacity -vary
ing means and a central pointcn said leverI iiuid
motor means for positioning onev end of said
lever, means responsive to the power output of`
the power output of said engine for'controlling
said ñuid motor means, a manually operable ele
ment positioned adjacent the other end of said
_ lever means, spring means biasing said other end
said engine for controllingl said iiuid motor
means, manually operable means for positioning
the other end of said lever, and means respon
sive to the speed of said engine associated with -
said other end of said lever and effective to
position said other endwhen the speed exceeds
a predetermined value regardless of said man
ually operable means.
_
-
14. A fuel supply system for an internal com
bustion engine, comprising pump> mechanism for
into engagement with said element _so that said
other end is positioned by said element, 4means
responsive to the speed of said engine and as
sociated with said other end of said lever means
and effective when said speed exceeds a predeter
mined value to move said other end of said lever
means out of engagement with said manually op
erable element so that the position oi’ said other
end is thenkdetermined by said speed resmnsive
means and said spring means.
supplying fuel to said engine, means for y
ing the capacity oi said pump mechanism, float 26
' im'moN E. c ;«,
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