Патент USA US2410811код для вставки
Nov. 12, 1946. E. DAWSON‘ ‘ ' 2,410,311 ARTICULATED TRANSMISSION‘ ‘Filed ‘June 24, 1944 FIGJ . no.2 ‘ . - / ‘FIG.3 . - AINVENTOR. " EDWARD DAWSON Patented Nov. 12, 1946 k "Edward DawsonfNew Yorln'wN'. Y., 'ass'lgnor to 1 i I ‘ ‘ Sperry Gyroscope Company,= haracorpora ' I ' “ . tion of‘New‘Yorl/r . " : imagination June24, 191414; serial M15413“? t 2 lowérrh'alfwof the rmejcha-y' 'i' This invention relate i-tomechanicaltransmis- ' portions being'brokeniaway to permit show ing the relative positions of adjacent crank; arms. for transmitting ', torque ‘ between shaftsQ whose axes may move through ‘a, large‘; angle relative, to ‘Eigjliis an elevational view similar to ‘Fig. ‘2, with the lower'hali of'the mechanismtturned ' one another as vthe shafts revolve. "Itispartieu- 2 _ larly useful as an element in control systemsj of v'lj'lback'?90" relative to the uppenhalilof the mecha_ 'sions and is particularly, concerned with" a means ' various types.‘ . " ' ' ‘ ,j,nism,'j ' ‘ ‘ ‘ " ‘ ' 1g. 4 is anend viewioij Fig‘.v 1,‘ with‘ broken lines Prior art devicesfor thetransniissionofjino tion between shafts‘not‘iin' ?xed ,angulall‘jrelation 1 showing the-jupper and 'lowerwshai'ts' with an an ‘ s, aridisplacemehtibetweenthem-r . , to one anotherhave often beenchar'acterized by“ a lack ‘’ of independence; betweenmth'e' rotation. of‘ the shafts andthe angular;displace t between ‘the axes of the.‘ shafts, 'Underlthese"circum _ isa detail view‘ of. a crank‘pin. slipper‘ in ngag'ement with‘, a‘ slider showing'the use of . _antif-friction'crankvpin slippers rather than slid stances a change inthe angle: between the air‘ejsfoi ‘blocks as: illustrated in the prior ?gures. : ‘ .Generallv speaking; the lhviir?ionv comprehends ‘ theangular position of the input shaitfr'elative to’ ‘ eonver-tin‘g‘lthe rotarv motion ofa'driving member the’ position‘ of ' the, output shafts," a re’sulti'w'hich .'_‘ into ‘a reciprocating motion off one or more slid is undesirable in manyapplications. @Otherlde I ', ing ,andzturning members and simultaneously re, the shafts produces a‘jcorresponding" change, in“ converting the reciprocation offthe'. sliding mem ,vices. exist which do not.h'aveithisgdisadvantage _ but they arenot'ableito,providegangular displace; 20 . bersQintog‘rotary motion’ of onev or more ,driven ments as large as "180°. betweenshaft'fanes without5 ‘ gmemaengme motion being. smoothly; and accu recourse to ‘ cumbersome arrangements‘; having _ excessive. size, weight,‘ manufacturing»cost;.h.ifiac ;, Trately transmittedirom the driving to the driven members in all orientations of ‘the. driving mem ‘; ber. withtreference to the driven members. A curacy, .wear; and ine?iciencyoif transmission; The objects of the present invention'jmay there: 25 displacement isestabIished between‘ the‘ crank arms or otheroiiset means of the various driving fore be brie?y stated as follows: the P¥0vision ' of a transmission whereinithe motion ‘of,’ the driving members is at all times accurately trans ‘ and driven members which eiiectively contributes ' ztothelsmoothness and uniformity with which the mitted to, the‘ driven members, even during, angu ’motion istransierred vfromv one member to larf movement. between these members; ,7 the‘ pro-v vision of an angular drive transmission having no dead centerposition; the provision of an angu 1 One embodiment of the invention comprises an “articulated transmission'orhcoupling such as a _ lar drive transmission in- which the'we'ar oi the ‘moving parts is distributed as evenlyas possible; the provisionof an articulatedtransmission p'os-H sessing structural simplicity'in a marked degree’ another. 1 . devicevihaving a pair of‘u-shaped supporting ‘frames A, B, ",pivotally connected ‘at their outer "vendsa'n-d havinga cylindrical slide rail or. spindle I, .extending'ytransverselyrfrom sidelto side of ~ the ,ui-shapjed, frames for, supporting apair of sliding withthe, inherent advantages of low ?rst cost “ and reliability of operation;‘the'provision of ‘an members rreelylmovable on the shaft, In each ‘ufshaped supporting, frame a pair of crankshaits angular‘ drive coupling having a high degree. of interchangeability among component parts, par-r.‘ 40 :having parallel axesjof. rotation but with a‘ ‘90° ticularly as to driving and ' driven-member's. “ ' ‘ an‘gularldisplacement between them are mounted. ‘ Other-objects and uses of the invention will be ' come apparent from ‘the following-"description i ,jlilaeh oi: these .crankshafts is rotatively connected, and the accompanying drawing wherein ilfor 1 simplicity of explanation one formofvstructurei in wh'lchithe principles of theinvention maybe I“ incorporatedis illustrated.’ ' a In the drawing. =1 ' . Fig. 1 is an elevational view ‘his. ‘sons m' s'ectionQof one form oi.’ structure incorporating; the invention wherein the apparatus is,‘ shown ar’-' ' ranged with’v input and output shaftsjinzalign _ ment., Fig. 2 is an‘elevational view‘ similar; toria 1, ‘ but with the upper half of. the mechanism turned’ ‘Ra's, byligeara-g anadiacent crankshaft andjin , eludes adisc. c'ranlgmoi',crankv terminal whose crank‘ pin‘ engages? with; appropriately, shaped 1 slot’ or groove 'in' the; adjacent, slider for ‘trans .1 1191mm thsimbtien Mike-crankshaft?’ to tbe'slid ling members and vice versa. . One crankshaft .mounted in each, ul-shapedsupportingtframe ?hliicbilp?rates with‘a crankshaft 1.80? displaced from it in, theother U-shaped supporting .frame '_ ‘through thefagency-of one of the sliding mem .bers,‘ to provide a, series of interconnected ; parts “for: driving- sane; , ‘crankshaft irom; the ' other. in i'l‘hej completemechanism,iasiillustrated, includes 2,410,811 4 two such series of interconnected parts, each se ries being interrelated with the other by means of the rotative connections or gears between ad lower crankshafts for the transmission of motion between these crankshafts in either direction. The various cranks and crankshafts are held iacent crankshafts. The pivotal connection of the U-shaped supporting frames permits the angle of alignment between the driving and in properly aligned operating positions by re taining collars 33 secured to the crankshafts by driven crankshafts to be varied as desired within wide limits, a major purpose of the invention be ing to provide a means for transmitting motion suitable set screws as illustrated in the drawing. It should be observed that in assembling the mechanism of the invention, the teeth of disc crank 2|, for example, are so meshed with those between shafts whose alignment is continuously 10 of disc crank 2|’ that the respective crank arms ‘varying. are displaced by a quarter revolution relative to each other. This relationship of the crank arms may best be observed in Figs. 2 and 3. Similarly ture may comprise a pair of frames or bearing when disc crank 21 is placed in mesh with disc members, H, II’, each frame having a pair of supporting brackets such as end plates '|2, |3, 15 crank 21', a quarter revolution displacement is created between these crank arms also. When secured to it in any suitable manner. Dowelled thus assembled the relationship of the adjacent into end plates I3, is a guide rail H, spanning the space between these end plates. Cylindrical crankshafts is such that a translational com projecting lugs l5 integral with end plates i3, fit ponent of force effective to move the sliders back freely into corresponding cylindrical apertures in 20 and forth on guide rail I4 is always available end plates i2, thus forming a hinged connection whenever any of the crankshafts is rotated. This or joint between the driving half of the trans feature of the invention insures a mechanism in which no dead center position occurs anywhere mission and the driven half of the transmission, in the operating cycle. _ thereby permitting one half of the transmission to be swung through an angle of 180° or more 25 It may likewise be observed that in assembling the mechanism the parts may advantageously relative to the other half. This relative angu lar motion of the two U-shapecl supporting be arranged so that the crank arms of any two frames is clearly illustrated in Fig. 4. oppositely facing crank discs are displaced by a In bearing member II, a pair of crankshafts half revolution relative to one another when IS, it’ are mounted in suitable bearings, such as 30 viewed from corresponding ends, with the result ball bearings l1 and I8, which permit these ' that when either slipper block engaged with a crankshafts to rotate freely in either direction of given slider is moving forward relative to the ob rotation. These crankshafts terminate in disc server the other slipper block engaged with the same slider is moving backward. For example, cranks 2|, 2|’ which are Provided with inter meshin'g peripherally disposed teeth 22, 22’ so 35 with shaft I6’ and 26’ in alignment as in Fig. 1, Slipper block 24' is arranged to move backward that the rotation of one crankshaft (for ex within the flanges ,of slider 32' while slipper ample, crankshaft |5) rotates the other crank block 3|’ is moving forward within the ?anges - shaft in the opposite direction. Projecting from of slider 32', and similarly for the other set of disc cranks_2l, 2|’ are crank pins 23, 23' re spectively carrying suitably shaped sliding mem 40 driving and driven elements of the transmission. bers such as slippers 24, 24’ here shown for 11-. This disposition of the crank arms may vbe lustrative purposes as rectangularly shaped noted in Fig. 1. It will be observed that when blocks. viewed from above along shaft I 6 crank pin 23 is directly to the left of its center of rotation, In units of larger size it would obviously be ad vantageous to employ some form of anti~friction 45 while crank pin 28 when viewed from below along crank pin slipper rather than the simple sliding shaft 28 is directly to the right of its center of blocks illustrated in Fig. 1 through Fig. 4.- In revolution; hence, crank pin 23 is displaced by . Fig. 5 an anti-friction or roller type crank pin a half revolution from crank pin 28. slipper is shown by way of example. This feature of the invention insures that the In bearing member II’ a similar pair of crank 50 relative motion between the slipper blocks and shafts 26, 26’ are rotatively mounted in ball bear the sliders will be held to a minimum and that the sliders will be caused both to slide and to ings (not shown), each of these crankshafts hav rotate on slide rail H, thus reducing the wear ing attached to it or integral with it a disc crank between these parts to a minimum and distrib 21, 21' from which project crank pins 28, 28’ carrying rectangularly shaped slipper blocks 3|, 55 uting it over the entire inside area of the slider flanges. While this is a preferred arrangement 3|‘. Disc cranks 21, 21' on crankshafts 2B, 26' likewise carry peripheral gear teeth 29, 29’ of the parts of the device, it should be noted that the device ‘will operate satisfactorily except whereby the rotation of either of these two crank for a greater friction loss if the oppositely fac shafts produces an opposite rotation of the other. As shown in detail in Fig. 1, this form of struc Mounted on slide rail II are a pair of sliders, col 60 ing crank pin discs are assembled with no an gular displacement between them. lars or shuttles 32, 32' here shown as radially In operation, the rotation of one crankshaft, ?anged or annularly grooved hollow cylindrical 26 for example, produces a similar rotation of members. These sliders or annularly depressed crank pin 28 whose slipper block 3| engages sleeves are free to reciprocate upon as well to ro tate about slide rail l4. Each of these sliders 65 freely with the ?anges of slider 32. The rota tional motion of crank pin 28 thus e?ects a freely engages both a crank pin slipper block at simple harmonic reciprocation of slider 32 on tached to a disc crank of one driving element guide rail H, the path of travel of slider 32 being and a crank pin slipper block attached to a cor respondingly located disc crank of one of the equal to twice the throw of crank pin 23. Slider driven elements. For example, slider 32 engages 70 32 being also in engagement with crank pin 23 of crankshaft l6 carries crank pin 23 with it as both slipper block 3| which is attached to crank it reciprocates on guide rail l4 thus, in an ex pin 28 and disc crank 21 and slipper block 24 actly converse manner, the simple harmonic re which is attached to crank pin 23 and disc crank ciprocation of slider 32 is reconverted into a 2|. Thus sliders 32, 32’ serve to mechanically in~ terconnect the correspondingly locatediupper and 75 rotary motion of crankshaft I6, the rotation of 2,410,811 5 _ . 1... ~ . comprising a first frame member having a slide rail spanning the space between the end plates thereof, a second frame member freely suspended crankshaft “3 being opposite in direction to the rotation of crankshaft ‘26, since disc cranks 2| and 21 are displaced by a half revolution relative to one another. - 6 - from said ?rst frame member, a pair of en In an exactly similar manner, gageable sliders mounted for reciprocation on said slide rail, a first pair of rotatively inter connected shafts journalled in said first frame member and having cranks meshing with said the rotation of crankshaft 26'produces a rotation of crankshaft l6’ atthe same rate but opposite in direction to the rotation of crankshaft 26'. Furthermore, since disc cranks 21 and 21' are sliders but displaced a quarter of a revolution are geared together in a similar manner, the 10 relative to one another, and a second pair of geared together and disc cranks 2| and 2|’ also rotatively interconnected shafts journalled in said second frame member and meshing with said ‘sliders, the cranks of said second pair of shafts being displaced a half revolution relative to the cranks of the ?rst pair of shafts whereby the application of rotational torque to any of said shafts produces a translatory force acting on said motion of crankshaft 26 will produce simul taneous rotation of crankshafts l6’ and 25', with crankshaft I6’ rotating in the same direction as crankshaft 2B, but with crankshaft 26’ rotat—' ing in the opposite direction. It is apparent, "therefore, that the invention provides a coupling device or a transmission in which any one of sliders in all positions of these members'thus pro- - the crankshafts may be employed‘ as the driving viding a mechanism which has no dead center. 4. An articulated transmission as claimed in member with any of the remaining crankshafts then serving as driven members, one of the driven ‘claim 3 wherein one of said first pair of shafts acts as an input shaft and both, of said second pair of shafts act as output shafts, one of said , members rotating in the same direction and the other driven members rotating in the direction opposite to the rotation of the driving member. Provision of the hinged connection between the output shafts rotating in the same direction as the input shaft and the other rotating in a direc tion opposite to the direction of rotation of said ‘ two supporting brackets or frames together with complete symmetry and proper intermeshing of input shaft. all parts permits one pair of crankshafts to be 5. An articulated transmission as claimed in shifted through a wide angle of displacement claim 3 wherein. either shaft of either pair of relative to the other pair of crankshafts without interfering with the transmission of motion from 30 shafts acts as the input shaft and either shaft of the other pair of shafts acts as the output one crankshaft to another. The invention, there fore, makes possible the driving of one shaft at shaft. \ " 6. An articulated transmission comprising a pair of frame members having slide rail means a uniform rate of rotation from a second shaft which is not aligned with the first shaft, the directions of rotation of the two shafts selected 35 mounted therein, said frame members being piv otally connected to turn through the major arc being the same or opposite as desired. of a circle relative to one another, torque trans mitting means journalled in each of said frame ment herewith disclosed have unity ratios. members, reciprocatingsli'der means movable on As many changes could be made in the above described construction and many different em 40 said slide mile-means,interconnecting crank pin means between-said torque transmitting means bodiments of this invention could be made with journalled in one of said frame members and 'said out departing from the scope thereof it is in slider means for converting the rotational mo tended that all matter contained in the speci?ca tion of said torque transmitting means into a tion or shown in the drawing, be interpretedvin an illustrative and not in a limiting sense. 45 translatory motion of said slider means, and in terlinking crank pin means between said slider What is claimed is: . means and said torque transmitting means jour 1.v An articulated mechanical transmission nalled in the other of said frame members for comprising a first frame member having spaced reconverting the translatory motion of said slider end plates, a slide rail spanning the space be tween said end plates, a second frame member 50 means into rotational motion of the torque trans mitting means journalled in the other of said swivel joined to said ?rst frame member, a collar frame members. encircling but free to reciprocate upon said slide 7. In combination, a ?rst frame, a guide shaft rail, a drive shaft rotatably mounted in said ?rst The gears 2|, 2|’ and 21, 21’, in the embodi frame member and having a crank pin meshing with said collar, and a driven shaft rotatably mounted in said second frame member and like secured in said first frame, a second frame swing ably suspended from said first frame, an engage wise having a crank pin meshing with said collar, the crank pin of said drive shaft being displaced a half revolution relative to the crank pin of said said guide shaft adjacent to said frames, a drive shaft rotatable in said ?rst frame, and a driven shaft journalled in and swingable with said sec able sleeve supported by and freely slidable along 60 ond frame, said drive shaft and said driven shaft driven shaft whereby minimum wear and uni form distribution of friction between said crank pins and said collar is obtained. 2. A mechanical transmission comprising a pair of swivel joined frame members having spaced having axes perpendicular to. the axis of said end plates, a slide rail spanning the space be tween said end plates, a slider free to oscillate on exactly corresponding in rate but opposite in di rection to the rotation of said drive shaft. guide shaft, and said engageable sleeve coactirig both with said drive shaft and said driven shaft so as to produce rotation of said driven shaft said slide rail, a pair of crankshafts rotatively mounted in said frame members and engaging said oscillatable slider, the cranks of said crank 8. In a transmission having a pair of frame members, a pair of crankshafts rotatably mount ed in said frame members, a sleeve freely mov able on a slide bar pivoted within said frame shafts being arranged with diametrically opposite throws as viewed from corresponding ends where by rotation of said cranks not only reciprocates but also revolves said slider thus distributing the friction and wear on said slider. 3. An articulated mechanical ' members and slidably engaging the crank pins projecting from said crankshafts, in combination, a hinge interlinking said frame members so,,as.e;/4**"’ transmission 75 to permit adjustment of the angle ofdrive'be If 2,410,811 tween said crankshafts within 7 limits de?ning the said shuttles being phase-displaced from the other major arc of a circle. shuttles by an amount corresponding to substan tially a quarter revolution. ~ 9. An articulated transmission mechanism comprising a pair of frame members, a slide rail 14. A coupling device for rotatable shafts, com supported by one of said frame members, a hinged Cl prising a pair of parallel gear connected driving connection between said frame members free to shafts, a pair of parallel gear connecteddriven open through the major arc of a circle, a pair shafts, a crank on the end of each of said shafts, and a pair of reciprocating shuttles both slidable of bearings located in said frame members, an input crank shaft and an output crank shaft along an axis perpendicular to said shafts, each mounted for' rotation in said bearings, and a 10 of said shuttles engaging a pair of cranks for transmitting substantially simple harmonic mo sleeve slidably mounted on said slide rail and engaging the crank pins of said input and output tion from one of said driving cranks to one of crankshafts, said hinged connection permitting said driven cranks as said driving shafts rotate the alignment of said crankshafts to be changed uniformly, one of said shuttles being phase dis as desired within widely spaced limits. 15 placed from the other shuttle by an amount cor 10. An angular drive mechanism comprising a responding to substantially a quarter revolution. 15. A coupling device for rotatable shafts, com pair of frame members having a slide rail set prising a pair of parallel gear connected driving into the end plates of one of said frame members, means for pivotally connecting said frame mem shafts, a pair of parallel gear connected driven bers for relative angular movement thereof 20 shafts,‘supports for journalling each of said pairs through at least a semi-circular arc of displace of shafts, an articulated joint for adjustably po ment, 9. pair of crankshafts having interlocking sitioning said supports about an axis perpendic disk cranks rotatively mounted in each of said ular to all of said shafts, a crank on the end of each of said shafts, and a pair of reciprocating frame members, and sliders ‘mounted for recip rocation on said slide rail, each slider freely en 25. shuttles,'each being slidable along said axis and gaging crank pins projecting from crankshafts having means engaging one of said driving cranks ' oppositely mounted in said frame members and one of said driven cranks for all positions of whereby torque is continuously and unvaryingly said supports, said shuttles thereby transferring transmitted from an input crankshaft mounted reciprocating motion from said driving cranks to in one of said frame members to a pair of output 30 said driven cranks, said shuttles being arranged crankshafts mounted in the other of said frame - so that when one of said shuttles occupies a posi members. _ ' tion at one extremity of its stroke, the other shut 11. A coupling device for connecting a driving tle occupies a position intermediate the extrem shaft to a driven shaft, comprising a pair of shaft ities of its stroke. 16. A coupling device as claimed in claim 15 wherein said shuttles comprise annular ?anged members freely movable on said perpendicular axis, and wherein the respective cranks engaging each shuttle are displaced from one another by terminals, articulated bearing members journal ling said terminals for angular adjustment about a pivot axis transverse of said terminals, a crank on each of ~said terminals, and a shuttle having - annular crank-engaging means, and slidable along said transverse axis for transmitting the 40 half a revolution. motion of the driving crank to the driven crank. ' 17. A transmission for transmitting torque be tween rotating shafts which are independently 12. A coupling device for rotatable shafts, com prising a pair of interconnected driving shafts, variable through an angle of 180° relative to one a pair of interconnected driven shafts, a crank on each of said shafts, and a pair of reciprocat another as the shafts revolve, comprising a ro-~ tatable driving shaft and a rotatable driven shaft, an articulated coupling for the shafts including ing sliders each transmitting simple harmonic’ motion from one of said driving cranks toone a pair of bearing frames, a rotatable support in ' each frame for one of said shafts, means for of said driven cranks as said driving shafts ro tate uniformly, the cranks of one of said inter_ connected pairs of shafts being phase displaced ~ pivoting said frames for mutual free angular movement about an axis perpendicular to both from the cranks of the other pair of shafts. 13. A coupling device for rotatable shafts, com of said shafts, a spindle extending along said axis, crank means on each of said shafts, and ‘ prising a pair of interconnected driving shafts, a pair of interconnected driven shafts, a crank on the‘ end of each of said shafts, and a pair of reciprocating shuttles both slidable along an axis perpendicular to said shafts, each of said shut tles engaging a pair of cranks for transmitting substantially simple harmonic motion from one a slider engaging both of said cranks and re- ‘ v ciprocable on said spindle for transmitting mo tion from one crank to the other simultaneously with mutual angular variation of the axes of said shafts. 18. Transmission according to claim 17, where - in the said cranks are displaced from one another of saiddriving cranks to one of said driven cranks 60 by 180°. ‘ as said driving shafts rotate uniformly, one of EDWARD DAWSON.