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Патент USA US2410809

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Nov. 12, ‘1946.
_
s, ._ CORY
'
2,410,809
TELEGRAPH S'IGNAL DISTORTION MEASURING CIRCUIT
Filed Dec. 27, 1943
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Patented Nov. 12, 1946‘
UNITED STATES
2,410,809
TELEGRAPH SIGNAL DISTORTIGN
MEASURING CIRCUIT
Samuel 1. Cory, Towaco, N. 55., assignor to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application December 27, 1943, Serial No. 515,7 79
6 Claims.
(Cl. 178-169)
1
This invention relates to telegraph signal dis
tortion measuring circuits and more particular
ly to an improved distortion measuring circuit of
the high-resistance, distributor-segment type,
such as is disclosed in application Serial No.
300,299, W. Y. Lang, ?led October 20, 1939, now
Patent No. 2,340,224, granted Jan. 25, 1944. The
invention herein represents an improvement
over previously known distortion measuring cir
cuits of the high-resistance segment type in that
the high-resistance distributor segment is ar
' ranged in a potentiometer circuit instead of in a
so that when there is no distortion present, that
is, change in the duration of a signal element
from standard, brush I04 will be equidistant from
the ends of the high-resistance segment when a
telegraph signal element is received by relay IOI.
High-resistance segment I05 may be of any
high-resistance material such as carbon or
graphite. It may be metallic, including alloys,
or non-metallic.
It may be an element, chemical
compound or mixture.
series circuit as formerly and the voltage due to
the charge accumulated on the condenser, which -
is a measure of the distortion, is compared with
a ?xed standard voltage in a manner to provide
an accurate indication of the sign and magnitude
'2
well understood in the telegraph art. The vdis
tributor brush I04 and segment I05 are adjusted
As an illustration of a
suitable mixture, segments may be formed of
a mixture of graphiteand liquid porcelain pressed
into the desired form and hardened. 0r mix‘
tures of magnesium oxide or silicon dioxide with
materials ‘of higher conductivity, such as carbon
of the distortion.
or the like, may be employed. The segments may
An object of the invention is the improvement
also comprise wire of high-resistance wound on a
of distortion measuring circuits.
20 suitable core.
A more particular object of the invention is
Positive battery of a de?nite standard po
the improvement of distortion measuring circuits
featuring high-resistance distributor segments,
tential, regulated within close limits, is connected
to the right-hand end of high-resistance segment
so as to obtain a more accurate quantitative in
I05. The left-hand end of segment I05 is
dication of the magnitude of the distortion in a 25 grounded. As thus arranged, segment I05 and its
telegraph signal.
.
traversing contacting brush I04 form a potenti
A feature of this invention is a high-resistance
ometer.
segment on a telegraph signal distributor con
When the armature of relay IOI engages con
nected in a manner so as to form with its tra
versing contact a variable potentiometer.
These and other features will become apparent
from reference ‘to the following description when
read with reference ‘to the associated drawing in
which:
~Fig. -1 is a circuit schematic showing the inven
tion in simpli?ed form; and '
tact I 02 a circuit extends from some point on the
potentiometer, depending upon the position of
brush I04 at the instant, through contact I02 to
the right-hand terminal of condenser I06, the
left-hand terminal of which is grounded. Con
denser I 06 is of small capacity. When contact
E02 is closed, condenser I00 is charged to a po
tential dependent upon the position of brush I04
Fig. '2 is a circuit schematic showing ‘the in
on segment I05.
vention in more detail.
When there is no distortion present, brush I04
Refer now to Fig. 1.
will be equidistant the ends of segment I05 when
Incoming telegraph signal impulses are re 40 the incoming signal-element is received and con
ceived ‘through conductor I05 which is assumed
tact 1-02 is opened. Under such'condit'ion the
to be connected at the left to a telegraph circuit
potential applied to condenser I06 will be one
incoming from a distant ltelegrap'h station. In
half
that of battery I07. When contact I03 is
response to vthe incoming signals, the armature of
closed the right-hand terminal of condenser I06 is
relay I 0| is actuated to engage either contact
connected through the armature of relay I0 I, con
I02 or contact I03 depending on the nature of
tact I 03, voltmeter I08 and positive battery 109 to
the signal. Traversing brush I00 and ‘high-re
ground. The potential of battery I09 is equal
‘sistance segment I05 are parts of a rotary tele
to one half the potential of battery I01. Under
graph distributor. The rotary telegraph dis
this condition there will be no de?ection of the
tributor per .se is well known in the telegraph 50 meter needle from its center zero position. If,
art. ‘The-segment I05 physically is a segment of
however, the brush I04 is not equidistant the
an annular ring. A‘brush arm carrying brush
ends of segment I05 when the incoming signal
'Ill'41is driven through a clutch by a motor. The
is received, the potential applied to condenser I06
clutch is under control of the incoming signals.
This apparatus is not shown as its/operation is
will di?er ‘from the potential of battery I09. The
'31 ill meter needle will be de?ected to one side or the
2,410,809
other, dependent upon whether the brush I04 is
4
plied through brush 2| I, ring 2!", conductor 220
and contact 2l8 to the right-hand terminal of
condenser 22l. On the next transition of the
armature of relay 2l5 to engage contact 2“), the
right-hand terminal of condenser 22l will be
the signal element is longer or shorter than a
connected through contact 2l9, voltmeter 222,
signal element of standard duration and the
primary winding of transformer 223 of the recti
magnitude of the de?ection will indicate the
fying peak voltmeter 232, which is well known
magnitude of the distortion. With a proper
in the art, and through positive battery 224 to
choice of apparatus elements an accurate indi
ground. The potential of battery 224 is ?xed
cation of the magnitude of the distortion can be
at one half the potential of battery 208. When
obtained.
the transition between the start signal element
The current-time graph H0 shows the pattern
and the ?rst signal element occurs at precisely
of portions of two consecutive signal elements
the proper instant, brush 2l2 will be equidistant
and the transition between them. The transi
the ends of segment 202 and the potential ap
15
tion, if there is no distortion present, will occur
plied to condenser 22!, which is of small capacity,
when brush IE4 is equidistant the ends of seg
will be the same as the potential of battery 2.241.
ment I05. If distortion is present the transition,
When contact 2 i9 is later closed there will be no
indicated by the vertical line between the cur
pulse through the primary of transformer 223.
rent and no-current signal elements, will be dis
20 As the position of brush 212 varies from mid
placed to the left or right.
position on segment 202, a potential which will
Refer now to Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is arranged to
be greater or less than the potential of battery
measure and indicate the sign and magnitude of
224 in corresponding amount will be applied to
the distortion in start-stop Baudot code signals.
the upper terminal of the primary of transformer
In Fig. 2 the solid annular conducting ring 20!
and the segmented annular ring comprising high 25 223 and a positive or negative pulse equal to the
difference between the potentials applied to the
resistance segments 202 to 201 are shown con
top terminal of the primary 0f the transformer
yentionally as developed. Positive battery 208
223 and the potential of battery 224 will result.
is connected to the right-hand end of each of
The pulses will be recti?ed in the recti?er circuit
the segments and ground 209 is connected to the
left-hand end of each of the segments. Rotat 30 comprising the oppositely poled recti?ers 225
and 23! connected to the secondary of trans
able arm 2H1 sweeps over the face of the dis
former 223 and applied between the grid of tube
tributorfrom left to right. Secured to arm 2m
226 and ground and the left-hand terminal of
are two interconnected brushes, 2H, which en
condenser 22‘! and ground in parallel. Current
gages ring 2M, and M2 which engages high
35 proportional to the voltage pulses will ?ow from
resistance segments 202 to 201 in sequence.
on one side or the other of its midposition on the
segment. The direction of de?ection will indi
cate the sign of the distortion, that is, whether
Rotatable arm 2H] is arrested between each
grounded positive battery 229 through ammeter
228 and tube 226 to ground. With miscellaneous
telegraph signals from commercial circuits the
transition points in the characters will be shifted
of the ?rst pulse of a train known as the'start 40 from their normal positions by varying amounts.
Under this condition meter 222 will indicate the
pulse. The mechanism which performs this
sign and magnitude of the average distortion
function, as mentioned above, is not shown as it
and meter 228 will indicate the magnitude of
is well known in the art. High-resistance seg
the peak or maximum distortion. After an ob
ment 202 is secured in position such that it ex
tends equidistant each side of the position on 45 servation, the charge on condenser 221 may be
removed and meter 228 caused to indicate zero
solid ring 20! which marks the transition between
by operating “reset” key 230 momentarily.
the start signal element and the ?rst character
Attention is called to the fact that the upper
forming signal element of each signal train when
contact of relay 2l5 and the lower contact of
the transition occurs at precisely the proper
instant. Similarly, high-resistance segments 203 50 relay 2“! are connected in parallel to conductor
220. If it is assumed that the armatures of the
to 201 straddle the transition points between the
relays are actuated to engage their upper contacts
succeeding signal elements I and 2, 2 and 3, 3
in response to a marking signal element and to
and 4, 4 and 5, and 5 and stop. There is no
engage their lower contacts for spacing, con
high-resistance segment corresponding to the
transition between the stop and start signal ele 55 denser 22I will be connected to the distributor on
marking signal elements and condenser 230 on
ment as the stop signal element terminates when
spacing signal elements. Further, each of these
arm 210 is arrested in the stop position and the
two condensers will be connected to the rectify
start signal element controls the release of arm
ing peak voltmeter when the other is connected
2W. 2
The transition between the stop and start sig 60 to the distributor.
The operation of the circuit per Fig. 2 on
nal elements represents the start of each train
transitions between the other signal elements
of signals and serves therefore as a ?xed refer
corresponds to that described for the transition
ence point.
between the start signal element and signal ele
, Brush 2 I0 is not shown in its stop position but
is approximately at the transition point between 65 ment I.
‘What is claimed is:
the start signal element and the ?rst signal
1. In a telegraph system, a telegraph signal dis
element.
tortion measuring circuit comprising a variable
Signals incoming over conductor 2I3 control
potentiometer including a high resistance ele
the armature of relays 2l4 and 215, moving
them upward to engage their respective contacts 70 ment, a displaceable contact engaging said ele
ment, means for displacing said contact along
2H; and 2H! and downward to engage their
said element from a ?xed reference in proportion
respective contacts 2 I‘! and .2l9 in unison.
to variations in the durations of telegraph signal
With the circuit in the condition shown a
impulses, means for charging a condenser through
positive potential of a magnitude depending upon
the position of brush M2 on segment 202. is ap 75 said potentiometer and said contact'continuously
successive train of start-stop Baudot code signals
in a particular position known as the stop posi
tion. It is released in response to the reception
5
2,410,809
6
during an interval while said contact is being dis
comprising a segment of high resistance and a ro
placeduniformly along said element and means
tatable contact engaging said segment, a con
for controlling the initiation and termination of
denser charging circuit including said potenti
said charging in response to received telegraph
ometer extending through a contact on a tele
signal elements.
5 graph receiving relay, means responsive to the
2. In a telegraph system, a telegraph signal dis
reception of a telegraph signal by said relay for
tortion measuring circuit comprising a high re
controlling the charging of said condenser, and
sistance variable potentiometer, a contact engag
ing a high resistance segment on said poten
means for determining distortion in a received
telegraph signal dependent on the magnitude of
tiometer, means for displacing said contact, from 10 the charge on said condenser.
a reference position, uniformly along said segment
5. In a telegraph signal distortion measuring
continuously during an interval corresponding to
circuit, a variable potentiometerhaving a displace
the variation in duration of a received signal ele
able contact, means for positioning said contact
ment from a signal element of standard duration,
in a ?rst position at the instant a transition in a
and means for comparing the output potential of 15 distortionless signal element occurs so that the
said potentiometer with a ?xed potential in re~
potential impressed through said contact on a
sponse to a, received telegraph signal to indicate
connected circuit equals a standard potential, and
the sign and magnitude of distortion of said sig
means
for comparing variations from said stand
nal.
ard potential due to the uniform displacement of
3. In a telegraph system, an automatically var 20 said contact from said ?rst position continuously
iable potentiometer connected through a contact
during the interval While a distorted signal is be
on a telegraph signal receiving relay to a con
ing received to measure the distortion in said sig
denser, said potentiometer comprising a high re
nal.
sistance segment and a displaceable contact ar
6. In a telegraph signal distortion measuring
ranged to continuously traverse a portion of said
circuit, means for varying a potential impressed
segment uniformly while a telegraph signal ele
on a circuit in proportion to changes in duration
ment is being received, means dependent on the
of a signal element from signals of standard du
termination of said signal element by said relay
ration, said means comprising a rotary distributor
for determining the magnitude of the potential
having a potentiometer thereon, said potentiom
impressed through said potentiometer on said 30 eter including a rotatable contact engaging a high
condenser and means for comparing the poten
resistance segment and means for comparing said
tial impressed on said condenser with a ?xed
varying potential with a standard potential to in
standard potential to indicate the magnitude and
dicate the sign and magnitude of the changes in
sign of distortion in said signal element.
the duration of said signal.
4. In a telegraph system, a rotary distributor, 35
a high resistance variable potentiometer thereon
SAMUEL I. CORY.
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