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Патент USA US2410811

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Nov. 12, 1946.
‘Filed ‘June 24, 1944
Patented Nov. 12, 1946
"Edward DawsonfNew Yorln'wN'. Y., 'ass'lgnor to 1 i I ‘
‘ Sperry
Gyroscope Company,= haracorpora
' “ .
tion of‘New‘Yorl/r
imagination June24, 191414; serial M15413“? t
lowérrh'alfwof the rmejcha-y'
'i' This invention relate i-tomechanicaltransmis- '
portions being'brokeniaway to permit show
ing the relative positions of adjacent crank; arms.
for transmitting ', torque ‘ between shaftsQ whose
axes may move through ‘a, large‘; angle relative, to
‘Eigjliis an elevational view similar to ‘Fig. ‘2,
with the lower'hali of'the mechanismtturned
' one another as vthe shafts revolve. "Itispartieu- 2
_ larly useful as an element in control systemsj of v'lj'lback'?90" relative to the uppenhalilof the mecha_
'sions and is particularly, concerned with" a means
1g. 4 is anend viewioij Fig‘.v 1,‘ with‘ broken lines
Prior art devicesfor thetransniissionofjino
tion between shafts‘not‘iin' ?xed ,angulall‘jrelation 1 showing the-jupper and 'lowerwshai'ts' with an an
‘ s, aridisplacemehtibetweenthem-r .
, to one anotherhave often beenchar'acterized by“
a lack ‘’ of independence; betweenmth'e' rotation. of‘
the shafts andthe angular;displace
t between
‘the axes of the.‘ shafts, 'Underlthese"circum
isa detail view‘ of. a crank‘pin. slipper‘ in
ngag'ement with‘, a‘ slider showing'the use of
. _antif-friction'crankvpin slippers rather than slid
stances a change inthe angle: between the air‘ejsfoi
‘blocks as: illustrated in the prior ?gures. :
‘ .Generallv speaking; the lhviir?ionv comprehends
‘ theangular position of the input shaitfr'elative to’ ‘ eonver-tin‘g‘lthe rotarv motion ofa'driving member
the’ position‘ of ' the, output shafts," a re’sulti'w'hich .'_‘ into ‘a reciprocating motion off one or more slid
is undesirable in manyapplications. @Otherlde I ', ing ,andzturning members and simultaneously re,
the shafts produces a‘jcorresponding" change, in“
converting the reciprocation offthe'. sliding mem
,vices. exist which do not.h'aveithisgdisadvantage
_ but they arenot'ableito,providegangular displace; 20 . bersQintog‘rotary motion’ of onev or more ,driven
ments as large as "180°. betweenshaft'fanes without5 ‘ gmemaengme motion being. smoothly; and accu
recourse to ‘ cumbersome arrangements‘; having
_ excessive. size, weight,‘ manufacturing»cost;.h.ifiac
;, Trately transmittedirom the driving to the driven
members in all orientations of ‘the. driving mem
‘; ber. withtreference to the driven members. A
curacy, .wear; and ine?iciencyoif transmission;
The objects of the present invention'jmay there: 25 displacement isestabIished between‘ the‘ crank
arms or otheroiiset means of the various driving
fore be brie?y stated as follows: the P¥0vision '
of a transmission whereinithe motion ‘of,’ the
driving members is at all times accurately trans
and driven members which eiiectively contributes '
ztothelsmoothness and uniformity with which the
mitted to, the‘ driven members, even during, angu
’motion istransierred vfromv one member to
larf movement. between these members; ,7 the‘ pro-v
vision of an angular drive transmission having
no dead centerposition; the provision of an angu
1 One embodiment of the invention comprises an
“articulated transmission'orhcoupling such as a
_ lar drive transmission in- which the'we'ar oi the
‘moving parts is distributed as evenlyas possible;
the provisionof an articulatedtransmission p'os-H
sessing structural simplicity'in a marked degree’
another. 1 .
devicevihaving a pair of‘u-shaped supporting
‘frames A, B, ",pivotally connected ‘at their outer
"vendsa'n-d havinga cylindrical slide rail or. spindle
I, .extending'ytransverselyrfrom sidelto side of ~ the
,ui-shapjed, frames for, supporting apair of sliding
withthe, inherent advantages of low ?rst cost
“ and reliability of operation;‘the'provision of ‘an
members rreelylmovable on the shaft, In each
‘ufshaped supporting, frame a pair of crankshaits
angular‘ drive coupling having a high degree. of
interchangeability among component parts, par-r.‘ 40 :having parallel axesjof. rotation but with a‘ ‘90°
ticularly as to driving and ' driven-member's. “ '
‘ an‘gularldisplacement between them are mounted.
‘ Other-objects and uses of the invention will be
' come apparent from ‘the following-"description
i ,jlilaeh oi: these .crankshafts is rotatively connected,
and the accompanying drawing wherein ilfor
1 simplicity of explanation one formofvstructurei
in wh'lchithe principles of theinvention maybe
I“ incorporatedis illustrated.’ '
a In the drawing. =1
' . Fig. 1 is an elevational view ‘his. ‘sons
s'ectionQof one form oi.’ structure incorporating;
the invention wherein the apparatus is,‘ shown ar’-' '
ranged with’v input and output shaftsjinzalign
_ ment.,
Fig. 2 is an‘elevational view‘ similar; toria 1,
‘ but with the upper half of. the mechanism turned’
‘Ra's, byligeara-g anadiacent crankshaft andjin
, eludes adisc. c'ranlgmoi',crankv terminal whose
crank‘ pin‘ engages? with; appropriately, shaped
1 slot’ or groove 'in' the; adjacent, slider for ‘trans
.1 1191mm thsimbtien Mike-crankshaft?’ to tbe'slid
ling members and vice versa. . One crankshaft
.mounted in each, ul-shapedsupportingtframe
?hliicbilp?rates with‘a crankshaft 1.80? displaced
from it in, theother U-shaped supporting .frame
'_ ‘through thefagency-of one of the sliding mem
.bers,‘ to provide a, series of interconnected ; parts
“for: driving- sane; , ‘crankshaft irom; the ' other.
in i'l‘hej completemechanism,iasiillustrated, includes
two such series of interconnected parts, each se
ries being interrelated with the other by means
of the rotative connections or gears between ad
lower crankshafts for the transmission of motion
between these crankshafts in either direction.
The various cranks and crankshafts are held
iacent crankshafts. The pivotal connection of
the U-shaped supporting frames permits the
angle of alignment between the driving and
in properly aligned operating positions by re
taining collars 33 secured to the crankshafts by
driven crankshafts to be varied as desired within
wide limits, a major purpose of the invention be
ing to provide a means for transmitting motion
suitable set screws as illustrated in the drawing.
It should be observed that in assembling the
mechanism of the invention, the teeth of disc
crank 2|, for example, are so meshed with those
between shafts whose alignment is continuously 10 of disc crank 2|’ that the respective crank arms
are displaced by a quarter revolution relative to
each other. This relationship of the crank arms
may best be observed in Figs. 2 and 3. Similarly
ture may comprise a pair of frames or bearing
when disc crank 21 is placed in mesh with disc
members, H, II’, each frame having a pair of
supporting brackets such as end plates '|2, |3, 15 crank 21', a quarter revolution displacement is
created between these crank arms also. When
secured to it in any suitable manner. Dowelled
thus assembled the relationship of the adjacent
into end plates I3, is a guide rail H, spanning
the space between these end plates. Cylindrical
crankshafts is such that a translational com
projecting lugs l5 integral with end plates i3, fit
ponent of force effective to move the sliders back
freely into corresponding cylindrical apertures in 20 and forth on guide rail I4 is always available
end plates i2, thus forming a hinged connection
whenever any of the crankshafts is rotated. This
or joint between the driving half of the trans
feature of the invention insures a mechanism in
which no dead center position occurs anywhere
mission and the driven half of the transmission,
in the operating cycle.
thereby permitting one half of the transmission
to be swung through an angle of 180° or more 25
It may likewise be observed that in assembling
the mechanism the parts may advantageously relative to the other half. This relative angu
lar motion of the two U-shapecl supporting
be arranged so that the crank arms of any two
frames is clearly illustrated in Fig. 4.
oppositely facing crank discs are displaced by a
In bearing member II, a pair of crankshafts
half revolution relative to one another when
IS, it’ are mounted in suitable bearings, such as 30 viewed from corresponding ends, with the result
ball bearings l1 and I8, which permit these ' that when either slipper block engaged with a
crankshafts to rotate freely in either direction of
given slider is moving forward relative to the ob
rotation. These crankshafts terminate in disc
server the other slipper block engaged with the
same slider is moving backward. For example,
cranks 2|, 2|’ which are Provided with inter
meshin'g peripherally disposed teeth 22, 22’ so 35 with shaft I6’ and 26’ in alignment as in Fig. 1,
Slipper block 24' is arranged to move backward
that the rotation of one crankshaft (for ex
within the flanges ,of slider 32' while slipper
ample, crankshaft |5) rotates the other crank
block 3|’ is moving forward within the ?anges
- shaft in the opposite direction. Projecting from of slider 32', and similarly for the other set of
disc cranks_2l, 2|’ are crank pins 23, 23' re
spectively carrying suitably shaped sliding mem 40 driving and driven elements of the transmission.
bers such as slippers 24, 24’ here shown for 11-.
This disposition of the crank arms may vbe
lustrative purposes as rectangularly shaped
noted in Fig. 1. It will be observed that when
viewed from above along shaft I 6 crank pin 23
is directly to the left of its center of rotation,
In units of larger size it would obviously be ad
vantageous to employ some form of anti~friction 45 while crank pin 28 when viewed from below along
crank pin slipper rather than the simple sliding
shaft 28 is directly to the right of its center of
blocks illustrated in Fig. 1 through Fig. 4.- In
revolution; hence, crank pin 23 is displaced by
. Fig. 5 an anti-friction or roller type crank pin
a half revolution from crank pin 28.
slipper is shown by way of example.
This feature of the invention insures that the
In bearing member II’ a similar pair of crank 50 relative motion between the slipper blocks and
shafts 26, 26’ are rotatively mounted in ball bear
the sliders will be held to a minimum and that
the sliders will be caused both to slide and to
ings (not shown), each of these crankshafts hav
rotate on slide rail H, thus reducing the wear
ing attached to it or integral with it a disc crank
between these parts to a minimum and distrib
21, 21' from which project crank pins 28, 28’
carrying rectangularly shaped slipper blocks 3|, 55 uting it over the entire inside area of the slider
flanges. While this is a preferred arrangement
3|‘. Disc cranks 21, 21' on crankshafts 2B, 26'
likewise carry peripheral gear teeth 29, 29’
of the parts of the device, it should be noted
that the device ‘will operate satisfactorily except
whereby the rotation of either of these two crank
for a greater friction loss if the oppositely fac
shafts produces an opposite rotation of the other.
As shown in detail in Fig. 1, this form of struc
Mounted on slide rail II are a pair of sliders, col 60 ing crank pin discs are assembled with no an
gular displacement between them.
lars or shuttles 32, 32' here shown as radially
In operation, the rotation of one crankshaft,
?anged or annularly grooved hollow cylindrical
26 for example, produces a similar rotation of
members. These sliders or annularly depressed
crank pin 28 whose slipper block 3| engages
sleeves are free to reciprocate upon as well to ro
tate about slide rail l4. Each of these sliders 65 freely with the ?anges of slider 32. The rota
tional motion of crank pin 28 thus e?ects a
freely engages both a crank pin slipper block at
simple harmonic reciprocation of slider 32 on
tached to a disc crank of one driving element
guide rail H, the path of travel of slider 32 being
and a crank pin slipper block attached to a cor
respondingly located disc crank of one of the
equal to twice the throw of crank pin 23. Slider
driven elements. For example, slider 32 engages 70 32 being also in engagement with crank pin 23
of crankshaft l6 carries crank pin 23 with it as
both slipper block 3| which is attached to crank
it reciprocates on guide rail l4 thus, in an ex
pin 28 and disc crank 21 and slipper block 24
actly converse manner, the simple harmonic re
which is attached to crank pin 23 and disc crank
ciprocation of slider 32 is reconverted into a
2|. Thus sliders 32, 32’ serve to mechanically in~
terconnect the correspondingly locatediupper and 75 rotary motion of crankshaft I6, the rotation of
comprising a first frame member having a slide
rail spanning the space between the end plates
thereof, a second frame member freely suspended
crankshaft “3 being opposite in direction to the
rotation of crankshaft ‘26, since disc cranks 2|
and 21 are displaced by a half revolution relative
to one another.
from said ?rst frame member, a pair of en
In an exactly similar manner,
gageable sliders mounted for reciprocation on
said slide rail, a first pair of rotatively inter
connected shafts journalled in said first frame
member and having cranks meshing with said
the rotation of crankshaft 26'produces a rotation
of crankshaft l6’ atthe same rate but opposite
in direction to the rotation of crankshaft 26'.
Furthermore, since disc cranks 21 and 21' are
sliders but displaced a quarter of a revolution
are geared together in a similar manner, the 10 relative to one another, and a second pair of
geared together and disc cranks 2| and 2|’ also
rotatively interconnected shafts journalled in said
second frame member and meshing with said
‘sliders, the cranks of said second pair of shafts
being displaced a half revolution relative to the
cranks of the ?rst pair of shafts whereby the
application of rotational torque to any of said
shafts produces a translatory force acting on said
motion of crankshaft 26 will produce simul
taneous rotation of crankshafts l6’ and 25', with
crankshaft I6’ rotating in the same direction
as crankshaft 2B, but with crankshaft 26’ rotat—'
ing in the opposite direction. It is apparent,
"therefore, that the invention provides a coupling
device or a transmission in which any one of
sliders in all positions of these members'thus pro- -
the crankshafts may be employed‘ as the driving
viding a mechanism which has no dead center.
4. An articulated transmission as claimed in
member with any of the remaining crankshafts
then serving as driven members, one of the driven
‘claim 3 wherein one of said first pair of shafts
acts as an input shaft and both, of said second
pair of shafts act as output shafts, one of said
, members rotating in the same direction and the
other driven members rotating in the direction
opposite to the rotation of the driving member.
Provision of the hinged connection between the
output shafts rotating in the same direction as
the input shaft and the other rotating in a direc
tion opposite to the direction of rotation of said
‘ two supporting brackets or frames together with
complete symmetry and proper intermeshing of
input shaft.
all parts permits one pair of crankshafts to be
5. An articulated transmission as claimed in
shifted through a wide angle of displacement
claim 3 wherein. either shaft of either pair of
relative to the other pair of crankshafts without
interfering with the transmission of motion from 30 shafts acts as the input shaft and either shaft
of the other pair of shafts acts as the output
one crankshaft to another. The invention, there
fore, makes possible the driving of one shaft at
6. An articulated transmission comprising a
pair of frame members having slide rail means
a uniform rate of rotation from a second shaft
which is not aligned with the first shaft, the
directions of rotation of the two shafts selected 35 mounted therein, said frame members being piv
otally connected to turn through the major arc
being the same or opposite as desired.
of a circle relative to one another, torque trans
mitting means journalled in each of said frame
ment herewith disclosed have unity ratios.
members, reciprocatingsli'der means movable on
As many changes could be made in the above
described construction and many different em 40 said slide mile-means,interconnecting crank pin
means between-said torque transmitting means
bodiments of this invention could be made with
journalled in one of said frame members and 'said
out departing from the scope thereof it is in
slider means for converting the rotational mo
tended that all matter contained in the speci?ca
tion of said torque transmitting means into a
tion or shown in the drawing, be interpretedvin
an illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
45 translatory motion of said slider means, and in
terlinking crank pin means between said slider
What is claimed is:
means and said torque transmitting means jour
1.v An articulated mechanical transmission
nalled in the other of said frame members for
comprising a first frame member having spaced
reconverting the translatory motion of said slider
end plates, a slide rail spanning the space be
tween said end plates, a second frame member 50 means into rotational motion of the torque trans
mitting means journalled in the other of said
swivel joined to said ?rst frame member, a collar
frame members.
encircling but free to reciprocate upon said slide
7. In combination, a ?rst frame, a guide shaft
rail, a drive shaft rotatably mounted in said ?rst
The gears 2|, 2|’ and 21, 21’, in the embodi
frame member and having a crank pin meshing
with said collar, and a driven shaft rotatably
mounted in said second frame member and like
secured in said first frame, a second frame swing
ably suspended from said first frame, an engage
wise having a crank pin meshing with said collar,
the crank pin of said drive shaft being displaced a
half revolution relative to the crank pin of said
said guide shaft adjacent to said frames, a drive
shaft rotatable in said ?rst frame, and a driven
shaft journalled in and swingable with said sec
able sleeve supported by and freely slidable along
60 ond frame, said drive shaft and said driven shaft
driven shaft whereby minimum wear and uni
form distribution of friction between said crank
pins and said collar is obtained.
2. A mechanical transmission comprising a pair
of swivel joined frame members having spaced
having axes perpendicular to. the axis of said
end plates, a slide rail spanning the space be
tween said end plates, a slider free to oscillate on
exactly corresponding in rate but opposite in di
rection to the rotation of said drive shaft.
guide shaft, and said engageable sleeve coactirig
both with said drive shaft and said driven shaft
so as to produce rotation of said driven shaft
said slide rail, a pair of crankshafts rotatively
mounted in said frame members and engaging
said oscillatable slider, the cranks of said crank
8. In a transmission having a pair of frame
members, a pair of crankshafts rotatably mount
ed in said frame members, a sleeve freely mov
able on a slide bar pivoted within said frame
shafts being arranged with diametrically opposite
throws as viewed from corresponding ends where
by rotation of said cranks not only reciprocates
but also revolves said slider thus distributing the
friction and wear on said slider.
3. An
articulated mechanical
members and slidably engaging the crank pins
projecting from said crankshafts, in combination,
a hinge interlinking said frame members so,,as.e;/4**"’
transmission 75 to permit adjustment of the angle ofdrive'be
tween said crankshafts within
limits de?ning the
said shuttles being phase-displaced from the other
major arc of a circle.
shuttles by an amount corresponding to substan
tially a quarter revolution.
9. An articulated transmission mechanism
comprising a pair of frame members, a slide rail
14. A coupling device for rotatable shafts, com
supported by one of said frame members, a hinged Cl prising a pair of parallel gear connected driving
connection between said frame members free to
shafts, a pair of parallel gear connecteddriven
open through the major arc of a circle, a pair
shafts, a crank on the end of each of said shafts,
and a pair of reciprocating shuttles both slidable
of bearings located in said frame members, an
input crank shaft and an output crank shaft
along an axis perpendicular to said shafts, each
mounted for' rotation in said bearings, and a 10 of said shuttles engaging a pair of cranks for
transmitting substantially simple harmonic mo
sleeve slidably mounted on said slide rail and
engaging the crank pins of said input and output
tion from one of said driving cranks to one of
crankshafts, said hinged connection permitting
said driven cranks as said driving shafts rotate
the alignment of said crankshafts to be changed
uniformly, one of said shuttles being phase dis
as desired within widely spaced limits.
15 placed from the other shuttle by an amount cor
10. An angular drive mechanism comprising a
responding to substantially a quarter revolution.
15. A coupling device for rotatable shafts, com
pair of frame members having a slide rail set
prising a pair of parallel gear connected driving
into the end plates of one of said frame members,
means for pivotally connecting said frame mem
shafts, a pair of parallel gear connected driven
bers for relative angular movement thereof 20 shafts,‘supports for journalling each of said pairs
through at least a semi-circular arc of displace
of shafts, an articulated joint for adjustably po
ment, 9. pair of crankshafts having interlocking
sitioning said supports about an axis perpendic
disk cranks rotatively mounted in each of said
ular to all of said shafts, a crank on the end of
each of said shafts, and a pair of reciprocating
frame members, and sliders ‘mounted for recip
rocation on said slide rail, each slider freely en 25. shuttles,'each being slidable along said axis and
gaging crank pins projecting from crankshafts
having means engaging one of said driving cranks '
oppositely mounted in said frame members
and one of said driven cranks for all positions of
whereby torque is continuously and unvaryingly
said supports, said shuttles thereby transferring
transmitted from an input crankshaft mounted
reciprocating motion from said driving cranks to
in one of said frame members to a pair of output 30 said driven cranks, said shuttles being arranged
crankshafts mounted in the other of said frame - so that when one of said shuttles occupies a posi
members. _
tion at one extremity of its stroke, the other shut
11. A coupling device for connecting a driving
tle occupies a position intermediate the extrem
shaft to a driven shaft, comprising a pair of shaft
ities of its stroke.
16. A coupling device as claimed in claim 15
wherein said shuttles comprise annular ?anged
members freely movable on said perpendicular
axis, and wherein the respective cranks engaging
each shuttle are displaced from one another by
terminals, articulated bearing members journal
ling said terminals for angular adjustment about
a pivot axis transverse of said terminals, a crank
on each of ~said terminals, and a shuttle having -
annular crank-engaging means, and slidable
along said transverse axis for transmitting the 40 half a revolution.
motion of the driving crank to the driven crank. '
17. A transmission for transmitting torque be
tween rotating shafts which are independently
12. A coupling device for rotatable shafts, com
prising a pair of interconnected driving shafts,
variable through an angle of 180° relative to one
a pair of interconnected driven shafts, a crank
on each of said shafts, and a pair of reciprocat
another as the shafts revolve, comprising a ro-~
tatable driving shaft and a rotatable driven shaft,
an articulated coupling for the shafts including
ing sliders each transmitting simple harmonic’
motion from one of said driving cranks toone
a pair of bearing frames, a rotatable support in '
each frame for one of said shafts, means for
of said driven cranks as said driving shafts ro
tate uniformly, the cranks of one of said inter_
connected pairs of shafts being phase displaced ~
pivoting said frames for mutual free angular
movement about an axis perpendicular to both
from the cranks of the other pair of shafts.
13. A coupling device for rotatable shafts, com
of said shafts, a spindle extending along said
axis, crank means on each of said shafts, and
‘ prising a pair of interconnected driving shafts,
a pair of interconnected driven shafts, a crank
on the‘ end of each of said shafts, and a pair of
reciprocating shuttles both slidable along an axis
perpendicular to said shafts, each of said shut
tles engaging a pair of cranks for transmitting
substantially simple harmonic motion from one
a slider engaging both of said cranks and re- ‘
ciprocable on said spindle for transmitting mo
tion from one crank to the other simultaneously
with mutual angular variation of the axes of said
18. Transmission according to claim 17, where
- in the said cranks are displaced from one another
of saiddriving cranks to one of said driven cranks 60 by 180°.
‘ as said driving shafts rotate uniformly, one of
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